%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 45 0 R 56 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723024429+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723024429+01'00') /Title (Hayden White: The Historical Imagination) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4484 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hayden White: The Historical Imagination)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hayden White is a controversial figure in the world of history. Study any textbook on the theory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy of history, and you will be assured that his 1973 book )] TJ ET BT 351.008 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 409.004 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( marked a revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning point in historical theory. It marked what came to be known as the ?linguistic turn? in historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, and has inspired legions of acolytes whose reverence for the master at times verges on embarrassing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 229.161 m 48.008 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet at the same time his influence on the actual practice of history and historical writing has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually zero. As Paul puts it in his introduction, Dominic LaCapra?s paean that ?no-one writing history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this country has done more to wake historians from their dogmatic slumber than Hayden White? \(pp. 1?2\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains more than a certain amount of wishful thinking. It is this controversy over the precise influence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White has had on the historical profession ? and moreover, what White himself has actually tried to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the process of historical writing ? that makes him a suitable candidate for Polity Press? )] TJ ET BT 483.296 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thinkers)] TJ ET BT 76.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series. Paul wrote on White for his PhD dissertation, and has consulted White at length in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the former project and the current book. His aim in this book is to try and clear away the built-up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detritus of secondary interpretation that has built up around White?s work over the years, in order to ?offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sensitive interpretation of White?s philosophy by explaining not what others have said about White, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but what White himself might have wanted to say? \(p 6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the vastness and diversity of White?s oeuvre, attempting to impose ? dare we say form? ? onto his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1149)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herman Paul)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745650142)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Timmins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 229.4755 48.0077 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8686 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is a difficult task. White is a difficult figure to pigeon-hole. One of the terms most often associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with White is ?tropes?; but as Paul notes, anyone who is content to label White as a tropologist has to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the anomaly of )] TJ ET BT 133.340 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Content of the Form)] TJ ET BT 252.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which hardly features the word \(p. 9\). If not a tropologist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then surely White can be categorized as a narrativist? This claim is on more solid ground, as White has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always tended to favour dealing with the finished product of historians' labours over looking at actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical practice. And yet ?few commentators reading White through narrative lenses have been able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain )] TJ ET BT 72.344 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 91.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( White was so eager to emphasise the artificial, fictive and anti-realist nature of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2010 a collection of White?s essays was published under the title )] TJ ET BT 362.636 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiction of Narrative)] TJ ET BT 480.308 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.308 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.308 669.027 m 497.300 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.300 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If White?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous compilations of essays were ?best ofs?, then there is a temptation to see )] TJ ET BT 424.952 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fiction)] TJ ET BT 459.620 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as ?the rest of? ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of leftover odds and ends omitted from the previous collections. Yet the collection was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelation ? in the sense that it showed there was a lot more to White than a seeming obsession with tropes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the editor of the volume remarked, White?s previous collections of essays were based around texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?selected, and in many cases revised or rewritten, to cleave to a specific theme ...?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.240 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.240 597.747 m 445.232 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.232 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Paul correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, in order to understand White we must begin not in 1973 with the publication of )] TJ ET BT 471.332 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 529.328 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least 20 years further back. As White?s defenders/ supporters never tire of pointing out, White studied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval history at university, and wrote his PhD thesis on the Papal schism of 1130, spending two years in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy in the Vatican archives. Paul argues that during the 1950s and early 1960s, White had three key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences: Max Weber, Carlo Antoni & Benedetto Croce. The influence of Weber hung heavily over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White?s dissertation, which utilised Weberian ?ideal types? to characterize the competing schools of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregorio Papereschi and Pietro Pierlione as adhering to ?charismatic? and ?bureaucratic? leadership ideals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively \(p. 18\). Weber?s ideas also continued to play a part in most of White?s output in the 1950s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White?s ?essays on Collingwood, Toynbee and Dawson ... reflected the same fascination for worldviews and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate beliefs that characterized his medievalist studies? \(p. 24\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While in Italy, White met Carlo Antoni, and thus was introduced to the work of Benedetto Croce. Antoni )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was distrustful of German sociology, and wrote a Crocean book which White translated into English as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From History to Sociology)] TJ ET BT 162.344 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Antoni argued there was no such thing as timeless or ideal types, and ahistorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to history are doomed to fail. Instead, Antoni put forth a ?fully historicized understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human thought? \(p. 26\). In the introduction to the translation, White avoided doing a full u-turn with regards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his own Weberian predilections, but agreed with Antoni that ?Weber?s naturalistic historicism put too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little emphasis on how ?history? differs from ?nature? and that, consequently, it ran the risk of ignoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom and responsibility that, above all things, distinguish the human from the animal? \(p. 28\). In 1961?2, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White returned to Italy, ostensibly to study the relation between science and social thought in Italy between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1543?1643. However, he published nothing on the Renaissance, but did produce a piece on Croce, ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abiding relevance of Croce?s idea of history?, an essay that reads, in Paul?s words, ?in its American context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the confession of an emerging heretic? \(p. 29\). White?s enthusiasm for Croce stemmed not from the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history as art, but rather, ?the emphasis on the complexity of things and the impossibility of fitting reality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a single formula? \(p. 29\). There is no such thing as a fixed human nature; and isms such as Marxism are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always doomed to fail. Human ?beings always have to make up their own minds how to act? \(p. 31\). As in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Croce?s work, the idea of freedom would loom large in the work of White. In what we might call the ?Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period? of White?s work then, we see a shift from questions )] TJ ET BT 325.292 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 334.628 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history to questions )] TJ ET BT 434.636 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(about)] TJ ET BT 461.972 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as late as 1964 he would refer to himself as a medievalist, ?his work became increasingly focused not on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution of historical problems, but on questions of how the past should be studied, what benefits result from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a study, or how human beings can be liberated from a false sense of history? \(pp. 33?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1966 White made his first significant impact as a historical theorist ? with an article entitled ?The burden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history?. It was published in )] TJ ET BT 185.672 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 279.668 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which for its first five years had largely been concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with refinements of what had come to be known as the analytic philosophy of history. The content of ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burden of history?, though, was a far cry from the world of covering laws and narrative sentences; White )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred to invoke ?literary characters, often from modernist novels and plays, as witnesses against a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical way of thinking? \(p. 38\). The main theme of White?s essay was that in the present day the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.3077 669.3415 497.2997 681.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.2397 598.0615 445.2317 609.9415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 9435 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian was something of an anachronism. The days in which the likes of Michelet and De Tocqueville had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a major role in European intellectual life had gone. How could historians regain their relevance? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White argued that trying to trace a line from the past to the present was futile; ?On the contrary, we require a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history that will educate us to discontinuity more than ever before; for discontinuity, disruption, and chaos is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our lot?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 74.012 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 74.012 738.051 m 88.004 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 88.004 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This links in with White?s ideas on human freedom of action; if ?human beings learn to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as disconnected from the past ... they may come to realize what an enormous amount of freedom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they enjoy? \(pp. 38?9\). The job of the present-day historian was ?to re-establish the dignity of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies on a basis that will make them consonant with the aims and purposes of the intellectual community at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large, that is, transform historical studies in such a way as to allow the historian to participate positively in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liberation of the present from t)] TJ ET BT 198.656 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(he burden of history)] TJ ET BT 295.652 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.980 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.980 666.771 m 317.972 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.972 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At this moment in time White was in a half-way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house ? the medievalist of the 1950s was a thing of the past, but although his tone was more radical, he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not yet graduated to the rejection of scientific history that characterised his later years. Paul calls White?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought at this juncture ?liberation historiography?, and argues that the article ?illustrates how important it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see White not as a philosopher of professional historiography, but as a politically engaged thinker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned about the relations that people develop with their pasts? \(p. 41\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an address delivered in Toronto in 1969 \( later published as ?The politics of contemporary philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?\), White argued that historians that refrained from voicing personal political opinions were seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practising ?straight history?, while those that explicate politically radical views are seen as doing ?meta-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?. The latter term would resurface four years later as the title of his most famous work, a thumping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448 page tome entitled )] TJ ET BT 146.672 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in the Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 469.664 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As one might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expect with a book of this size, at times it seems there are several disparate books ? or several Hayden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whites ? struggling to emerge from its pages. Indeed, Hans Kellner has taken to referring to it as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistories)] TJ ET BT 100.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 58\). It is very much a work of its time, in that like contemporaries Thomas Kuhn and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Foucault, White is very much concerned with historizication and discontinuity. The historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession was not formed in a vacuum; and historical practice was not a matter of )] TJ ET BT 433.604 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 470.612 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rules. Rather, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of White?s teaching assistants put it, ?what I got from it all was that history had a history? \(p. 62\). In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seminal book )] TJ ET BT 101.348 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Structure of Scientific Revolutions)] TJ ET BT 286.676 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Kuhn had argued that there was no neutral algorithm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could be invoked to decide between competing scientific theories.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.960 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.960 398.163 m 385.952 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.952 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, White argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history ?could be practised in radically different ways, each of which, in principle, was equally legitimate? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 61\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul argues that so far as White?s thought is concerned, )] TJ ET BT 304.964 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 362.960 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( blended some familiar themes with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some new departures. A new strain in White?s thinking was his concern with irony. His use of the term was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat vague ? one reviewer distinguished no less than 20 variants of the word.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.948 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.948 314.883 m 445.940 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.940 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Near the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, historical writing had ?plunged? into a condition of irony and remained ?locked? into it ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since \(p. 63\). How could history escape from the ironists? cage? White?s answer was to perform a sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual judo; to turn the ironic paradigm against itself using its own weight. )] TJ ET BT 417.992 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 475.988 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was cast in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ironic mode; but ?the irony which informs it is a conscious one, and it therefore represents a turning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ironic consciousness against itself?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.328 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.328 243.603 m 219.320 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 219.320 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this he, as Paul notes, was heavily indebted to Nietzsche?s ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on showing how history is historically conditioned in order to make way for creative artistic perspectives on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past as shown in )] TJ ET BT 133.676 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 234.680 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the charges of relativism that have been levelled at White throughout his career, Paul is at pains to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress that the forcing open of the ironists? cage does not leave historians free to write whatever they please. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although White frequently challenges the )] TJ ET BT 238.316 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(authority)] TJ ET BT 282.320 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that historians bestow on practises such as archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research or source criticism, he does not advocate doing away with them. Nor does he hold that there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference between the writing of history and the writing of fiction, or that there are no criteria for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishing between good and bad historiography. Rather, White?s point was that ?the various forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?realism? available to historians all presuppose a ?precritically? conceived idea of how reason relates to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreason? \(p. 68\). The trouble is, however, that, if White?s work was concerned with metahistorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefigurations of the ?real?, why did the book claim to treat the historian?s work ?as what it most manifestly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is: a verbal structure in the form of a narrative prose discourse??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.932 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.932 60.531 m 356.924 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 356.924 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paul?s answer is that in addition to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 74.0117 738.3655 88.0037 750.2455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.9797 667.0855 317.9717 678.9655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.9597 398.4775 385.9517 410.3575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.9477 315.1975 445.9397 327.0775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.3277 243.9175 219.3197 255.7975 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.9317 60.8455 356.9237 72.7255 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 8993 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White?s already prevalent interest in Vico, he was now falling under the influence of structuralist linguistics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the rhetoric used in )] TJ ET BT 149.660 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 207.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a hodgepodge of ideas taken from the likes of Northrop Frye, Karl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mannheim and Kenneth Burke, to name but three \(p. 76\). This might account in part for the tension that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became apparent the further one read through )] TJ ET BT 255.608 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 313.604 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. On one hand, White was keen to stress that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(task of a new form of history was to liberate; but on the other the theory of tropes and emplotments that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White constructed seemed to be putting structuralist bars around these potentially liberating accounts. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, ?the introduction and conclusion to )] TJ ET BT 258.320 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 316.316 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reflected a shift of emphasis from an unqualified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom of the imagination to linguistic modes through which that imagination defines what counts as real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history? \(p. 79\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A cynic might argue that there is a slight gloss to Paul?s contention that post-)] TJ ET BT 405.332 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 463.328 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?encouraged also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the rather enthusiastic reception of his tropology among students of literature, White began to put his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope in novelists and film directors rather than historians? \(p. 80\). True enough; but what is left unsaid here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that ? contrary to the Whiggish narrative that posits )] TJ ET BT 294.656 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 352.652 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as inaugurating the triumphant march of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the linguistic turn in history ? by and large, historians were not so much hostile as simply uninterested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White?s arguments. In a sense he had no-one to blame but himself ? statements such as ?I am a relativist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?there can be no such thing as a non-relativistic representation of historical reality?, although uttered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly for provocative effect, tended to overshadow the nuance and depth of his arguments \(p. 96\). There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has always been more to White?s arguments than the simplistic ?anything goes? accusation that many a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernist has been tagged with.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.000 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.000 526.467 m 228.992 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.992 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( During the 1970s, White attempted to further define his position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while at the same time developing his interest in literary theory. This lead to charges that White was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relativist, but rather, a linguistic determinist. But despite some extremely strong statements in support of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of theories of languages that Foucault was putting forward, White never quite let go of the humanism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was the hallmark of much of his pre-)] TJ ET BT 231.980 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 289.976 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( work. In particular, the attack on Derrida in his essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The absurdist moment in contemporary literary theory? put many a poststructuralist theorist?s nose out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joint. Paul argues that White spent most of the 1970?s struggling with the tensions exhibited in )] TJ ET BT 492.344 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? how to reconcile the autonomy of language with the autonomy of the human subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1980s, White turned his attention to narrative, developing a position succinctly expressed in the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his second collection of essays, )] TJ ET BT 200.324 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Content of the Form)] TJ ET BT 318.992 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Narratives were not found; they were invented. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead of ?revealing the true essence of past reality, historical narrative imposes a mythic structure on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events it purports to describe? \(p. 113\). However, whereas other anti-realist narrativists such as Louis Mink )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Frank Ankersmit tended to present epistemological arguments, White?s reasoning was metaphysical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading back from his humanism. To think of life as narratively structured would ?deprive history of the kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of meaninglessness which alone can goad the moral sense of living human beings to make their lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different for themselves and their children, which is to say, to endow their lives with a meaning for which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they alone are fully responsible?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.980 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.980 286.371 m 212.972 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 212.972 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the turn of the 1990s, White?s philosophy came face to face with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the event that most historians regard as a touchstone of historical realism. Could the Holocaust be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?emplotted? as a comedy or a romance, as ultimately implied in )] TJ ET BT 343.304 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 401.300 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? White argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust belonged to a special class of events, )] TJ ET BT 265.640 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modernist events)] TJ ET BT 346.628 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 130\). Modernist events had three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying components that differentiated them from what had gone before. Firstly, these events could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not have taken place without modern technologies. Secondly, these events call ?into question the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherited categories and conventions that the twentieth century West is most familiar with?. Finally, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events resist historizication \(pp. 131?2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As an introduction to the thought and work of Hayden White, it is hard to see this volume being surpassed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for some considerable time. Paul not only has a comprehensive familiarly with White?s published output, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also has spoken with him at length about his work. One of the main reasons that White has been given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a cool reception by historians is that his supporters such as Keith Jenkins ? in presenting a bowdlerised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of White )] TJ ET BT 117.668 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oeuvre)] TJ ET BT 150.320 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in order to further their own agendas ? have regrettably done more harm than good.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 89.043 m 54.008 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paul fully captures White?s thought, and presents him not as a caricature historical relativist in thrall to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary theory, but as a committed humanist thinker who sees a greater role for historical writing than simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that should be undertaken ?for its own sake?. In particular the first two chapters covering White?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.9997 526.7815 228.9917 538.6615 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.9797 286.6855 212.9717 298.5655 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 89.3575 54.0077 101.2375 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 6754 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early pieces should go some way to correcting the misconception that White?s career began in 1973 with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of )] TJ ET BT 104.012 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 162.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. I still remain to be convinced that White?s impact on historical writing is as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great as the current narratives claim; but he certainly is an original thinker, whose work always stimulates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if one does not always agree with the conclusions.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 727.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for instance, Alun Munslow, )] TJ ET BT 224.996 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Future of History)] TJ ET BT 329.996 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.656 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.656 726.051 m 486.644 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 713.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hayden White, )] TJ ET BT 139.664 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiction of Narrative : Essays on History, Literature and Theory 1957?2007)] TJ ET BT 64.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Baltimore, MD, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.340 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.340 697.539 m 235.328 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 684.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Doran, ?Editors? introduction?, in White, )] TJ ET BT 301.652 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fiction of Narrative)] TJ ET BT 419.324 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. xiii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.332 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.332 683.283 m 510.320 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 670.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White, ?The burden of history?, )] TJ ET BT 220.316 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 314.312 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(1966\), 134.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.304 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.304 669.027 m 442.292 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 656.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 124.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.348 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.348 654.771 m 176.336 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 641.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Kuhn, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Structure of Scientific Revolutions)] TJ ET BT 323.672 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 1962\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.988 640.515 m 481.976 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 627.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Nelson, ?Review of )] TJ ET BT 187.664 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 245.660 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 256.988 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 350.984 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 \(1975\), 81. There are echoes here of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Masterman discerning 21 different uses of the word ?paradigm? in Kuhn?s Structure. See )] TJ ET BT 64.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masterman, ?The nature of a paradigm?, in )] TJ ET BT 274.292 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge)] TJ ET BT 466.640 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Musgrave )] TJ ET BT 64.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Lakatos \(Cambridge, 1970\), pp. 61?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.984 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.984 583.491 m 320.972 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 570.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hayden White, )] TJ ET BT 139.664 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metahistory)] TJ ET BT 197.660 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, MD, 1973\), p. xii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.656 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.656 569.235 m 402.644 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 556.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. ix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.684 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.684 554.979 m 167.672 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 542.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, there are many postmodernists that do deserve this tag, although here is not the place to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enunciate names.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.660 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.660 526.467 m 206.648 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 513.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White, ?The politics of historical interpretation?, reprinted in )] TJ ET BT 359.972 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Content of the Form)] TJ ET BT 478.640 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MD, 1987\), p. 72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.344 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.344 497.955 m 210.332 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 485.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for instance, Keith Jenkins , )] TJ ET BT 221.324 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What Is History Now? From Carr & Elton to Rorty and White)] TJ ET BT 64.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 469.443 m 202.328 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 427.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 410.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 410.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1149)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 408.681 m 328.316 408.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 383.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7792)] TJ ET endstream endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.6557 726.3655 486.6437 738.2455 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.3397 697.8535 235.3277 709.7335 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.3317 683.5975 510.3197 695.4775 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.3037 669.3415 442.2917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.3477 655.0855 176.3357 666.9655 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.9877 640.8295 481.9757 652.7095 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.9837 583.8055 320.9717 595.6855 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6557 569.5495 402.6437 581.4295 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.6837 555.2935 167.6717 567.1735 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.6597 526.7815 206.6477 538.6615 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.3437 498.2695 210.3317 510.1495 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 50 0 R >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 469.7575 202.3277 481.6375 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 53 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 408.9955 328.3157 420.8755 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1149) >> endobj xref 0 84 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000005175 00000 n 0000005284 00000 n 0000005394 00000 n 0000005503 00000 n 0000009064 00000 n 0000009192 00000 n 0000009276 00000 n 0000009305 00000 n 0000009431 00000 n 0000009467 00000 n 0000009558 00000 n 0000018297 00000 n 0000018327 00000 n 0000018455 00000 n 0000018491 00000 n 0000018521 00000 n 0000018649 00000 n 0000018685 00000 n 0000018804 00000 n 0000028292 00000 n 0000028322 00000 n 0000028448 00000 n 0000028484 00000 n 0000028514 00000 n 0000028642 00000 n 0000028678 00000 n 0000028708 00000 n 0000028836 00000 n 0000028872 00000 n 0000028902 00000 n 0000029030 00000 n 0000029066 00000 n 0000029096 00000 n 0000029224 00000 n 0000029260 00000 n 0000029290 00000 n 0000029416 00000 n 0000029452 00000 n 0000029550 00000 n 0000038596 00000 n 0000038626 00000 n 0000038754 00000 n 0000038790 00000 n 0000038820 00000 n 0000038948 00000 n 0000038984 00000 n 0000039014 00000 n 0000039139 00000 n 0000039175 00000 n 0000039343 00000 n 0000046150 00000 n 0000046278 00000 n 0000046333 00000 n 0000046461 00000 n 0000046516 00000 n 0000046644 00000 n 0000046699 00000 n 0000046827 00000 n 0000046882 00000 n 0000047010 00000 n 0000047065 00000 n 0000047193 00000 n 0000047248 00000 n 0000047376 00000 n 0000047431 00000 n 0000047559 00000 n 0000047614 00000 n 0000047742 00000 n 0000047797 00000 n 0000047925 00000 n 0000047980 00000 n 0000048108 00000 n 0000048163 00000 n 0000048291 00000 n 0000048346 00000 n 0000048474 00000 n trailer << /Size 84 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48570 %%EOF