%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819093538+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819093538+01'00') /Title (Peaceful Kings. Peace, Power, and the Early Medieval Political Imagination) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4084 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Peaceful Kings. Peace, Power, and the Early Medieval Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Imagination)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?When medieval men and women thought and wrote about power in the early Middle Ages ? what it was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it should be, what it had been ? peace was never far from their thoughts? \(p. 271\). Thus writes Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kershaw in the last paragraph of this important work on the ideas behind rulership but it explains perfectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the previous 270-odd pages. A work on rulership, or kingship, in the Middle Ages will always follow a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trodden path, yet Kershaw has explored this topic through the largely ignored theme of peace, thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoiding overlapping with, but also complementing, other studies such as Gerd Althoff?s work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of gestures and ceremonies, Janet Nelson?s analysis of political ideas and kingship, and Patrick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wormald?s exploration of kings as lawgivers and lawmakers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.960 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.960 165.009 m 343.952 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his introduction, Kershaw explains that the purpose of the study is ?attempting to offer an analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early medieval ideas of what peace was, and how the central figure of the ruler created and maintained it? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15\). This is hence not a study of the peacemaking processes themselves or of the more practical application )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ideas to dispute settlement and conflict resolution. Kershaw sets out the framework of the book by asking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why early medieval kings articulated their authority in terms of peacekeeping and, in particular, why there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was so much talk about peace ?in a world often characterized by endemic violence? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1148)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Kershaw)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198208709)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenny Benham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.9597 165.3235 343.9517 177.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7252 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter explores what was meant by peace, from the writings of Bede to its roots in the Roman past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its survival in Christian thought, especially that of Augustine. Here, Kershaw follows a well-established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition among scholars of medieval political thought, taking up three themes: the classical, the scriptural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ?Germanic?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.980 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.980 740.307 m 146.972 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 146.972 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Most interesting, to this particular historian anyway, is his treatment of the second of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these themes in this chapter and throughout the book. Kershaw points out that many scriptural passages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered instances of peace that early medieval people ?would have found readily comprehensible within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of their own lives? \(p. 52\), with accounts of war and peace making frequent appearances in the books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Old Testament. In particular, he highlights the importance of Solomon as the ideal ruler: ?just judge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anointed and divinely chosen monarch, warrior, prophet, peacemaker, builder, exorcist, and a king renowned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his wealth and famed, above all, for his wisdom? \(p. 57\). The centrality of Solomon is, rightly, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurring theme of the book as a whole, linking the ideas and writings of Vandal Africa in the 5th and 6th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries to those of the court of Louis the Pious in the 9th.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two is in many ways the most interesting chapter in the book for no other reason than that it often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with geographical areas that are lesser known to students and less frequently studied by scholars. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter deals with the post-Roman period, ?a world of sustained uncertainty in which peace was a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodity? and shows how rulers attempted to project ?images of themselves as the embodiments of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulership, as keepers of the peace? \(p. 76\). Here, the Vandal kingdoms, Burgundy, Ostrogothic Italy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Visigothic Spain serve as interesting case studies before the book arrives at the more familiar Merovingian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three covers the age of Charlemagne, analysing and discussing the theme of peace and the increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on ?ideal forms?, including ideal kingship. He notes that ?peace was part of Carolingian claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power from its birth? \(p. 133\) and that by the end of the 9th century ?peace had become Charlemagne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy to his descendants ? part of the Carolingian myth of themselves? \(p. 136\). The author shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the works of a number of writers, including Alcuin, and the central event of Charlemagne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coronation on Christmas Day 800, the Carolingian ruler came to be identified as a great and peacemaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor. Its meaning was ?simultaneously resonant of Byzantine titulature and the language of acclamations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? but also part of the home-grown language of Christian rulership fostered in court circles? \(p. 165\). In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, Kershaw argues, Solomon emerges as the dominant figure in political theory, possibly because of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepening concern among scholars with the scriptural past \(p. 144?5\). Yet, in the next chapter \(four\), he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that it was Louis the Pious not Charlemagne who came to be associated with Solomon. Louis? long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and complex reign resulted in writers offering both lessons and praise for the king as peacemaker. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular chapter also offers useful discussions of well-known events such as the baptism of Harald Klak, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fontenoy and the Strasbourg oaths in a context of peaceful rulership. In the second part of the chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kershaw deals with the reign of Charles the Bald and the writings emanating from his court and those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding it, presenting the king as a new Solomon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the penultimate chapter we arrive in Anglo-Saxon England, where Kershaw detects some distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences to the Carolingian world. Primarily these concern the available sources as there are few political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracts from the 8th and 9th centuries \(p. 241\). Generally, Solomon also seems to make less frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearances in the Anglo-Saxon sources \(even though King Alfred himself clearly emphasised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of wisdom\) or, at least, Kershaw?s selected extracts and discussion make it appear so. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortest chapter in the book and could perhaps have benefitted from an expansion in the time frame to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 11th century for a fuller discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concluding section of the book traces some of the enduring links between peace and rulership in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and early modern periods. In particular, the author highlights how the 10th and 11th centuries saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the survival and development in the east Frankish kingdom of many of the themes discussed in the earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters. Kershaw explains the enduring theme of peaceful rulership as lying in the ?constant necessity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings to have their authority recognized and their regimes acknowledged on some level as legitimate? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(269\). His conclusion also clarifies the arguments of the previous chapters with a brief overview at the end.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.9797 740.6215 146.9717 752.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5604 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an impressive and scholarly account of an interesting subject, which adds significantly to the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate about kingship in this period. The book is loosely based on the author?s PhD thesis and it shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progression, development, and maturity of his thoughts over a period of ten years. Kershaw demonstrates an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent command of the evidence and each chapter is wonderfully illustrated with extracts and quotations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a variety of sources. The chapters also contain generous footnotes referring to lesser known but widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available research in continental Europe. The bibliography is, for limits of space, select and it would perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been useful to have the primary sources listed separately, yet it lists the most important works and there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is much here in English that will be useful to a student.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to praise in this book. However, while the prose is beautiful it is not always clear. At times, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a bit dense and it was occasionally hard to follow where the argument was going. The author has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always signposted his ideas clearly to show how and where his views differ to those of other scholars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, if I may offer one thought on the content, it is a shame that the discussion on the Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms \(or on what would become England\) is so short. For instance, the conclusion, which discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later developments of peaceful rulership in the east Frankish kingdom, could have been usefully compared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a similar discussion of this development in England during the 11th and early 12th centuries. Here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors writing about the reign of Edward the Confessor provide much evidence of Solomonic ideals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus of the enduring relationship between the idea of peace and rulership. Nevertheless, these are perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churlish criticisms of a book that will provide medieval historians with much food for thought and is a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of reference for seasoned scholars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some examples, see Gerd Althoff, )] TJ ET BT 249.980 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spielregeln der Politik im Mittelalter: Kommunikation in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frieden und Fehde)] TJ ET BT 155.996 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Darmstadt, 1997\); idem., )] TJ ET BT 286.316 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family, Friends and Followers. Political and Social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bonds in Early Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 221.996 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, tr. C. Carroll \(Cambridge, 2004\); Janet L. Nelson, ?Kingship, law )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and liturgy in the political thought of Hincmar of Rheims?, English Historical Review, 93 \(1977\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idem., ?The political ideas of Alfred of Wessex?, in )] TJ ET BT 315.296 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kings and Kingship in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 508.964 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duggan \(London, 1993\); Patrick Wormald, )] TJ ET BT 274.988 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of English Law: King Alfred to the Twelfth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century)] TJ ET BT 102.680 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1999\); idem., )] TJ ET BT 217.664 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legal Culture in the Early Medieval West: Law as Text, Image and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience)] TJ ET BT 117.992 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.316 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.316 349.155 m 253.304 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For one example, see J. M. 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