%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416133955+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416133955+01'00') /Title (Pedalare, Pedalare. A History of Italian Cycling) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4135 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Pedalare, Pedalare. A History of Italian Cycling)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many ways to write about the history of Italian cycling. John Foot explains that his book ?tells the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story moving between biographies of individual cyclists, tales of races and an analysis of Italian society? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?space will be dedicated to the role of bicycle in everyday Italian life? \(p. 4\). His aim is to offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mirror? of the Italian nation, because ?developments in this popular sport have always been linked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural, economic and social change in Italy as a whole? \(p. 6\). Nevertheless Foot affirms \(and insists\) that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his book does not claim ?to provide a comprehensive history of Italian cycling? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.964 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.964 214.905 m 432.956 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.956 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and adds that the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(target are both ?experts and non-specialists? \(p. 7\). However, though the book may be very useful to English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers ? both sports experts and those interested in Italian society and in professional cycling ? this is not an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic text. Foot does not appear interested in taking academic distance from his subject; conversely he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enters)] TJ ET BT 63.344 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into it. In fact, Foot presents the book like a ?journey? that starts in a particular coffee bar in Milan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where ?there is a whole world waiting to be discovered, the )] TJ ET BT 322.616 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(past)] TJ ET BT 342.620 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the history of Italian cycling itself? \(p. 1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many pages the author seems to take part in the rivalries and feelings of the Italian people and, in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages of the last part of the book, the narrative is openly mixed with his experiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1147)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Foot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780747595212)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloomsbury)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlos Caracciolo)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.9637 215.2195 432.9557 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8004 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is organised in five parts and 21 chapters. Most chapters present the biographies of the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian cyclists. Some chapters describe the social and political context and the last part of the book reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decline \(the ?slow death?\) of professional cycling caused by doping.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter one of the first part \(?The heroic age?\), the reader is introduced to the Italian society of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century. The history of Italian cycling begins at the end of the 19th century with the invention of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bicycle and the subsequent development of cycling technology beyond that of the old fashioned cycles with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high and dangerous wheels. Few pages are dedicated to this period and Foot starts his history with the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro d?Italia)] TJ ET BT 97.688 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in 1909. Foot entwines cycling history with other aspects of the role of bicycle in the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. He explains the divide between the industrialized North and the rural and underdeveloped South, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the attitudes toward cycling of the different political and social groups \(the socialists, the Catholics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nationalists\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After describing the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 214.652 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro d?Italia)] TJ ET BT 278.324 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Foot describes the )] TJ ET BT 374.648 603.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ciclisti rossi)] TJ ET BT 432.992 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(red cyclists\) ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association created by the socialists, and the events surrounding Enrico Toti, the First World War volunteer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who cycled with his only one leg and became a national hero by dying on the front. Foot also underlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant role of the bicycle in the everyday life of the Italian working class. Professional cyclists had their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first contact with the bicycle through their job: they cycled to their farms, workshops and factories or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliver groceries. Cycling generated the first popular heroes, such as Luigi Ganna, the bricklayer who won )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first )] TJ ET BT 74.012 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro)] TJ ET BT 96.680 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Giovanni Gerbi. Prominent was Ottavio Bottecchia. With him starts the chain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities around which Foot has woven almost the whole book. Bottecchia, born in an extremely poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural family, worked as cobbler, builder and woodsman. During the war, he was part of the cycling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bersaglieri division and earned a silver medal. In 1919 Bottecchia emigrated to France, where he began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race \(p. 34\). The Bottecchia?s myth began with the 1923 )] TJ ET BT 309.296 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tour)] TJ ET BT 332.636 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when he was the first Italian to wear the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?yellow? jersey, and finished second. The following year he won the )] TJ ET BT 366.944 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tour)] TJ ET BT 390.284 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. His myth was sealed with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early death in 1927. An anti-fascist and socialist sympathiser \(p. 34\), when he was found dying on a roadside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(near his bicycle many believed it to be a fascist punishment. Yet other theories continue to circulate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bottecchia?s death remains a mystery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of the book)] TJ ET BT 171.320 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Cycling as a mass sport?\), describes the age of Costante Girardengo, Alfredo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Binda and Learco Guerra. They were the most important Italian cyclists of the 1920s and the 1930sw. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Girardengo worked as a delivery boy and then in a factory near Genoa. Every working day he commuted 38 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kilometres by bicycle. Foot observes that it was Girardengo who created the )] TJ ET BT 402.284 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gregari )] TJ ET BT 441.284 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 45\), a team of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cyclists dedicated to help him during the race and a crucial category in the social history of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling. Bottecchia?s has become a household name and is remembered in songs as well as in novels \(p. 47\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other aspects of Girardengo?s life were his friendship with the bandit Sante Pollastri, who he knew since his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood, and his less-studied relationship with the Fascist regime. Some passages tell of Alfonsina Strada, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only woman who ever rode the )] TJ ET BT 203.648 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro d?Italia)] TJ ET BT 267.320 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1924\) and who remained in people?s memory for decades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another legend of Italian cycling was Alfredo Binda. During the main part of his career, Binda dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling races to the point that he was even paid for not to compete in the 1930 )] TJ ET BT 412.292 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro)] TJ ET BT 434.960 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. According to some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foot?s sources, Binda was the greatest Italian cyclist of all time. He was also ?the first cyclist to attract a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female fan base?, with his elegance and style, and the first whose fame reached the whole country. Foot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlines Binda?s right-wing tendencies and his transformation from a member of the working class into a \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nouveau riche)] TJ ET BT 102.332 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) gentleman \(p. 59\). In 1932, when Binda won his third world championship, for the first time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the radio broadcast a commentary of the race all over Italy \(p. 67\). One year earlier, the superiority of Binda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been challenged by Learco Guerra. During the world championship race in Copenhagen, riders were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed to drink during the race. While Binda became desperate for water and had to stop and knock on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone?s door to ask for a drink, Learco Guerra was able to keep going at speed for hours \(p. 66\). In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, Italian athletes dominated international cycling, and the Fascist regime used this superiority for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda, exalting the Italian male virtues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third and longest part of the book is about ?the golden age? of Italian cycling, the age of Gino Bartali )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8330 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Fausto Coppi, from the end of 1930s to the 1950s. It coincides with the hardest time of recent Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, namely that of the Second World War and the partisan resistance against nazi-fascism; but it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corresponds to the years of the reconstruction and the start of the Italian ?economic miracle?. According to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foot, in these years three conditions occurred together. The period is exceptional firstly because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneous emergence of two of the greatest cyclists in Italian history; secondly, because the bicycle itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become the most important private vehicle; and thirdly, because cycling had become the most popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport. Foot points out also the tight links between cycling and Italian politics and society, for example with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story of the relation between Bartali?s feat in the )] TJ ET BT 288.632 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tour de France)] TJ ET BT 363.956 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the attempt on the life of Palmiro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Togliatti ? chief of the Italian Communist Party \(chapter 8\); or the relationship between the love affair of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fausto Coppi and a married woman \(the ?white lady?\) and the traditional Italian society that condemned the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulterous women to prison. Foot also remembers the post-war stage in Trieste and the role of cycling in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian identity. One chapter is about Biagio Cavanna, a former cyclist and the trainer of Girardengo and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coppi as well as of many )] TJ ET BT 158.672 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gregari)] TJ ET BT 194.672 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Cavanna transformed his town, Novi Ligure, into the capital of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling of that time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The legendary rivalry between Bartali and Coppi mirrored the cultural division of Italian society: catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and traditionalist on one side, secular and progressive on the other. How much the two cyclists actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented the two cultures is debatable. Bartali was a committed catholic during and after the Fascist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Probably, Coppi?s political culture was not as definite as Bartali?s one, and this made easy to attach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to him the progressive and left-wing label. Nevertheless, there was a ?third man?, Fiorenzo Magni, who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shadowed by the superiority of Bartali and Coppi, but also by his ?uncomfortable past? ? he had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accused of participating in a massacre of partisans ? and by his awkward position after 1945 \(p. 174\). Magni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented the Fascist Italy, ?the third? Italy, which was not easy to deal with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?golden age? of Italian cycling ended during the second half of the 1950s and Foot analyzes the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of this process. The car replaced the bicycle: ?not everyone had a car, but everybody wanted one?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afterwards the ?bond? with bicycles and cycling was broken. The Italian ?economic miracle? marginalized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bicycles and cycling at a number of levels: the use of free time now centred around television; many public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces had become dangerous for cycling; football was growing in popularity; and the diffusion of )] TJ ET BT 510.272 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vespa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lambretta)] TJ ET BT 104.348 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( motor scooters. In short, Italy as represented in the film )] TJ ET BT 376.640 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bicycle Thieves)] TJ ET BT 451.616 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had been replaced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of )] TJ ET BT 68.012 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roman Holiday)] TJ ET BT 143.672 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 167.000 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il Sorpasso)] TJ ET BT 221.336 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 200?6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interestingly the fourth part of Foot?s book, ?After the golden age?, does not have its own name. Foot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions many racers who had to confront the memory and the heavy legacy of the golden age, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the transformations that changed professional cycling as well as the entire society. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important was the emergence of television. Television radically changed the relationship between fans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their heroes, and there were less heroes and myths. The big character of the 1960s and 1970s was a Belgian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eddy Merckx \(?the cannibal?\), who rode in Italian teams. The Italian Felice Gimondi was never a serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contender. Other cyclists were labelled as ?meteors? because they were unable to shine for a long time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Technical improvement made cycling faster, yet more predictable and boring \(p. 236\) while a society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthier than ever in its history increasingly ignored this sport of poor people. Foot also remarks that Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and the )] TJ ET BT 108.344 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro)] TJ ET BT 131.012 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were not anymore inextricably united. The chronicles of the )] TJ ET BT 424.616 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro)] TJ ET BT 447.284 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ceased to speak about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy. They just reported about cycling and cyclists. At the same time, the )] TJ ET BT 388.640 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro)] TJ ET BT 411.308 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( became ?a place of memory? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nostalgia. New rivalries, as between Francesco Moser and Giuseppe Saronni, were compared to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Coppi and Bartali \(p. 241\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifth part of the book is dedicated to the ?age of doping?, which represents the ?slow death? of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling. According to Foot, the history of Italian cycling ends at some point between 1980 and 1999, that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Francesco Moser speed record in Mexico City and the exclusion of Marco Pantani from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro. )] TJ ET BT 62.684 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From that episode ?this is no longer a book about cycling ? Rather we enter a shadow world of blood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfusions, hormones, testosterone, cocaine, arrest, protest, masking agents, police swoops ?? \(p. 262\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protagonist of this age was Marco Pantani, perhaps the most loved cyclist of the last years. His feats, crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dramatic death in 2004 delineate the last myth of Italian cycling. Foot does mention other great and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous cyclists, such as Mario Cippollini and the North American Lance Armstrong \(who cycled in Italian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teams\), who seem not to have been touched by doping suspicion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusion Foot puts the bicycle and cycling in the context of Italian history and points out the links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between cycling and everyday life. The widespread use of the bicycle among working-class people was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental in the huge popularity of sportive cycling \(p. 312\). Cycling also had followers among well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known journalists, writers and intellectuals. Foot underlines the role they had in communicating cycling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events through press, radio and TV. With television, cycling became part of the ?society of spectacle? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(308\). Through the media, Italy itself was told to the Italian people; and the )] TJ ET BT 394.640 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro )] TJ ET BT 420.308 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected and recreated Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p .311\). Cyclists played their part ?in the creation and recreation of historical, national and regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives? \(p. 305\). In this process, memory and nostalgia have a remarkable role, particularly after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural and social revolution known as ?economic miracle?, during the 1960s, when the bicycle was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalized. Signs of this revolution are the velodromes which, like ancient cathedrals of a civic/sportive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, have nowadays been abandoned or transformed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foot ends with some reflections about the role of bicycle in today?s polluted and jammed Italian cities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bicycle history and the history of sportive cycling are not linked as they were until the 1950s. While ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bike had made a comeback? and its use has become a ?political issue?, professional cycling lives in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rarefied world of sponsors and technological advances?, stuck in its glorious past, and struggling ?to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recover from a doping epidemic, which has turned many fans away?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also features useful maps \(elaborated by John Gilkes\) and appendices as well as beautiful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting photographs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pedalare, Pedalare )] TJ ET BT 131.000 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an interesting and very well-written introductory book on Italian cycling, and through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, on Italian society. The author has used a large and rich bibliography. Moreover, Foot has drawn on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several contemporary newspapers and presents, in the pages about Fiorenzo Magni, some unedited archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his narrative, Foot has chosen to focus mainly on the biographies of the most important cyclists whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories, however, only partially illustrate Italian cycling. For instance, from this narrow point of view, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quick mention of the )] TJ ET BT 136.676 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gregari)] TJ ET BT 172.676 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp.145?7\) may seem enough. Yet it is inadequate for these athletes, who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very important in cycling history. There is a further important point to understand the social history of Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling, at least of the first half of the last century. Foot argues that Coppi, if born far from Novi Ligure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?perhaps would have never become ?Fausto Coppi?, and would have remained a delivery boy or have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a bricklayer? \(p. 106\). Probably Foot wishes to underline the importance of that town. Yet this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entails underestimating the widespread world of both local cycling clubs and bicycle?s workshops, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanics became the managers and trainers of many young cyclists from both urban and rural contexts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coppi could have become famous even if he had been born outside Novi Ligure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regard to the beginning of the history of Italian cycling, two further points need to be raised. First, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial to note that in 1909, year of the first )] TJ ET BT 245.648 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro)] TJ ET BT 268.316 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Italians had been following bicycle racing for about 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. In the 1880s the first national cyclist federation \(Unione Velocipedistica Italiana\) was constituted, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the next decade with the revolution of the ?safety bicycle? both riders and the public in northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian cities were ready to create the first sportive popular heroes, like Romolo Buni, the ?black devil?. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related second point concerns velodromes and track racing \(chapter ten\). Foot starts his narration with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling ?golden age?, without mentioning the initial beginning of the velodromes at the turn of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, when in many cities these facilities were being built. Therefore, overall, the few pages on the 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years before the first )] TJ ET BT 135.980 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giro)] TJ ET BT 158.648 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 11?14\) still leave the impression that Italian cycling history began in 1909.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis on the mythical character of the history of cycling deserves a mention. ?Myth? is a recurrent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word in Foot?s narrative. He tells readers about the lives of cyclists, but he also analyzes the circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which cycling myths were created. Nevertheless, the concept of myth itself should have been analyzed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater depth. I agree with Foot?s statement that myths ?are key to the ways in which national identities are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed and transmitted through the time? \(p. 141\), and that myth is a meaningful aspect of the modern )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 5803 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic/sportive religion. However, the interesting point is that by ?entering? into the history of cycling, Foot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not maintain enough distance from the cycling myth and in fact helps to feed it. This in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applies to Coppi?s myth. Although Foot tries to explain the Bartali-Coppi rivalry and the Bartali?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coppi?s myths in an analytical way \(chapter seven and 11\), his sympathies for Coppi are evident in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages of the book:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[Coppi?s] war was similar to that of many others ? and at the same time exceptional. His )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences were those of millions ? but he was also unique. This made Coppi and his story )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glamorous, out of reach, star-studded ? but also approachable, understandable, within the grasp )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ordinary people? \(p.109\).)] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Coppi?s victories were spectacular, dramatic, unrepeatable. They lived on in the memory and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bore endless retelling. They were the stuff of which dreams were made? \(pp.110?11\).)] TJ ET BT 64.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?At that moment, Coppi and Italy became one. They were fused together. A myth of endurance, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a superman in peasant?s clothing, had come into being ?? \(p. 111\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These passages, I think, support the Coppi myth but also show Foot?s empathy with Italian history, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to grasp and share the feelings of that time. This passion leads Foot even to change the chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order of the book, by placing Coppi?s chapter before that about Bartali, who was older and had started his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling career earlier than Coppi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I think )] TJ ET BT 68.684 417.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pedalare Pedalare)] TJ ET BT 159.668 417.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents a valuable resource for English readers and a very good overview also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Italian readers ? Italian readers may take advantage of the very rich bibliography of the book, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example the texts by Daniele Marchesini and Stefano Pivato. Foot?s main merit is having confronted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 374.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent period of Italian cycling history. This is not a ?golden? period of Italian cycling or of Italian society as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whole. For this reason, Foot argues, cyclists? fans search refuge in the memory of the great cyclists of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?golden era?: Binda, Coppi, Bartali. For Italian readers the last part of the book may be particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting. This is also due to Foot?s skill in entering into the subject and guiding the reader inside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Italian cycling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My final point concerns the editing, noting that there are some important quotations for which proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference is lacking \(for instance at pp. 255, 270, 271, 273\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 211.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In spite of that, the editor boasts on the rear-cover that the book is ?the first comprehensive history of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian cycling?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.332 197.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.332 196.131 m 195.320 196.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 171.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 142.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/may/20/pedalare-italian-cycling-foot-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 141.363 m 438.956 141.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 441.956 142.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 114.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/pedalare-pedalare-a-history-of-italian-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 112.851 m 530.240 112.851 l S BT 34.016 99.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cycling-by-john-foot-2280729.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 98.595 m 205.004 98.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 208.004 99.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spectator)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 71.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/6937183/wheels-of-fortune-.thtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 70.083 m 363.320 70.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.320 71.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Podium Cafe)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 42.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.podiumcafe.com/2011/5/24/2187256/PedalarePedalare)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 41.571 m 355.316 41.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.316 42.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.3317 196.4455 195.3197 208.3255 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 141.6775 438.9557 153.5575 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/may/20/pedalare-italian-cycling-foot-review) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 113.1655 530.2397 125.0455 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI 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