%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828191022+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828191022+01'00') /Title (George II, King and Elector) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4624 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(George II, King and Elector)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A detailed biography of George II in English has been needed for some time. His is one of the longer reigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an early modern British monarch \(1727?60\), encompassing both the final military defeat of the Stuart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause in 1745, and the high point of the first British Empire. To Whig historians it was the apogee of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig supremacy: The History of Parliament Trust?s )] TJ ET BT 288.980 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(House of Commons 1715?54)] TJ ET BT 427.976 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published as long ago )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 1970, while important work on popular politics came out in the 1990s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.328 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.328 229.161 m 399.320 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 399.320 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet despite Jonathan Clark?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge to consider the whole post-1688 settlement in Britain as a form of )] TJ ET BT 401.636 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 469.952 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, little attention had been paid to the institution of monarchy and to George II in particular. This has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been like trying to understand the planetary system without first fully understanding the role of the sun, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even accepting that it was a heliocentric system in the first place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of the Hanoverian era had Ragnhild Hatton?s 1978 biography of George I, but since Aubrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newman?s work on the Leicester House was not followed up, as anticipated, by a study of George II, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacuna on George II remained. Meanwhile the profession became more intrigued by the Jacobite cause than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the loyalist mainstream, and more sympathetic to popular politics than the aristocratic elite and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clients. For decades there remained only Chenevix Trench?s 1973 biography and an important essay by J. B. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Owen from the same year.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.976 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.976 74.601 m 174.968 74.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Jeremy Black contributed his interpretative monograph in 2007, published while Thompson?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1138)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew C. Thompson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300118926)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(315pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarissa Campbell Orr)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.3277 229.4755 399.3197 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.9757 74.9155 174.9677 86.7955 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7662 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was still in progress, and acknowledging the latter?s comments on drafts of his book, he noted there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three new frame works through which to study George II: Hannah Smith?s study of early Hanoverian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalism; the rise of court studies; and fresh attention to the Hanoverian dimension to the British monarchy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified by the edited collection of Brendan Smith and Torsten Riotte, to which Black, Thompson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present reviewer all contributed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.972 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.972 738.051 m 220.964 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson?s penetrating and detailed biography puts the central figure of the reign back into play, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly clarifies and enriches our understanding of these vital 33 years. It makes a major contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the character of Hanoverian political culture, the relationship between monarch and ministers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of the royal court, and the workings of the Hanoverian Personal Union. Primarily it is an account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a working monarch. We see the day to day operation of the ?king?s business?, and the corresponding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with British and German ministers entailed in accomplishing this business. It therefore enables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to study the early Hanoverian state from the angle of its key decision maker.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is not a history of the Hanoverian electorate, Thompson shows George II conducting this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business while he was visiting his patrimony there, which he described to an opposition politician as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent to their country seats \(p. 158\). As accomplished in his deployment of German historiography as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is of British, Thompson takes as an important means of analysis the former?s stress on the primacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy. His previous book )] TJ ET BT 198.668 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, Hanover and the Protestant interest, 1688?1756,)] TJ ET BT 474.332 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provided a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring-board for this biography; also influential has been Simms? magisterial )] TJ ET BT 407.984 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three Victories and a Defeat)] TJ ET BT 547.304 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 514.467 m 48.008 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thompson has researched the archival sources in Hanover extensively, drawing on official records and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal papers, as well as the British Royal Archives, National Archives, the British Library, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincolnshire RO.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The biography shows George as a dynastic ruler, like most 18th-century European rulers, who had diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories to govern, and a variety of dynastic linkages to deploy, especially when his children were old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to marry. ?George?s perspective and outlook were European and he thought in terms of his domains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and territories, rather than about national boundaries. This is the primary lens through which his life should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be viewed? \(p. 9\). It is a pity, though, that Yale University Press did not provide the book with a map of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian possessions ? the one in Hatton?s biography would have been suitable ? to help readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfamiliar with 18th-century political geography orient themselves among George?s German domains, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to follow discussions of military manoeuvres.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of necessity Thompson has to start his biography by explaining who the Hanoverians were and how it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they came to inherit the British throne: this he does very efficiently. George II was dynastically Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and therefore a key figure in the )] TJ ET BT 190.964 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Corpus Evangelicorum)] TJ ET BT 302.624 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within the Holy Roman Empire: Thompson rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insists this is more significant in following his political strategy than in probing what his personal piety may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or may not have been. He underlines that what mattered to the British in 1688 and again in 1714 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguarding the Protestant character of the monarchy ? a corrective to the Whig view that parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny of royal policy was the principal objective. Thus George I?s reputation as ?Hanover Brave? who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had his horse shot from beneath him during the battle of Oudenarde in 1708, in contrast to James Stuart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position on the sidelines, served the king in good stead in establishing him as a soldier-monarch and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant champion \(pp. 33?5,107\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once his subject succeeds to the throne, Thompson exhibits an healthy scepticism over the received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative that it was Queen Caroline?s support which secured Robert Walpole?s continuation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treasury, preferring the view of the then Lord Chancellor, Peter King, that it was consequent on Walpole?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immensely hard work and constant attendance on the king. This discussion inaugurates a main theme of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography, which is that the king was neither the puppet of the politicians nor subservient to petticoat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government ? whether these petticoats were worn by Queen Caroline, Henrietta Howard, or the Countess of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yarmouth \(the Hanoverian born Anne Sophie von Wallmoden, his last mistress\). Caroline he sees as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valued partner rather than a controller, though she only lived for ten years after his accession, while he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers Henrietta Howard?s biographer Tracy Borman as a dependable interpreter. Yarmouth has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glimpsed intermittently in previous accounts; but it is Thompson?s systematic tracing of her role that finally )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.9717 738.3655 220.9637 750.2455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 514.7815 48.0077 526.6615 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7213 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarifies her importance. Though an established route of access to the king and influential in moderating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George?s irritation with his son Frederick, she could make little headway on foreign policy \(pp. 190?1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson is also sceptical about how far George was dominated by his ministers. The main crises are in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1742 and 1744, when first Walpole and then Carteret are forced to resign, and in 1745?6 when after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructing his ministry to include the Pelham brothers, he entertained hopes of dismissing them and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoring Carteret. Thompson contends persuasively that Owen?s 1957 formula, that it was important to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?Minister for the King in the House of Commons? and a ?Minister for the House of Commons in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closet?, while important, is not sufficient. To leave it there is to concede too much to the Whiggish teleology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the story of the rise of the House of Commons is what matters. Thompson argues that the clincher is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having the king?s confidence in the closet ? that is in personal discussions with him; and further, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minsters needed this to be demonstrable to others ? for example, by the appointment or dismissal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministerial or court appointments. Yet George, Thompson shows, often held his own in these contests. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign affairs he most definitely held the Whip hand over his ministers, even while being constrained over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was politically acceptable to parliamentary and popular public opinion, especially if there was a need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Parliament to vote subsidies to allies \(pp. 135, 139\). In 1740, with Frederick II of Prussia \(his nephew\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the warpath, George II kept his cards close to his chest in negotiating a neutrality agreement to protect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover. Thompson quotes Newcastle?s verdict, that whatever his English ministers might think about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutrality for Hanover or ponder whether it might apply to Britain as well, ? ?the king, if he has a mind to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, will do it, without us? ?\(p. 141\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was, then, Walpole?s resignation in 1742 a victory for the opposition and a sign that George II was cowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by his ministers? Thompson argues against this. George still liked Walpole and rewarded him with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peerage, but recognised he had lost the confidence of the House of Commons. On the other hand, ministerial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival began, aided by the king?s reconciliation with Frederick after Walpole?s resignation. The king had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had moments of intense frustration, but ?Although Walpole had gone, George had neither to admit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant numbers of the opposition into positions of power nor submit to all of his son?s demands?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, ?He was still able to rely on the fact that there was a deep ambivalence even among opposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MPs about forcing him to do anything against his will because of the continuing ambiguities of where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition stopped and lese-majesty began? \(p. 144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, in 1746, after failing to bring back Carteret, George had to restructure the Pelhamite ministry, but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was able to refuse the idea of William Pitt as Secretary at War, sending him instead to Ireland as Vice-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treasurer, and insisted to Newcastle he would retain the brothers Edward and William Finch as respectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his Vice-Chamberlain and Groom of the Bedchamber. Both were Hanover Tories who had benefitted from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carteret?s patronage, so keeping them frustrated the Pelhams? aim that Carteret?s beneficiaries should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned out as a sign of the king?s confidence in them. Consequently the Pelhams couldn?t stop Carteret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining in touch with the court via Edward Finch, whose attendance on George included playing cards in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evenings with him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson interprets the comment George made to Hardwicke, ?ministers are kings in this country? as a dry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joke in response to the latter?s plea for more visible signs of his support for the Pelhamites \(p. 162\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, better relations with Newcastle after 1746 resulted from their rapport over supporting Maria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theresa of Austria, not the younger brother?s expertise in securing finance from the House of Commons. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George remained adamant that even if the First Lord of the Treasury was the main avenue for channelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage requests to the monarch, the former should not meddle with the composition of the Bedchamber, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?which is the personal Service about my Self, & I won?t suffer any body to meddle in? \(pp. 171?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A by-product of Thompson?s thorough re-examination of George?s relationships with all his ministers is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a revised view of who held the balance of power, but a fresh look at ministers who have received less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention than the often-discussed Walpole or the Pelhams. Lord Chesterfield, for instance, is shown to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a remarkably varied career ?from loyal household servant as prince of Wales through opposition in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1730s, disputes over his wife?s inheritance to cheerleader for anti-Hanoverianism in the early 1740s? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(175\). His return to office in 1746 was clearly made conditional on his assuring the king he now supported )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7316 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war with France. Nor was the dispute over his wife?s inheritance exactly trivial: she was George?s half-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sister, Petronella Melusina von der Schulenberg, daughter of George I by the duchess of Kendal \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baptised as her niece\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson advances an important argument over the emergence of cabinet government. His contends that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king?s regular sojourns in Hanover required a more formal structure for governing Britain when he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent, accompanied by only one of the two secretaries of state. This challenges the Whig view that internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments are responsible for growth of the cabinet; Thompson emphasises that it resulted from ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to formulate coherent foreign political policies? when the king was away \(p. 215\). ?The inability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those left behind to make representations to the king personally meant that they became more concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about reaching a collective view that could be formulated ... in the hope that a united front might have more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact upon George? \(p. 217\). This cabinet growth did not mean the king?s power was declining ? to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, as there was so much foreign business to deal with, it remained constant, defence and foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs being the chief )] TJ ET BT 141.980 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mtier)] TJ ET BT 172.640 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of monarchy. Cabinet differences with the king might well centre on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?London view? because there was often worry that the needs of Hanover became disproportionate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson agrees that the financial dimension to policy did require careful attention to Parliament, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises it was a means not an end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the logic of this interpretation is that the king?s power was not in decline, a corollary is that the court was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a declining institution either, and Thompson offers plenty of fresh evidence for this revisionist view. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Finch brothers show, proximity to the king could be achieved through their mix of diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, family connection and a Household appointment, and not by ministerial politics. For others there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no hard and fast line between accepting political or court office, providing it smoothed the path of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferment. In reshuffling his ministries, bestowing honours or titles or a court position could often placate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disappointed \(pp. 230?1\). The monarch was still the fount of patronage, although ministers were starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have more influence over clerical advancement, but less so over military promotion ? always important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a soldier king \(p. 105?6\). Thompson?s work on the court is an invaluable foundation for the further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research that is needed to understand the range of courtier types, their families? previous court service and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career strategy, and the kinship and patronage networks drawn into serving the royal households.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is telling that the king got on so well with his Lord Chamberlain, Charles Fitzroy, 2nd duke of Grafton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles II?s grandson. George and he were cousins once removed, both being descendants of James I. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike the descendants of Louis XIV?s mistresses, those of Charles II were not considered princes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blood, only significant noblemen and women. The court has an under-investigated function of integrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendants of Charles II and James II, William?s Dutch favourites, Tories and ex-Jacobites, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious Whigs, while geographically it includes office holders from most counties. Now that we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a rich portrait of the central sun, much more effective work can be done on the planets, moons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meteors that circled around him, or flashed briefly across the horizon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another way in which the British court has been underplayed stems from John Brewer?s argument that its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural leadership had been displaced by the growth of the commercial sector. Thompson counters this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again persuasively, by suggesting that entrepreneurs benefitted from trading on their royal connections, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the court and the emergent commercial sphere can be seen as both more interconnected and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdependent than might initially appear? \(p. 191\). Furthermore he shows how cultural competition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London was often a dimension to the dysfunctional squabbles within the royal family, with George, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick and Anne sponsoring rival opera companies. Due weight is given to Handel?s contribution to royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and secular ceremony, but William Kent, who succeeded in working for George Caroline )] TJ ET BT 510.584 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick quite amicably, is a trifle underplayed: Thompson overlooks the point that Kent designed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Horse Guards Parade for George ? a fitting commission from a soldier king. Thompson also offers a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full account of the financing, social composition, ceremonial function and material culture of the court at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover, showing how it worked in George II?s absences as well as during his visits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constraints of space mean other strengths must be mentioned briefly and selectively. The biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amplifies George?s role as dynast in making the marriages of his daughters Louisa, Anne and Mary, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7149 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains their international context: accounts of summer court life and the lavish marriage festivities for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter in Hanover enable him to portray George II in late middle age, in his element as an Hanoverian Elector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 136?7\). More might have been said about Augusta Princess of Wales? Saxe-Gotha background. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duchy was a significant cultural centre, considered to rank immediately after the court at Dresden among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various Saxon rulers, with an important library and court theatre. Due justice though is given to the widowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augusta?s determined politicking over the household of the future George III in 1756.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson?s achievement in several chapters, \(e.g. four, eight and nine\), is to provide a detailed exposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the interplay between domestic politics, continental diplomacy and military strategy, moving seamlessly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them. He is always master of complex, multi-faceted situations yet never lets his reader lose the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wood for the trees. The sections on the Austrian Succession War and Jacobite rebellion make one marvel at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extraordinary stamina and concentration displayed by a 60-year-old monarch in all these dimensions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Small wonder he was occasionally ill-tempered, and habitually preferred a hasty annotation of a letter to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composing a full reply. The difficulties of his dual role prompted fresh consideration of the advantages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantages of separating electorate and crown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While George II left little personal material behind Thompson finds enough to provide glimpses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person as well as the monarch, especially when he reacts to the deaths of his wife and his daughter Louisa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As an author Thompson consistently keeps the attention of his reader and the pace never flags. Repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readings reveal more layers of expert distillation and historical perspective, but given his book is part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale British monarchs series, Thompson also pulls off the tricky task of providing a brisk narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to a perceptive general reader. His exposition for both audiences is always judicious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economical, seasoned with dry wit. Historians will be drawing on his very considerable achievement for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. K. Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 141.680 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Sense of the People)] TJ ET BT 245.660 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1995\); N. Rogers, )] TJ ET BT 400.976 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crowds Culture and Politics)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Georgian Britain)] TJ ET BT 159.356 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.004 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.004 391.923 m 291.992 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. C. Trench, )] TJ ET BT 132.008 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George II)] TJ ET BT 178.988 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1973\); J. B. Owen, ?George II reconsidered?, in )] TJ ET BT 462.584 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statesmen, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scholars and Merchants. Essays in Eighteenth Century Monarchy presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Whiteman, J. S. Bromley and P. G. M. Dickson \(Oxford, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.316 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.316 349.155 m 463.304 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Black, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George II, Puppet of the Politicians? )] TJ ET BT 289.664 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Exeter, 2007\); H. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 414.656 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Georgian Monarchy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and Culture 1714?1760)] TJ ET BT 218.360 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\); )] TJ ET BT 319.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hanoverian Dimension in British History)] TJ ET BT 539.348 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1714-1837)] TJ ET BT 116.012 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. B Simms and T. Riotte \(Cambridge, 2007\); Clarissa Campbell Orr, )] TJ ET BT 464.336 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queenship in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe 1660?1815: The Role of the Consort)] TJ ET BT 278.012 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\) and idem, )] TJ ET BT 425.660 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queenship in Britain )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1660?1837: Royal Patronage, Court Culture and Dynastic Politics )] TJ ET BT 389.684 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.656 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.656 277.875 m 540.644 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. C. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 150.020 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, Hanover and the Protestant Interest, 1688?1756)] TJ ET BT 423.344 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 2007\); B. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simms, )] TJ ET BT 103.364 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three Victories and a Defeat )] TJ ET BT 245.684 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.008 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.008 249.363 m 377.996 249.363 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 234.031 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 216.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 216.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1138)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 214.857 m 328.316 214.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 189.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7777)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.0037 392.2375 291.9917 404.1175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.3157 349.4695 463.3037 361.3495 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.6557 278.1895 540.6437 290.0695 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.0077 249.6775 377.9957 261.5575 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 215.1715 328.3157 227.0515 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1138) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000537 00000 n 0000000633 00000 n 0000005309 00000 n 0000005418 00000 n 0000005528 00000 n 0000005637 00000 n 0000009198 00000 n 0000009326 00000 n 0000009410 00000 n 0000009439 00000 n 0000009567 00000 n 0000009603 00000 n 0000009632 00000 n 0000009758 00000 n 0000009794 00000 n 0000009885 00000 n 0000017600 00000 n 0000017630 00000 n 0000017758 00000 n 0000017794 00000 n 0000017824 00000 n 0000017950 00000 n 0000017986 00000 n 0000018051 00000 n 0000025317 00000 n 0000025382 00000 n 0000032751 00000 n 0000032863 00000 n 0000040065 00000 n 0000040193 00000 n 0000040248 00000 n 0000040376 00000 n 0000040431 00000 n 0000040559 00000 n 0000040614 00000 n 0000040742 00000 n 0000040797 00000 n 0000040925 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41021 %%EOF