%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818102600+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818102600+01'00') /Title (Saving the Souls of Medieval London. Perpetual Chantries at St. Paul?s Cathedral, c.1200-1548) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4075 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Saving the Souls of Medieval London. Perpetual Chantries at St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Paul?s Cathedral, c.1200-1548)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marie-Hlne Rousseau has written this book on the perpetual chantries of the old St. Paul?s Cathedral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the rich archive in the Guildhall Library, London, in conjunction with other sources. The author has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a concise and clear introduction to the subject of chantries alongside a very detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive account of this feature of the life of the cathedral. These medieval religious foundations have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received relatively little attention in academic studies since the publishing of the seminal work of Kathleen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wood-Legh in 1965 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 193.521 m 148.328 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 148.328 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and this author acknowledges the debt to Wood-Legh, along with other later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works, in her introduction. Chantries and chantry chapels had a relatively short history; emerging in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12th and early 13th centuries as separate foundations; especially in St. Paul?s, and subsequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappearing after the second Chantry Act of 1547. The fact that in this short space of time approximately 84 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in were founded this particular church is remarkable and the book treats this rich history with skill and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is laid out in six chapters. After a general introduction about chantry foundations, the themes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these chapters are clearly defined: chantry founding; management; housing/location; monitoring of chantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerics; how they were served and finally their dissolution, followed by a conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1144)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marie-Hlne Rousseau)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781409405818)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(252pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cindy Wood)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.3357 193.8355 148.3277 205.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one deals clearly and concisely with the foundation of the many chantries in St. Paul?s, many being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early foundations from the last quarter of the twelfth century, contemporary to others founded in Paris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amiens and Lichfield. This church was home to a high number of clerical chantry foundations, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those founded by the unique minor canons of St. Paul?s. This makes comparison with other English secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cathedrals problematic, but is very useful in the discussion about the wide range of clerics able to found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantries in this church. Many of the early chantries were included in the reorganisation under Bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Braybrooke in 1371, after the Black Death, when many of these foundations were found to be insufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endowed to survive the economic conditions of this period. The Dean and Chapter learnt from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience and thereafter restricted the foundation of chantries to those with greater means. This chapter also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts the experience of the lay population of London in regard to chantry foundation in the cathedral. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author?s research reveals how the laity acted as executors for the foundation of clerical chantries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including women acting in this capacity\) or as later donors to older chantries, whose financial position was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precarious, rather than founding many chantries in their own name. Although there were no separate lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations after 1408 \(that of Beatrice de Roos\), the book does reveal the close relationship between both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerics and laity in London, and is the value of the close examination of a single church. This chapter does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight clearly and with good examples, the complexity of chantry foundations in their many guises, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to their financial benefit to the Dean and Chapter in the later medieval period, providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximately 20 per cent of their income by the time of the )] TJ ET BT 326.636 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Valor Ecclesiasticus)] TJ ET BT 424.964 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the early 1530s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two discusses the management of the chantries in St. Paul?s and their personnel. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable documentary evidence for this aspect of religious life and the author has made good use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these sources. Although chantries all had the common requirement to perform a daily mass for the soul of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the founder/founders, beyond this commonality there were many avenues for personalisation. In this chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highly individual aspects of chantry foundations is clearly made. In St. Paul?s all chantry priests were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the control of the Dean and Chapter, but other aspects of their lives, such as appointment; salary; type )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of foundation; liturgy and even vestments, were at the behest of their founders. The changes in these areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the period under study are also well made. The Black Death is clearly a watershed, and defined two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different periods of chantry foundation. More were founded before this event, mostly of single priests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often with small endowments. After 1350 there were fewer founded, but these had larger endowments, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting in chantries of several priests, for example, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster \(d.1399\), whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantry was manned by two chaplains and that of Roger Holme, one-time mayor of London, \(c.1390\), who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endowed a chantry of seven priests \(p. 43\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two also provides an insight into the chosen liturgy of some chantry founders. This aspect of chantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life is rarely available or discussed in other studies and the information from the St. Paul?s sources is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed. It might be preferred that the arrangements of Roger Holme?s chantry \(c.1390\) were discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the context of the liturgy of the whole cathedral, rather than as a separate discussion, although this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a minor point. It is interesting, and worth noting, that the prevailing liturgy of the mother house was the Use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of St. Paul?s until 1414, before the adoption of the Use of Sarum. This provides a context in which any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantry deviations can be seen to highlight liturgical personalisation. The evidence for founders at St. Paul?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to proscribe certain masses at different times of the week is significant, especially as it reveals the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for the fashionable masses of the later 15th century, such as ?Name of Jesus? or ?Five Wounds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This chapter continues to discuss chantry administration. The means of endowment were often complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ensure an uninterrupted flow of prayers for the soul of a founder. The variety of efforts made by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founders to ensure this continual round of intercession are amply demonstrated in this single church and are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively covered by the author. From quit-rents with other religious houses, to straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endowment of property or gifts of money, the chantry founders of St. Paul?s employed many devices with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inbuilt strategies to avoid cessation of funding for their chantry priests. The intricate planning of several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers of supervision indicates the importance placed by founders of this continual offering of prayers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive of St. Paul?s has been used carefully to demonstrate this variety and its changes over the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered, from the simple instructions for the chantry priest of the earlier period, to the apogee of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6132 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated chantries in the first half of the 15th century, \(Thomas More, d.1424, and Walter Sherrington, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d.1447\), to the less weighty managerial responsibilities of the chantry priest in the early 16th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Richard Fitzjames, Bishop of London, d.1522\). The discussion of obits and their part within the life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church is also a valuable discussion of an area that has been rarely studied. The conclusion of this chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which also includes brief notes on education and library duties of chantry chaplains, reinforces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuality of the founding and managing of the numerous chantries within St. Paul?s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three is an analysis of the siting of the chantries and chantry chapels within the cathedral church, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the housing of the priests themselves. Within the church the 84 chantries necessitated the erection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and use of many altars from the late 12th century, not all contained within their own chapel space. Sadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither the church nor any monuments or chapels survived the Great Fire of London in 1666 and therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many possible locations are now problematic. Careful analysis of the documents has allowed the author to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locate many of these, but sadly this is not included figuratively. This chapter includes information on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charnel house of St. Paul?s, which contained many chantries after its construction in twelfth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including one dedicated to the mayors and bishops of London, the Dean and Chapter and all Londoners \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75\). This is styled as a ?communal? chantry, and its later re-endowments after 1350 illustrates it continual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to Londoners at this time \(p. 76\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of housing the numerous chantry chaplains in St. Paul?s is also dealt with in this chapter. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing number of these personnel placed the Dean and Chapter under pressure from early in the 14th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. It was seen as desirable to house these priests within the precinct of the cathedral, rather at lodgings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the city itself. Thus from 1315 chantry chaplains were allocated space in the precinct, referred to as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close of the chaplains in 1366, and the ?Prestehous? by 1391 \(p. 80\). Under Bishop Braybrooke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reorganisation of the chantries in 1391, he required all chantry priests who were not otherwise members of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(college, to reside in a building to the west of the precinct. The chaplains who served at the two chantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleges within the cathedral, Holmes?s College, and that of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, founded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1386 and 1403 respectively, were provided with their own communal lodgings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The disciplining and monitoring of the chantry priests is dealt with in chapter four. Vacancies were dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with seriously by patrons, including the Dean and Chapter, bishops of London and the mayor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations of London, who all appear to have taken their roles and responsibilities very seriously. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chantries were not ignored and while a vacancy may have been managed, for example, where the income )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was used for periods to improve endowed properties \(p. 96\), generally these were brief. Chantry priests were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monitored for attendance and their performance in the choir. In terms of their general conduct, the chantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests at St. Paul?s did not appear to have greatly troubled the Dean and Chapter. Whilst examples of poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct are included here, generally the evidence suggests that St. Paul?s, unlike Lichfield Cathedral, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have a serious problem with clerical misbehaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifth chapter discusses how the chantries were served by their priests; their place of origin; length of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service and educational history. This is always difficult to achieve as records are not complete, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual cases have provided anecdotal evidence. The issue of pluralism by chantry priests, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those at St. Paul?s Cathedral, has been the subject of much comment, including contemporary writers such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Piers the Plowman and Geoffrey Chaucer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.632 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.632 205.347 m 263.624 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.624 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author does address this issue and comes to the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion as Wood-Legh, that is, while some chantry priests were pluralists this was not endemic.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.6317 205.6615 263.6237 217.5415 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7311 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The investigation in this chapter, even with the problems of documentary survival, does make the point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly that the position of chantry priest was not always a starting point in a clerical career, nor was it one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was necessarily of low status. Examples are given of chantry priests who entered St. Paul?s after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resigning rectories, those chantries which appear to be a retirement appointment \(the chantry of Bishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William de Ste-Mere Eglise \(p. 120\)\) or those personnel who moved between chantries within an apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchical structure. The movement of staff within the chantries of St. Paul?s illustrates the variety and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity of appointments, although this church did have an exceptional number. The excellent use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving documents can reveal that chantry priest appointment was a reflection of many different aspects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was closely linked to, the wishes of the founders as well as external pressures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 80 known wills of chantry priests have been analysed by the author. This is an exceptional survival rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and as a resource has been used well to illustrate an area of personalisation not available in other chantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies. These documents reveal the wishes of the priests in terms of burial requests that can be used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight any changes in the pre- and post-Black Death period. The evidence suggests that in the later period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests preferred burial within the cathedral rather than the precinct. The wills also serve to illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bond between many priests and Londoners. St. Paul?s was a secular house, not a monastery, and therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their staff were free to move about the city after their religious duties, and many were from London and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environs, as demonstrated in chapter five \(p. 111\). There were bequests to individual Londoners as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporations, and these suggest that many, but not all, had disposable incomes and were relatively affluent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 143\). This chapter reveals clearly, by the use of examples, the variety of both the careers of chantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests in the capital as well as the complexity of their relationships both within the cathedral and the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the precinct of St. Paul?s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter deals with the dissolution of the chantries and chantry chapels. This dissolution was finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved in 1548, following the Second Chantry Act of 1547, which not only claimed their endowments but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also an assault on the fundamental beliefs that underpinned these intercessionary foundations. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantry act of 1545, under Henry VIII, was negated by the king?s death and appeared to be more interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their wealth to help fund the king?s war with France. The author charts the process of dissolution over a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer period, from the Lollards, to Martin Luther and onto the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI. She has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used many different sources for this period, including the chantry certificates, and the wills of some chantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests in the 1530s and 1540s, which reveal their conservative views on religion, as might be expected. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfer of the lands that belonged to the chantry chapels has also been tracked from 1548 to 1572. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later transactions reveal, in common with Exeter and Salisbury Cathedrals, that the Dean and Chapter were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to keep some of the chantry lands in return for an annual payment or pension to the Crown. There were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a number of chantries that were linked to prebends in the cathedral whose assets were not seized \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(152\). These aspects of chantry dissolution are not often revealed by studies, which tend to look back at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation rather than forwards at the dissolution to identify patterns in land transactions. The fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantries were still being founded and new incumbents being accepted up to 1547 is also a point not covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many chantry studies, and is well made by the author.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fate of the chantry priests is not analysed, but evidence is given for many, including those who received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their pension until death or others who gained other preferments. The Marian revival of Roman Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices did not see a revival of chantry activity in the cathedral, and their physical presence was swept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away with the rest of the cathedral in the Great Fire of London in 1666, leaving only the documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources used in this book to reveal their existence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion this is a very important book in terms of chantry studies and is a worthy successor to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seminal work of Wood-Legh. It has brought to life the large and various documentary sources for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantries, especially the archive held at the Guildhall Library. At times it relies more on the narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals rather than analysis of data, but this does not make it less interesting or valuable. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrations are few and are not particularly useful or linked to the text, and a map locating altars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapels would have been very useful and informative. Nevertheless this is an excellent account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chantries of St. Paul?s Cathedral which is contextual where possible. This book is a work long overdue and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 1628 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marie- Hlne?s superb research has revealed the complexity and variety of chantry functions in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important church in a clear and well-written account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. Wood-Legh, )] TJ ET BT 142.664 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perpetual Chantries in Britain)] TJ ET BT 289.676 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.996 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.996 715.299 m 440.984 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wood-Legh, )] TJ ET BT 128.000 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perpetual Chantries)] TJ ET BT 225.668 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 190.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.668 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.668 701.043 m 318.656 701.043 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 685.711 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 667.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 667.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1144)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 666.537 m 328.316 666.537 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.560 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7787)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.9957 715.6135 440.9837 727.4935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.6677 701.3575 318.6557 713.2375 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 666.8515 328.3157 678.7315 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1144) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000603 00000 n 0000000692 00000 n 0000004819 00000 n 0000004928 00000 n 0000005038 00000 n 0000005147 00000 n 0000008708 00000 n 0000008836 00000 n 0000008920 00000 n 0000008949 00000 n 0000009077 00000 n 0000009113 00000 n 0000009178 00000 n 0000016781 00000 n 0000016865 00000 n 0000023050 00000 n 0000023080 00000 n 0000023208 00000 n 0000023244 00000 n 0000023309 00000 n 0000030673 00000 n 0000030771 00000 n 0000032452 00000 n 0000032580 00000 n 0000032635 00000 n 0000032763 00000 n 0000032818 00000 n 0000032946 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33042 %%EOF