%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141101054148+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141101054148+00'00') /Title (The Culture of Diplomacy: Britain in Europe, c. 1750-1830) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4188 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Culture of Diplomacy: Britain in Europe, c. 1750-1830)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Mori has written a stimulating and engaging study which deserves to find a wide audience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of diplomacy and international relations will learn much from it but it should also be read by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those more generally interested in questions of politics and identity in 18th-century Britain. Mori?s aim is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the social and cultural aspects of being a diplomat and to cast light on the practical difficulties that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats frequently faced. She is concerned to show the more mundane aspects of serving one?s country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abroad and to indicate how diplomatic life was much more than a whirl of audiences and parties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The method that Mori adopts to achieve these aims is to interrogate closely the surviving correspondence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around 50 diplomats and their families from across the period. This technique of ?thick? prospography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enables her to look at the ways in which diplomats and their families engaged in self-fashioning and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of identity. The study of diplomatic families is particularly fertile in this respect because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were susceptible to several sorts of social pressure. On the one hand, there was a need to maintain the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms that they brought with them from Britain but it was also necessary to go through a process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptation and assimilation to cope with the new societies and contexts in which they found themselves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Details of the names, educational background, ethnicity, career progression and familial status for all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats mentioned in the study are included in two useful appendices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mori regards herself as a proponent of ?new diplomatic history?. She draws a distinction between traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1139)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Mori)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719082726)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew C. Thompson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5286 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works dealing with national interests, even when informed by analyses of the impact of religion and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press and ?more imaginative treatments of perception and self-fashioning in international politics, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with issues of gender and scandal? \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her aim is to rescue 18th and 19th-century diplomats from assumptions about the ?modernity? of their aims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and practice and instead of seeing them as ?individualistic public lobbyists? view them as ?corporatist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private networkers? \(p. 5\). In so doing, she seeks to situate diplomacy in this period between the competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures of the baroque court and the enlightened public sphere and explore the ways in which the pull of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter slowly became stronger than the former. As in so much else, she sees the French Revolution as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning point, where a culture of court reportage slowly gave way to new notions of the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic representation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is split into the three parts. The first considers the social history of the diplomatic service, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second looks at the practice of diplomacy and the third seeks to place diplomacy within the wider context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities that diplomats engaged in while abroad. Mori begins by tackling the basic question of why people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would join the diplomatic service in the first place. The answer is far from obvious. As D. B. Horn remarked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was, unlike parliament, neither profitable nor fashionable.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.968 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.968 571.491 m 335.960 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.960 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed as Mori puts it, foreign service was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?tantamount to exile? \(p. 21\). For some, particularly the Scots and Irish, it might be a way of representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty to the Hanoverian dynasty, especially if familial behaviour and connections had previously tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards Jacobite sympathy. Yet this could be a double-edged sword because patterns of exile frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that Scottish and Irish diplomats met members of their own families abroad who had chosen different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political paths and ties of blood and service came into conflict with each other. Inconvenient relatives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the only problem that diplomats faced. Diplomatic service was often costly in terms of both money and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. The boundaries between public and private were unclear in diplomatic households. Taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for housing, feeding and training younger officials and having a stream of hungry young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen on the Grand Tour at your door posed strains on resources. This was not helped by the fact that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as with most branches of government service, pay was frequently in arrears and being able to sustain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal credit was an important aspect of diplomatic life. There was some prospect of social advancement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through service, although connection remained important for both getting a start and subsequent promotion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as was a general adherence to court Whiggism and, from the early 19th century onwards, Toryism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castlereagh?s post-Napoleonic reforms, with a greater emphasis on higher standards of public service, met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with some hostility, not least because diplomats felt that they were already subject to considerable scrutiny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and delay when it came to their expenses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of social and religious attitudes, Mori suggests that the turbulent decade of the 1790s marked a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watershed. Previously diplomats had tended to display a rather generic Protestantism and sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providentialism. After the French Revolution, they tended to become more judgemental, reflecting, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain extent, the changing mood at home.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.9677 571.8055 335.9597 583.6855 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7578 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1816 Castlereagh sought to formalise the rather unsystematic training that had existed previously by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attaching young men who wanted a diplomatic career to one of Britain?s principal missions abroad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving them a small public allowance to enable them to learn the trade. Previously, acquiring diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills had been a rather more haphazard process. Reading widely in history, diplomatic memoirs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international law was one suggested course of action, as was keeping an eye on contemporary affairs through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals and newspapers. Knowledge alone was not enough, however. A clear written hand, good French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a track-record of discretion were important for those who wanted to advance themselves. In addition, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect for existing social hierarchies could also be useful. As Mori notes, when describing the \(relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessful\) career of Francis Peter Werry, he ?had no natural talent for subservience, a skill that ambitious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men without money or friends were well advised to cultivate? \(pp. 45?6\). Mori does note some attitudinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts, however. By 1800 there was a growing distrust of the ?courtliness? \(and dissembling\) associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers like Abraham de Wicquefort and a shift away from an emphasis on ceremonial to cosmopolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civility. Yet there was also a growing sense that French civilisation might not represent the pinnacle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human achievement and an increased national self-assertiveness, with pride in British manners over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mori?s chapter on ?Family, sex and marriage? is one of the most revealing in the book. She charts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties that diplomats often had in securing suitable partners, as well as the financial and emotional costs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the diplomatic life entailed. Her discussion of the case of Emma Hamilton in Naples highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which British women abroad were frequently more concerned to maintain domestic codes of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and virtue than their husbands. Sir William was keen to marry Emma but was concerned about the likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction of British tourists. He was able to secure George III?s permission on the basis that Emma would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take on the rank and privileges associated with being a British diplomat but a British sense of propriety was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overtaken by events ? Emma rapidly became a favourite at the Neopolitan court and enjoyed increased status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and power on that basis. A number of other diplomatic wives were discomforted by the courtly culture that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they encountered on the continent but for rather different reasons. The stiffness of the ceremonial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in relation to presentations, was a source of bafflement and anxiety. The number of diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wives with any experience of court life in London was declining so their new situation seemed all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien. Another development related to the necessity, or otherwise, of diplomats being married. Whereas a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife was initially seen as a useful support for a man?s career, by the 1780s it was becoming increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important for those mid-ranking men wanting to rise further and by 1815, it was a virtual necessity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieving a senior post. Mori explains the shift on the basis of the perception of diplomacy being seen as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly stable profession with the added benefit of living abroad.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When considering diplomatic practice, Mori makes clear that she does not subscribe to the view that British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in Europe was declining in the second half of the 18th century because of increased imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments. She points out that trade missions were rarely given to career diplomats and that there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherent contradiction between the promotion of trade and an interest in European great power politics. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of diplomatic etiquette shows how important it still was, although the slavish adherence to all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of diplomatic protocol was slowly declining. One of the reasons for this was the disregard that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new republics of the United States and France had for what they perceived to be the vestiges of monarchical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyranny. Mori?s previous expertise in the history of British reactions to the French Revolution is put to good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use in showing how badly the British diplomats took the violation of diplomatic immunities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.040 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.040 188.835 m 492.032 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 492.032 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington, Elizabeth and Anthony Merry found Jefferson?s preference for ?pell mell? informality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disconcerting. Although Napoleon tried to restore diplomatic etiquette, the Vienna settlement brought a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplification of protocol. This was in line with a general domestic trend, whereby British men were less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned about the maintenance of ?face?. Yet, as Mori points out, the formal rules could be help, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a hindrance, because of the navigational tools that they offered to men and especially women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfamiliar environments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the other trends in the second half of the 18th century was the slow transformation of the diplomat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from courtier to bureaucrat. Traditionally, much of diplomacy had been devoted to observing the habits and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferences of monarchs. This might entail attending glamorous court occasions but it also meant spending )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.0397 189.1495 492.0317 201.0295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6038 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lots of time waiting around for audiences. Indeed, the life of the courtier was increasingly seen as corrupting. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the French might have airs and graces, in contrast to the bashful Briton, this was not usually seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as behaviour to be emulated. Some diplomats, such as Andrew Mitchell in Prussia, could become very close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the monarchs they had been dispatched to observe. Others, such as James Harris in Russia, found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves won over by flattery, despite their best efforts to resist courtly wiles. Again the Vienna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement inaugurated change. Castlereagh and Metternich favoured meetings of foreign ministers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs to settle issues so diplomats lost some of their autonomy and increasingly dealt with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials, rather than directly with monarchs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Access to information and assessing its accuracy was one of the perennial problems that diplomats faced. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Life at court might throw up a variety of stories and sources. There was also the question of how valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information derived from the press might be. In addition, diplomats often sought to develop correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks of their own to furnish them with information. Yet again, the arrival of new players on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international scene was disruptive. The direct attempts of French diplomats to win over the Americans to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French cause in 1793 were viewed as overstepping the mark of acceptable behaviour. Yet the line between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouragement of opposition and working directly against the government of the host state was always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going to be a fine one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mori?s discussion of the wider experience of diplomatic life forms the final part of the book. She begins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an informative chapter on the Grand Tour. Having explained the original motivations behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking it, she shows how, over time, it became increasingly formulaic \(for example, by 1791 it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to buy letters of introduction from the Foreign Office without the need for direct supplication to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretary of State\) and served to reinforce a Whiggish way of looking at the continent. With the growth in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European art trade, diplomats, especially those in Italy, were increasingly involved as local negotiators )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shippers of acquired goods. Nevertheless, the expectation that diplomats would play host to visiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourists could impose considerable financial strains. One solution for those without substantial independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means was to take a country house for the summer and thus ensure that one was not around to be eaten out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of house and home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Hamilton and John Strange were not just diplomats but also )] TJ ET BT 366.344 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(virtuosi)] TJ ET BT 403.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( whose antiquarian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific interests helped shape British attitudes towards the Italian peninsula. Mori illustrates how both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were active members of the republic of letters and helped transmit knowledge about Italy?s ancient past and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geological present back to Britain. Some of this activity was not dissimilar to the scholarly interests that any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisured gentleman might be expected to pursue. Yet Mori also argues that it was also part of a public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persona that took cultural diplomacy seriously as well and was rather different from the notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional politicians and bureaucrats that were to emerge subsequently.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of Hamilton and Strange leads into a broader consideration of diplomatic contributions to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic of letters in Mori?s final chapter. She is concerned to highlight diplomats? contributions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnography and the Enlightenment more generally. British diplomats published interesting studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia, China and Turkey, discussing, for example, what it was that made a country ?backwards?. Diplomats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often inclined to publish memoirs of their time abroad, although this process could be fraught with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties, such as by reopening questions about their own abilities and conduct and reviving partisan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions. Nevertheless, the early 19th century witnessed an increased confidence in Britain?s global role and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities, in contrast to the more circumspect accounts of earlier ethnographers.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2631 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mori?s study manages to capture the slow and sometime uneven process through which British attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards Europe were transformed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Her constant attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction between domestic customs and foreign experience is welcome and her social and cultural history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the British diplomatic service is highly suggestive. The use of endnotes, rather than footnotes, does, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, make it harder for the interested reader to track her arguments easily. Interestingly, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions she asks have been very much informed by recent scholarly developments and much of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of older diplomatic history is well made, the method that she adopts is much more traditional. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is a telling example of the continued utility of prosopography. Sir Lewis Namier would be proud.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. B. Horn, )] TJ ET BT 123.344 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Diplomatic Service, 1689?1789 )] TJ ET BT 335.336 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1961\), p. 85.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.984 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.984 617.763 m 494.972 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Mori, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William Pitt and the French Revolution )] TJ ET BT 328.328 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.984 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.984 603.507 m 473.972 603.507 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 588.175 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 570.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1139)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 569.001 m 328.316 569.001 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.024 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7779)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.9837 618.0775 494.9717 629.9575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.9837 603.8215 473.9717 615.7015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 569.3155 328.3157 581.1955 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1139) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000004889 00000 n 0000004998 00000 n 0000005108 00000 n 0000005217 00000 n 0000008778 00000 n 0000008906 00000 n 0000008990 00000 n 0000009074 00000 n 0000014413 00000 n 0000014443 00000 n 0000014571 00000 n 0000014607 00000 n 0000014691 00000 n 0000022322 00000 n 0000022352 00000 n 0000022480 00000 n 0000022516 00000 n 0000022581 00000 n 0000028672 00000 n 0000028770 00000 n 0000031454 00000 n 0000031582 00000 n 0000031637 00000 n 0000031765 00000 n 0000031820 00000 n 0000031948 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32044 %%EOF