%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 36 0 R 71 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827185252+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827185252+01'00') /Title (Ulster Liberalism, 1778-1876: the Middle Path) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4173 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ulster Liberalism, 1778-1876: the Middle Path)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this eagerly anticipated book Gerald Hall seeks to rescue the history of a political tradition in the north of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland which was not primarily driven by either unionism or nationalism. He claims that, for the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are the focus of this study, the political world was not immutably divided between nationalist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist: instead it is argued that the primary objective for Ulster liberals was the promotion of reformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socio-political policies. However, the author recognises that it would be nave not to acknowledge that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster society was becoming increasingly polarised along sectarian lines during the time period which this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study covers. Perhaps controversially, Dr Hall complains that most historical writing on Irish history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to be written within a nationalist historiography, which presupposes the inexorable rise of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation. As a result of this, he suggests that this theoretical framework is too teleological in nature and leads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an anachronistic search for the precursors of modern parties, states and conflicts. It is claimed that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Ulster liberalism helps to reveal the limitations of this understanding of Irish history; this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because liberalism in the north of Ireland helps to explain various social and cultural changes that are often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlooked in the narratives of unionism and nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While all this is very well, the question of how to define liberalism was one that needed to be answered at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outset if we were to have any hope of understanding this political phenomenon. Accordingly, Dr Hall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prudently recognises that any definition of liberalism is fraught with difficulty. The task is not made any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1145)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald Hall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846822025)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Ritchie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7868 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easier by the fact that the author admits that, in order to fit with the time-frame of the book, the term has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be applied to people and movements who, prior to the 1820s, would have described themselves by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epithets, such as, Whigs, reformers or patriots. However, the author believes such anachronistic usage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term for the period 1778-1828 is valid, due to the significant challenges to hierarchical understandings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society throughout this time period that warrant being designated as liberal. Of course, this raises another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question as to why the book begins in 1778. The answer is that the author is of the opinion that by examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Volunteer movement and its concern with constitutional ideals the early development of Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism can be better understood. From this the author moves on to consider various subjects, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United Irish movement, liberalism in the immediate aftermath of the Union between Britain and Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional reform, the Arian controversy in the Synod of Ulster, changes in local government, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminished political status of Henry Cooke subsequent to the union of synods, the Tenant Right movement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open-air preaching, sectarian riots, the effects of ultramontanism on Roman Catholic liberal opinion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belfast, the extension of the parliamentary franchise and the 1868 election, and the muted impact of home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule upon the 1874 general election in Ulster when Tenant Right provided a basis for co-operation between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman Catholics and Presbyterians, yet masked the growing weakness of Ulster liberalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the whole, Gerald Hall?s work is an excellent overview of the liberal tradition in Ulster. His assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Volunteer movement he provides an interesting taxonomy of opinion among its supporters, and argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was divided into four discernible categories of opinion ? Whigs, civic republicans, covenanters [sic] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nascent liberals. Both Whigs and civic republicans believed in upholding the ancient Irish constitution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though they diverged over the role of the aristocracy in preserving it. By contrast, those in the covenanting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition \(Covenanters/Reformed Presbyterians and Seceders\) believed that the Solemn League and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Covenant of 1643 was the rock upon which the nation should be built, and sought to see the state enforce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divine law. Though small in numbers, Dr Hall observes that the Covenanters had an influence which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcended their minority status as some of their views were often popular among the common people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hence it is essential that views of this tradition are properly understood. Also important is the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the intellectual influence of the Scottish Enlightenment upon the nascent liberalism of Ulster, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as many Presbyterian students imbibed the ideals of figures such as Francis Hutcheson, Adam Ferguson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Millar. In terms of the United Irish movement, he claims that, apart from agreement over the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary reform and Catholic Emancipation, there was initially a wide range of opinion among its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters. Consequently, it is important not to confuse the beginnings of the movement with the oath-bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society of United Irishmen that emerged in 1795. However, in the aftermath of the failed rebellion of 1798, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Hall concludes that former civic republicans, Whigs and people influenced by the covenanting tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found new common ground in the principles of the nascent liberals ? which he asserts were gaining wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance in society and which became the basis of 19th-century Ulster liberalism. In this respect, we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminded that it is important to remember that the disapproval of reformers towards revolutionary violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not always amount to reactionary conservatism. On the contrary, Dr Hall observes that the shock of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary disorder sometimes led reformers to construct what he calls a middle path between revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reaction, namely, that of liberalism. Thus it is not surprising that at least some of those who embraced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nascent liberal ideas were led to consider Union with Britain as a means by which socio-political reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could best be achieved. Support for the Union was not necessarily a sign of political conservatism. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantiate this one need only refer to the example of the Presbyterians in the General Synod of Ulster, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, in their treatment of the Reverend William Steel Dickson in 1813 were still willing to endorse calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant political reforms, but who were not prepared to countenance a rehabilitation of the revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence associated with the United Irishmen. Nor did the decline of political meetings or conventions in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early decades of the 19th century necessarily indicate an abandonment of political involvement: instead the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author suggests that Ulster reformers had simply began to question the prudence of violent constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In light of these conclusions, Dr Hall, wisely following Finlay Holmes?s excellent work, argues that Roy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foster was incorrect to conclude that Presbyterians had abandoned the liberalism of their forefathers as early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the 1820s due to the influence of Henry Cooke.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.640 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.640 72.531 m 288.632 72.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.632 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The battle for theological orthodoxy which took place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Synod of Ulster did not lead to the abandonment of political liberalism, even though Cooke?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6397 72.8455 288.6317 84.7255 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8831 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading opponent in the Arian controversy, Henry Montgomery, was a political liberal. Although Dr Hall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not deploy the strongest arguments against the crudely reductionist assumption that the withdrawal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Arians in 1829 was a victory for political conservatism, as he relies too heavily upon comments written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Cooke?s death by Richard Smyth in 1872 and W. T. Latimer in 1902 rather than on the views of figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Alexander Porter Goudy when Cooke was still alive )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.304 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.304 738.051 m 339.296 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.296 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, his analysis is essentially correct. Indeed, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a rather interesting argument that the heterodox provided Cooke with a stick with which to threaten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rest of the synod if they disagreed with him, but once the heterodox had departed that stick was gone, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooke could no longer link his rivals with the aberrant theological views of Montgomery et al. Far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wilting before Cooke, political liberals often successfully opposed him and, as Ian McBride has argued, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was never quite the dictator that later observers have supposed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.280 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.280 666.771 m 351.272 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.272 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moreover, Dr Hall makes an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the union between the Synod of Ulster and the Seceders in 1840 served to further undermine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooke?s political influence, noting that the latter group had appealed more to those in humbler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances that the Synod of Ulster had done. And after the union of synods, resentment towards Cooke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew due to controversies over Presbyterian marriages, the non-intrusion controversy in the Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and tenant right. Furthermore, the establishment of politically liberal Presbyterian newspapers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the )] TJ ET BT 89.672 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Banner of Ulster)] TJ ET BT 170.336 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 211.328 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry Standard)] TJ ET BT 320.996 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was something of a thorn in the flesh for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooke. So although Ulster Presbyterians had become evangelicals and supporters of the Union with Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain they did not automatically follow Cooke into political conservatism or consent to his proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage with the Church of Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opposition to political liberals to crude displays of sectarianism is illustrated by several points made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author. Contrary to popular mythology, Dr Hall points out that the Reverend Hugh Hanna was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of evangelical Presbyterian open-air preachers, and that such an assumption overlooks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement of political liberals ? who were certainly not Orange auxiliaries, such as the Reverend Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smyth in such activity. Moreover, the author claims that prominent liberals including the Revd John Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Aghadowey opposed sectarian violence and the Toryisation of the Glorious Revolution, believing instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that just as William of Orange had joined with the Pope against Louis XIV, Presbyterians and Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics should have maintained an alliance against Toryism. However, the reviewer would have preferred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see greater substantiation of this controversial thesis than that which is currently provided in the text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite increased polarisation between Roman Catholics and Presbyterians towards the end of this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weakness of the Home Rule movement in Ulster at the 1874 election is exposed by the fact that, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their co-religionist voters elsewhere in Ireland, Roman Catholics in the northern province generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the Liberal party. However, by 1890 such co-operation was long since forgotten ? thus signifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the failure of Ulster liberals to persuade nationalists and unionists that the events of the past should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control the beliefs and actions of the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lengthy discussions relating to local government throughout the chapters are no doubt of value to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding Ulster liberalism, however, the present reviewer must confess to finding them rather tedious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in comparison to the rest of the book. Nevertheless, scholars interested in municipal and local politics will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find the discussion of these themes most useful, especially as there is a focus on local politics in towns other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Belfast. More worryingly, the book contains some questionable judgments. For instance, the assertion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Reformed Presbyterian \(Covenanter\) theologian Dr John Paul of Loughmourne, the leading writer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against non-subscription to creeds and on the Arian controversy in Ulster Presbyterianism, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Voluntaryist does not appear to be correct, because there is primary evidence to support the view that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to believe in religious establishments despite his critical attitude towards existing established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.664 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.664 158.067 m 93.656 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.656 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless, it is correct to argue that Paul was on a Voluntaryist trajectory as his ?New Light? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Covenanter views represented a significant revision of covenanting political theology due to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermining of the traditional Reformed understanding of the civil application of the Mosaic law and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential rejection of the Westminster Confession?s doctrine of the magistrate?s power )] TJ ET BT 453.608 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(circa sacra)] TJ ET BT 507.932 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.932 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.932 115.299 m 524.924 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 524.924 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hall also claims that W. D. Killen was ?an admirer of Cooke in political as well as theological matters? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(79\). However, Andrew Holmes quotes Killen as saying: ?a Tory Presbyterian is a kind of ecclesiastical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political contradiction?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.004 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.004 72.531 m 161.996 72.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.996 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the other hand, the author may simply mean that Killen was in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooke?s opposition to repeal and concessions to Roman Catholicism. The comment that Cooke?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.3037 738.3655 339.2957 750.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.2797 667.0855 351.2717 678.9655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.6637 158.3815 93.6557 170.2615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.9317 115.6135 524.9237 127.4935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.0037 72.8455 161.9957 84.7255 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 10561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointment as moderator of the General Assembly in 1841 in recognition of his role in bringing about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union of synods is fair enough, but it perhaps overlooks the significance of Dr Samuel Hanna being elected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Assembly?s first moderator in 1840 ? evidence, if ever it were needed, that Cooke was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian Pope.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.004 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.004 752.307 m 137.996 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 137.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, a few minor slips of this nature are probably unavoidable when undertaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such an ambitious project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Holmes?s recent work on ?Covenanter politics?, which argues that 19th-century Presbyterians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejected ?the model of a theocratic presbyterian [sic] state and the perpetual obligation of the Covenants? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 541.232 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 541.232 697.539 m 555.224 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 555.224 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be interacted with in relation to some of the themes discussed in this book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.648 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.648 683.283 m 448.640 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 448.640 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Especially since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author claims that the )] TJ ET BT 140.672 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Banner of Ulster)] TJ ET BT 221.336 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 244.664 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Londonderry Standard)] TJ ET BT 354.332 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were ?representatives of a renewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis upon a reformulated vision of the godly commonwealth? \(p. 129\) whose titles alluded to the blue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banners of the early Covenanters. On the subject of the covenants, it is worth remembering the often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgotten fact that the sixth question put to candidates for ordination in the Presbyterian Church in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, ?Do you acknowledge the moral obligation of public religious covenanting, and do you hold it your )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duty to maintain and prosecute the reformation work of our covenanted fathers of the Church of Scotland??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 583.491 m 54.008 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet judging by the fact that James McKnight, a man who was strongly critical of the early Covenanters? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views on religious liberty )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.344 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.344 569.235 m 179.336 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 179.336 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, had stints as editor of both the )] TJ ET BT 332.996 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Banner )] TJ ET BT 371.324 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 409.316 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Standard)] TJ ET BT 453.320 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it is hard to believe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that either newspaper was inspired by visions of the godly commonwealth when they were edited by one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who ?engaged in iconoclasm of this magnitude? \(p. 159\). Hence it is probable that if Presbyterians in this era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did believe in a godly commonwealth it was something significantly different from that envisaged by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forebears. What Dr Hall argues may not be entirely wrong, and what Dr Holmes claims may not be entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct, but the issue of what precisely what was meant by this supposed reformulation of the godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonwealth needs to be probed further. Was it a wholesale revision of the idea or an adaptation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle to the circumstances they found themselves in during the 19th century? Perhaps it was a mixture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both? Aside from these minor concerns, it is the judgment of the present reviewer that this book will long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain the standard work on Ulster liberalism and should be required reading for all serious historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century Ireland. Furthermore, the author has managed to combine his obvious extensive research into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subjects discussed with an ability to judiciously summarise the issues under review, and to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate use of a wide range of primary and secondary sources; this should serve as a model to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians attempting to undertake similar studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. F. Foster, )] TJ ET BT 126.692 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Ireland 1600?1972)] TJ ET BT 260.012 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988\), p. 303. Cf. Finlay Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 478.340 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry Cooke)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Belfast, 1981\), p. 207.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.004 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.004 304.131 m 228.992 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For more on this see Andrew Holmes, ?Covenanter politics: evangelicalism, political liberalism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster Presbyterians, 1798-1914? in )] TJ ET BT 239.660 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 365.660 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 125, 513 \(April 2010\), 1?30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.312 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.312 275.619 m 549.308 275.619 l S BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 261.363 m 78.008 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. R. McBride, )] TJ ET BT 136.676 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scripture Politics: Ulster Presbyterians and Irish Radicalism in the Late Eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century)] TJ ET BT 102.680 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1998\), p. 216.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.328 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.328 232.851 m 271.316 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Belfast News-Letter)] TJ ET BT 159.020 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 July 1836.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.024 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.024 218.595 m 284.012 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Paul, )] TJ ET BT 117.020 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Review of the Rev. Thomas Houston?s ?Christian Magistrate?, and a Defence of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Principles of Civil and Religious Liberty. Part II)] TJ ET BT 297.356 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Belfast, 1832\), p. 95. Idem, )] TJ ET BT 442.004 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review of a Speech by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Rev. Dr Montgomery of Belfast, and the Doctrines of the Unitarians Proved to be Unfavourable to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Right of Private Judgment, to Liberality and Charity, to the Investigation of Truth and the Practice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Virtue )] TJ ET BT 109.352 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1828\), reprinted in )] TJ ET BT 206.000 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Works of the late Rev. John Paul, D.D. of Carrickfergus.With a Memoir )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Introduction by the Editor)] TJ ET BT 210.680 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Stewart Bates \(Belfast, 1855\), p. 417. A concise summary of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul?s views may be found in Peter Brooke, ?Controversies in Ulster Presbyterianism, 1790-1836? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1980\), pp 224?5, 236.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.996 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.996 104.547 m 416.984 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Banner of Ulster)] TJ ET BT 144.680 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19 November 1868. Quoted in Holmes, ?Covenanter politics?, 25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.644 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.644 90.291 m 525.632 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. Finlay Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 159.020 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry Cooke)] TJ ET BT 222.668 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Belfast, 1981\), p. 139.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.656 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.656 76.035 m 390.644 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holmes, ?Covenanter politics?, 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.664 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.664 61.779 m 280.652 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This highlights a more general tendency on the part of the author to overlook sources written after )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.0037 752.6215 137.9957 764.5015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 541.2317 697.8535 555.2237 709.7335 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.6477 683.5975 448.6397 695.4775 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 583.8055 54.0077 595.6855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.3437 569.5495 179.3357 581.4295 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.0037 304.4455 228.9917 316.3255 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.3117 275.9335 549.3077 287.8135 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 261.6775 78.0077 273.5575 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.3277 233.1655 271.3157 245.0455 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.0237 218.9095 284.0117 230.7895 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.9957 104.8615 416.9837 116.7415 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.6437 90.6055 525.6317 102.4855 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.6557 76.3495 390.6437 88.2295 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6637 62.0935 280.6517 73.9735 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R ] /Contents 72 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Length 2374 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 795.075 m 145.004 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minutes of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland: Consisting of the General )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Synod of Ulster, and the Presbyterian Synod of Ireland, Distinguished by the Name of Seceders: Held )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Belfast, July, 1840 )] TJ ET BT 168.680 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Belfast, 1840\), p. 30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 273.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 273.668 752.307 m 333.656 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([James McKnight], )] TJ ET BT 159.668 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persecution Sanctioned by the Westminster Confession: a Letter, Addressed to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Clergy, Eldership, and Laity, of the Synod of Ulster; Shewing, from the History and Proceedings of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Westminster Divines, and the Public Records of the Church of Scotland, the Doctrines of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intolerance to which the Late Vote of Unqualified Subscription has Committed the General Synod of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ulster. With an Humble Dedication to the Rev. Dr. Cooke)] TJ ET BT 341.984 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Belfast, 1836\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.972 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.972 681.027 m 479.960 681.027 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 665.695 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 647.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 647.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1145)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 646.521 m 328.316 646.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 621.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7789)] TJ ET endstream endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 795.3895 145.0037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 273.6677 752.6215 333.6557 764.5015 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.9717 681.3415 479.9597 693.2215 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 50 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 646.8355 328.3157 658.7155 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1145) >> endobj xref 0 81 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000004862 00000 n 0000004971 00000 n 0000005081 00000 n 0000005190 00000 n 0000008751 00000 n 0000008879 00000 n 0000008963 00000 n 0000009047 00000 n 0000016968 00000 n 0000016998 00000 n 0000017124 00000 n 0000017160 00000 n 0000017272 00000 n 0000026156 00000 n 0000026186 00000 n 0000026314 00000 n 0000026350 00000 n 0000026380 00000 n 0000026508 00000 n 0000026544 00000 n 0000026574 00000 n 0000026700 00000 n 0000026736 00000 n 0000026766 00000 n 0000026894 00000 n 0000026930 00000 n 0000026960 00000 n 0000027086 00000 n 0000027122 00000 n 0000027297 00000 n 0000037912 00000 n 0000037942 00000 n 0000038070 00000 n 0000038106 00000 n 0000038136 00000 n 0000038264 00000 n 0000038300 00000 n 0000038330 00000 n 0000038458 00000 n 0000038494 00000 n 0000038524 00000 n 0000038650 00000 n 0000038686 00000 n 0000038716 00000 n 0000038844 00000 n 0000038880 00000 n 0000039008 00000 n 0000039063 00000 n 0000039191 00000 n 0000039246 00000 n 0000039372 00000 n 0000039427 00000 n 0000039555 00000 n 0000039610 00000 n 0000039738 00000 n 0000039793 00000 n 0000039921 00000 n 0000039976 00000 n 0000040103 00000 n 0000040158 00000 n 0000040284 00000 n 0000040339 00000 n 0000040465 00000 n 0000040520 00000 n 0000040625 00000 n 0000043052 00000 n 0000043179 00000 n 0000043234 00000 n 0000043362 00000 n 0000043417 00000 n 0000043545 00000 n 0000043600 00000 n 0000043728 00000 n trailer << /Size 81 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43824 %%EOF