%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819005400+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819005400+01'00') /Title (Humanitarianism and Humanitarian Intervention) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2942 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Humanitarianism and Humanitarian Intervention)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humanitarianism, and its more forceful and controversial corollary, ?humanitarian intervention?, have come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under increasing scrutiny over the past few years. The recent ?humanitarian intervention? in Libya in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1141)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Barnett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801447136)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brendan Simms)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. J. B. Trim)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521190275)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(424pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronwen Everill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8060 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spring has rekindled popular interest in a trending academic topic, which has involved the critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of humanitarianism )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.004 780.819 m 206.996 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, humanitarian organisations )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.316 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.316 780.819 m 360.308 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.308 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, humanitarian aid )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.296 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.296 780.819 m 464.288 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.288 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 766.563 m 109.004 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.004 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This has primarily been a political science exercise, with contributions from international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal scholars, and practitioners. 2011 offers a new turn in the study of this phenomenon: a desire to link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current trends in humanitarian aid and intervention to the long history of the practices. Two volumes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular explicitly set out to illuminate the historical development of humanitarian intervention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first, )] TJ ET BT 81.008 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire of Humanity)] TJ ET BT 179.000 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is a bold and provocative book that challenges the traditional frame of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of humanitarian aid. Michael Barnett, a professor of international affairs and political science, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?humanitarianism more closely resembles empire than many of its defenders might like, but because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an emancipatory project this accusation does not fit quite as well as many of its harshest critics suggest? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 8\). Unlike many political science books, )] TJ ET BT 246.656 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire of Humanity )] TJ ET BT 347.648 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out to study the long history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian ideology, looking to the continuous trends and tensions that exist in the imposition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian principles beyond national borders, the most convincing of which is his emphasis on the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of paternalism. Barnett writes that ?the concept of paternalism encapsulates many of the central ambiguities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of humanitarianism? \(p. 34\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is split into three main sections, with an introduction and a first chapter preceding, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion following, the ten main chapters. The book splits the history of humanitarianism into three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ages? \(and three corresponding sections\): the first, ?imperial humanitarianism?, from the late 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the end of the Second World War; the second, ?neo humanitarianism?, from the end of the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War to the end of the Cold War; and third, ?liberal humanitarianism?, from the end of the Cold War to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present. First, the differences between ?alchemical? and ?emergency? humanitarianism are emphasised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one, ?The age of imperial humanitarianism?, encompasses chapters two, three, and four. Chapter two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains why humanitarianism emerged when it did at the end of the 18th century, and focuses primarily on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intellectual history of humanitarianism, its religious and enlightenment roots, and in general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian thought rather than humanitarian action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three locates the origin of ?alchemical? humanitarianism in the anti-slavery movement. This chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews much of the writing on the role of evangelical tradition in the anti-slavery movement. The Exeter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall humanitarians encouraged transformative \(and thus ?alchemical?\) and religiously inspired humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action throughout the 19th?century British Empire. Chapter four introduces ?emergency? humanitarianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the internationalization of relief through the establishment of the International Committee of the Red )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cross \(ICRC\). Reiterating much of the standard history of the ICRC and emergency relief, Barnett?s account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differs because he argues against the traditional view of the ICRC as historically an independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation: ?from the very beginning the ICRC?s very existence and effectiveness depended on states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which meant an acute sensitivity to their views. Largely because of its close connections, the ICRC strove to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create principles and symbols of independence? \(p. 81\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two, chapters five through seven, shifts its approach from an investigation of the religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational impulses that led to the emergence of ?alchemical? and ?emergency? humanitarianism, to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of several international NGOs. Chapter five argues that the forces of production changed in the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War in a way that meant that ?development and modernization became intertwined in doctrines of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticommunism? \(p.101\). Chapter six presents an organisational history of various NGOs. It explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between NGOs and the state, and the tensions between religious organisations and state funding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and interests. The major difference in this ?age? is deemed to be the avoidance of ?human rights? \(p.129\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven outlines humanitarianism during the ?hot? wars of the Cold War period: Biafra, Vietnam, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambodia, and Ethiopia. This chapter makes an interesting contribution to the understanding of the internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and external organisational pressures that influenced the emergence of the humanitarian ?neutrality? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle in this period, particularly in the ICRC and Mdecins sans Frontires \(MSF\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three \(chapters eight through ten\) covers the period from the end of the Cold War through to the present. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight describes the shift to a ?security? mantra of humanitarian intervention \(p.162\). Barnett )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.0037 781.1335 206.9957 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.3157 781.1335 360.3077 793.0135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.2957 781.1335 464.2877 793.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 766.8775 109.0037 778.7575 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7264 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes two shifts in this period: one in the purpose of humanitarianism as a result of the link between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief and development; and another in the further expansion of the state role. Chapter nine focuses primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the role of the United Nations in the humanitarian interventions of the 1990s. Barnett gives brief case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories for Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda, and Kosovo, although there is no reason given for this particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of case studies, or its limitation to the 1990s, despite recent and controversial interventions \(or non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions\) in humanitarian crises in Sierra Leone, Darfur, the Democratic Republic of Congo, East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timor, Georgia, Sri Lanka, and others. Chapter ten once again presents a case study of five NGOs and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing relationships with the politics of human rights. Finally, the conclusion looks again at the arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for studying humanitarian movements in their broader context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are inevitable problems in bridging the disciplines of international relations and history, and Barnett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a valiant attempt throughout the book, bringing to light the continuities and differences as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarianism progresses from its original conception in the 18th century. The book raises important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions and offers interesting case studies. It lays a strong foundation for future research in the direction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an organisational understanding of humanitarian work. Finally, Barnett is willing and able to present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of the continuous struggle between the desire of humanitarian organisations to remain apolitical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their reliance on politics and the state to pursue their humanitarian aims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the author?s provocative argument and interesting focus are weakened in parts by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unevenness of its structure, and a non-historical approach to a historical topic. Perhaps inevitably given his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research background, Barnett?s history of humanitarianism is not methodologically grounded in history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the focus on humanitarian ?ages? laudably traces the origins of humanitarianism long before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common international relations starting point of the 1990s or even the 1940s, the emphasis still remains on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these later periods. Split into three sections, the first age covers roughly 170 years in 45 pages; the second, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roughly 49 years in 61 pages; and the third, 20 years in 58 pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond the amount of space dedicated to each of these time periods, the book suffers from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalization and telescoping effects of treating these segments of time as coherent chunks, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the change over time. The function of history in this book is to act as a step function, moving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from one ?age? to the next, as defined by the traditional imperial, Cold War, and post-Cold War markers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with very little emphasis on the continuity between ?ages?, or on the changes within each ?age?. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, Barnett posits that there was a shift to state and NGO-led development projects after the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, away from the ostensibly religious projects of the pre-war period. This marks one of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between these ?ages?. However, this delineation neglects the importance of the imperial state in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development projects of empires both before and after the Second World War, as well as the close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship and on-going tensions between the imperial state and missionary movements in the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding the Cold War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Barnett emphasizes early on that he did not want to write a book about the history of the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental organisation \(NGO\). He lays out some perfectly good reasoning for this and the first section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks instead at intellectual traditions. However, by the time he arrives at part two, the book begins to shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a history of the NGO; specifically CARE, the ICRC, MSF, Catholic Relief Services, World Vision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International, and UNHCR. There is no explanation for the sudden shift to a focus on a handful of NGOs, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation for the choice of these specific NGOs. This transforms the book, at a certain point, into an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational study of the development of NGOs and their relationships with political structures \(both state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based and supra-state\). But for an organisational study, Barnett misses the ?death of the mission? problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that represents one of the most interesting, provocative, and problematic tensions that carries through from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earliest notions of alchemical \(and imperial\) humanitarianism to the present. By focusing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual origins of humanitarianism in the first ?age? and then moving to an organisational study, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than choosing, for instance, to focus on the changing nature of the organisations themselves through all three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ages?, the first part of the book seems to relegate the 19th century to a source for intellectual debate, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than an era a practical importance for understanding why development projects ? those sponsored by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missionaries, empires, or humanitarian organisations ? struggle to put themselves out of business.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7580 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This choice of structure and emphasis weakens Barnett?s claim to carry the origins of humanitarianism back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into their imperial foundations. Barnett is insistent that the major change between each of the ?ages? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineated herein is the role of the state in both alchemical humanitarianism and emergency relief; that is, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift from a minimal role for the state to an increasingly state-driven vision of humanitarian action. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness of this argument becomes apparent when reading )] TJ ET BT 321.944 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanitarian Intervention: A History)] TJ ET BT 504.932 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises instead a transition )] TJ ET BT 185.336 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from )] TJ ET BT 211.004 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state \(imperial\) actors to the non-state NGO. While both have support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their arguments, the weight of evidence behind Simms and Trim?s claims reveals this to be a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing reading of the historical trends in humanitarianism and intervention. In their introduction, Simms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Trim make the convincing case that ?one of the phenomena of the late twentieth century has been the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective transfer of power from states to non-state actors? \(p. 20\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more methodologically historical book, )] TJ ET BT 238.004 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanitarian Intervention: A History)] TJ ET BT 420.992 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is an edited volume that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings together scholarship on European, imperial, and post-colonial humanitarian interventions covering a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from the 16th century to the present. This chronological scope is what makes the book stand out from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crowd of books on this subject, and, like )] TJ ET BT 248.996 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire of Humanity)] TJ ET BT 346.988 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 29\) it convincingly argues for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a wider vision of ?humanity? over the course of many centuries. Unlike )] TJ ET BT 448.916 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire of Humanity)] TJ ET BT 546.908 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, this book focuses exclusively on interventions, rather than humanitarianism more generally. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intervention, for Simms and Trim?s purposes, is defined to consist of ?sustained actions to end oppression, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyranny, persecution, or human rights abuses in another state, where the action was against the will of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, its ruling elites, or a predominant faction or party, regardless of whether that action was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic, logistical, economic, or military-naval? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While all of the contributions to this volume are well-researched and historically interesting, contributing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the widest possible history of intervention case studies, they are mostly tangential to the standard chronology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the emergence of humanitarian intervention. Rather than a weakness, this helps to support the editors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention that humanitarian intervention has both a deeper history than previously explored, and a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remit ? touching early modern Protestants in Catholic Europe \(chapters one and two\), the Ottoman Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapters seven through nine\), European Jews \(chapter six\), underexplored 19th?century African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions \(chapters ten through 12\), and American \(chapters 13 and 14\) and Vietnamese \(chapter 15\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions ? than the standard list of case histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanitarian Intervention)] TJ ET BT 163.676 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is both well-conceived and well-executed as an edited collection. The essays and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors? remarks alike are integrated seamlessly, with enough contextual overlap to see the connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between chapters. Additionally, this book does not give the sense of a teleological ?progress? towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern conceptions of intervention. Rather, the diversity of the contributions adds to the impression that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each case there were historically contingent decisions being made in response to local and international, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as timely legal and moral understandings of humanitarian intervention. A theme of the conflict between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high-minded humanitarian motives and quotidian political realities runs through the book. The range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays gives the reader the full sense that the development of the ideas of humanitarian intervention has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never been a consistent and systematic development, but an ebbing and flowing of ideas centred on a notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of universalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one, ?Early modern precedents?, examines in three essays the fundamental ideas at work in the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation period that contributed to a shift away from the idea that religious heretics should be punished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the various individual rulers of united \(Catholic\) Christendom, to ?the developing discourse that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a right, indeed a duty, to defend or protect the subjects of a tyrannical and abusive prince from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excesses? \(p. 32\). This thought spread from a religious intervention to more generic terms associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geopolitics in the 17th and 18th centuries. D. J. B. Trim, Andrew C. Thompson, and Brendan Simms all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute essays looking at the tension between the desire to intervene and the realities of intervention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which become more possible with proximity and with an increase in military strength.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two, ?The great powers and the Ottoman Empire?, explores the 19th?century European interventions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other European states and in the Ottoman Empire, particularly those in support of oppressed religious )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7403 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities. As John Bew?s chapter on ?Intervention in the wake of the Napoleonic Wars? outlines, this is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period when anti-interventionist language begins to consolidate, particularly as a defence against European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention in Britain. In most of the cases in part two, the theme of ?realist? intervention is present, and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthias Schulz?s chapter on the Russo-Ottoman War illuminates, foreign policy-making in the late 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century had an important effect on reactions to humanitarian crises in and peripheral to Europe \(p.185\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abigail Green?s essay, for instance, highlights that although humanitarianism is largely present in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments for intervention, ?considerations of )] TJ ET BT 258.644 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 311.312 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appear to have been decisive? \(p. 146\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice of Britain to champion Jewish rights. This consideration of geopolitical realities meant that, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, the balance of power was always a consideration in intervention. Davide Rodogno?s essay on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman Lebanon and Syria argues that, while still the case in extra-European territories, the rules were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly different there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three, ?Intervening in Africa?, carries this theme out into the European empires, introducing the element )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperial expansion, and the rights and obligations of empires. Maeve Ryan?s contribution examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British naval intervention in the West African slave trade, and the conflict with French and Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers as the British sought to enforce anti-slave trade treaties. William Mulligan?s chapter moves later in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the century and across the continent to the suppression of the East African slave trade. These two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to the volume are valuable for reintroducing the explicitly )] TJ ET BT 381.308 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(military )] TJ ET BT 422.312 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventionist argument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the anti-slavery movement into the history of humanitarian intervention. Although the anti-slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement has recently begun to be reintegrated into the story of the rise of humanitarianism, the focus tends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be on its metropolitan dimensions. These two chapters help to reintroduce the reader to the on-the-ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions in Africa and their controversial nature. Gideon Miller?s chapter on intervention in Sudan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise brings out the theme of the slave trade and the conflict and collaboration between religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian motives and the imperial, and eventually, post-colonial state in Sudan. This tension is explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in all of these cases, and as Mulligan writes, ?humanitarianism enabled many otherwise sceptical Britons to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept and even demand the expansion of empire? \(p. 272\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In non-colonial, or non-Western powers, this tension was particularly dramatic. Part four, ?Non-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states?, examines two American interventions and the Vietnamese intervention in Cambodia. Mike Sewall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the humanitarian principles that informed the decision to ?free? Cuba from Spain in 1898, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to the rise of the opposition movement against the American repression of resistance movements in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippines. Thomas J. W. Probert and Sophie Quinn-Judge?s chapters move the chronology forward to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s and 1980s. Probert?s example provides a strong case for understanding humanitarian intervention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-military terms. Once again, the religious element of humanitarianism is underlined with the US reaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Soviet Jewish emigration. Quinn-Judge?s examination of Vietnam?s intervention in Cambodia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanwhile, provides an example of non-Western military intervention, which ?amounted to an undeclared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but successful humanitarian intervention? \(p. 344\) and the international assumptions that saw it as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial annexation or a Soviet expansion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The American interventions are interesting, and it is good to see them included in this volume, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Sewall?s contribution on the Spanish-American War. However, in possibly the only disappointing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of this book, the title of this section gives a global historian an element of false hope, as it leaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(untouched the intriguing potential studies of the ECOMOG intervention in Sierra Leone, the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention in Sri Lanka, the African Union?s intervention in the Sudan, and numerous other potential ?Non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European? examples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part five consists of Matthew Jamison?s essay on ?liberal interventionism? since 1990, and D. J. B. Trim?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding chapter. By including the post-Cold War examples, the volume rounds out the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian intervention and places the recent cases into the context of the idea?s )] TJ ET BT 434.264 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 497.252 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Jamison?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is particularly interesting because it locates, convincingly, the beginning of the post-Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions in the first Gulf War, a conflict that is not typically included, let alone seen as the ?Iraqi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedent?\(p. 368\) for the Croatian and Bosnian interventions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Trim?s conclusion summarizes the volume?s themes, particularly the conflicting and, more often )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7285 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than not, complementary nature of political realism and liberal humanitarian intervention \(p. 401\). He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasserts the editors? continued dismissal of the ?Westphalian paradigm? of territorial sovereignty. Simms? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own contribution to the volume, chapter four, articulates this idea: intervention is the historical norm \(p. 91\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, both )] TJ ET BT 95.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanitarian Intervention)] TJ ET BT 224.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 248.324 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire of Humanity)] TJ ET BT 346.316 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( emphasize that humanitarian intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or action has been perceived recently as contravening longstanding conventions of sovereignty, which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only broken down since the end of the Cold War. This, both books say, is a misperception. Both go some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to reconcile humanitarianism?s past with its present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both of these volumes make valuable, and timely, contributions to the growing literature on humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventions, helping to expand both popular and scholarly understanding of humanitarianism?s past. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barnett and Simms and Trim focus on different aspects of the ongoing humanitarian project, but both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these books are about ?humanitarianism?, at some level, being imposed upon others. This is an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(step in understanding the continuities \(as well as the discontinuities\) in humanitarian interventions. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of sacred and ancient state sovereignty is dismissed by both books, the imposition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?humanitarianism? is still recognised as such. Barnett writes that ?Liberal peacebuilding is a highly invasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project; the expanded list of factors associated with a stable peace means that nearly all of the features of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and society have become objects of intervention? \(p.164\). Simms and Trim take a more limited view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what constitutes intervention but still emphasise the power dynamics that have underpinned all forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian intervention, and which continue to do so today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dambisa Moyo, )] TJ ET BT 144.344 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How There is a Better Way for Africa)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 460.947 m 196.328 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Polman, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War Games: the Story of Aid and War in Modern Times)] TJ ET BT 406.328 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.652 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.652 446.691 m 541.640 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Easterly, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(White Man?s Burden)] TJ ET BT 253.664 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 260.000 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why the West?s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done so Much )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ill and so Little Good)] TJ ET BT 167.360 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.684 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.684 418.179 m 302.672 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations)] TJ ET BT 329.348 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jennifer Welsh \(Oxford, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.636 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.636 403.923 m 557.624 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors of )] TJ ET BT 104.336 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanitarian Intervention: A History)] TJ ET BT 287.324 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are happy to accept this generous review and do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/68137/michael-barnett/empire-of-humanity-a-history-of-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 308.643 m 495.260 308.643 l S BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarianism)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 294.387 m 114.680 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.680 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International Law Reporter)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ilreports.blogspot.com/2011/06/barnett-empire-of-humanity-history-of.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 265.875 m 427.004 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.004 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott School of International Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://media.elliott.gwu.edu/video/208)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 237.363 m 218.360 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.360 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 234.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 216.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 216.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1141)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 214.857 m 328.316 214.857 l S 0.000 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