%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818081021+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818081021+01'00') /Title (Blasphemy in Modern Britain: 1789 to the Present) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4558 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Blasphemy in Modern Britain: 1789 to the Present)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As David Nash correctly observes in the opening sentence of his stimulating study of the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy in modern Britain, 'In modern British society each successive generation complacently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congratulates itself that blasphemy is a curious and even fascinating anachronism.' Yet each generation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including our own, is apt to discover that, far from being a mere anachronism, the phenomenon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy - its meaning, its perceived reality, and its status and significance for contemporary British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and culture - remains a living and urgent issue. And it is one, moreover, that is now intimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected to issues of both individual and communal rights in an increasingly plural and multi-cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. )] TJ ET BT 74.012 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blasphemy in Modern Britain: 1789 to the Present )] TJ ET BT 320.660 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a valuable survey of the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy in Britain, and of many of the debates surrounding it, from the late eighteenth century until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction helpfully identifies a number of important themes and issues that subsequently prove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to the author's account and analysis of the phenomenon of blasphemy in modern Britain. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, Nash emphasises the persistent difficulty that has been experienced in providing a satisfactory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of blasphemy; the fact that in Britain blasphemy has historically protected only Christianity \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably only the Christianity of the Church of England\); and the trend in recent cases towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection not simply of Christian doctrines but of the sensibilities or 'feelings' of Christians. He also notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the frequent linkage between accusations of blasphemy and the perception that blasphemers constitute a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat to the moral fabric of society, as well as the clear relationship between prosecutions for blasphemy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and issues of class. Finally - and importantly - Nash suggests that, whilst the issue of blasphemy inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads to the question of the appropriate relationship between the state and religion, late twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(115)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Nash)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald Parsons)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7257 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British debates about blasphemy have tended to indicate the power of particular religious communities to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert the claims of religious values 'from below', whilst the role of the state itself has appeared increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter traces the origins and development of the law of blasphemy in Britain from the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early modern periods to the late nineteenth century. Focusing on the crucial distinction between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('matter' and the 'manner' of the alleged offence, Nash outlines the transition from the absolute priority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('matter' of an alleged blasphemy as defined in the Hale dictum of the late seventeenth century, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion of the greater importance of the 'manner' of an alleged blasphemy, as defined in the Coleridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictum of 1883. The latter judgement, it is noted, then formed the basis of judicial interpretation of the law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of blasphemy until the )] TJ ET BT 144.680 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 193.676 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case of 1977. Chapter two then addresses the theme of blasphemy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory. The theoretical perspectives offered by postmodernism, Foucauldian analysis, Edward Said's concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Orientalism, and the secularisation thesis are each outlined and critically evaluated. Whilst noting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially valuable insights that such theoretical approaches may offer at certain points, the author is, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, persuasively sceptical about their more extreme claims to explanatory validity and suggests that, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial points, such theoretical approaches may actually cloud or distort central issues in the interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of blasphemy in modern Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then follows a series of six case-studies of particular stages in the history of blasphemy in modern Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three examines the spate of prosecutions for blasphemy between the end of the eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the middle of the nineteenth. Beginning with the prosecution of the London bookseller Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams in 1797 and concluding with that of Thomas Pooley in 1857, it also discusses the prosecutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Isaac Eaton, James Williams, William Hone, Richard Carlile and his supporters, Robert Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Hetherington, Charles Southwell, George Jacob Holyoake, and Thomas Paterson. The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the role of evangelical opinion - especially through the Society for the Suppression of Vice - in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing prosecutions and focusing the attention of the authorities upon the issue of blasphemy. He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses the emergence of links between opposition to blasphemy and concern over the morality and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline of the lower classes, and notes the emergence of the association of 'enemies of religion' with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('enemies of the British constitution'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four analyses in detail the case of G.W.Foote and the prosecution of)] TJ ET BT 401.276 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Freethinker)] TJ ET BT 481.928 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1883. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case was particularly important, Nash argues, because of Foote's deliberate use of the new mass journalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and because it was the occasion for Lord Chief Justice Coleridge's rejection of the Hale dictum that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity was part and parcel of the law of the land. Henceforth, according to Coleridge, the manner of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged blasphemy was to be of central significance: one might deny Christianity provided that the decencies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of controversy were observed, respectable opinion was not outraged, and there was, therefore, no threat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public order. Nash also focuses on James Fitzjames Stephen's telling critique of Coleridge's apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('liberalisation' of the law regarding blasphemy and notes his call for the removal of the law rather than its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modification in the way proposed by Coleridge - not least because of the power given to public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Coleridge's interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five reviews the sequence of prosecutions for blasphemy between 1903 and the early 1920s, brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against, successively, Ernest Pack, Harry Boulter, Thomas William Stewart and John W.Gott. Here Nash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws attention to the deliberately hard-hitting nature of the blasphemies committed by these four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigners and their close association with both Socialism and the dissemination of birth control literature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the author also shows how these cases not only cemented the popular association between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy, sexual heterodoxy and moral panics, but also had the effect of moving the law in a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative direction by further emphasising the role of public opinion in defining what might be regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as offensive to religious people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six then examines the various attempts at repeal of the blasphemy laws during the inter-war period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coupled with the proposal to introduce new laws, relating to public order, protecting all religions. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter notes the unwillingness of successive governments to engage with the issue; their preference for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the matter to Private Member's Bills; and the belief in the Home Office that the Coleridge dictum )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7989 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was sufficient to adapt the existing law through the 'manner/matter' distinction and the 'decency of debate' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criterion. It also notes that the Parliamentary Committee stage of the 1930 bill for repeal recognised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties - amounting to practical impossibility - of defining 'religion' in a new law, and the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posed by leaving juries to decide what constituted both religion itself and an outrageous attack upon religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than fair criticism. There was also, Nash correctly suggests, a failure to see that the Coleridge dictum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could easily be used to shift the law in a conservative direction - especially if power was given to grass-roots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian opinion through such reliance on public opinion, expressed through the verdicts of juries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy cases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven provides a telling case-study - in the campaigns against the so-called 'Godless Congress' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1938 - of the way in which conservative grass-roots Christian opinion could indeed be mobilised in an effort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to extend the blasphemy laws, especially when closely allied to moral panic, right-wing pressure groups and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of the protection of 'Britishness' and 'British identity'. Although this particular campaign failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extend the blasphemy law, there is, Nash suggests, sufficient circumstantial evidence to suggest that a better-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drafted measure might have commanded significant sympathy and support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final case-study in chapter eight examines the )] TJ ET BT 277.964 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 326.960 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case of 1977 and thus amply demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power to influence the law on blasphemy enjoyed by conservative grass-roots Christian opinion. Nash shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how - again exploiting moral panic and the association of blasphemy with sexually heterodox behaviour - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prosecution in the )] TJ ET BT 140.672 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 189.668 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case successfully secured the decisive reversal of the 'manner/matter' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction established in the Coleridge dictum and returned the law to the position that had pertained prior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Coleridge's judgement in 1883. Moreover, as a result of the severe limitations placed upon the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert testimony in the )] TJ ET BT 147.344 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 196.340 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( trial, the primacy of public opinion in the definition of what constitutes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy was yet further enhanced. The verdict in the )] TJ ET BT 303.284 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 352.280 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( trial, Nash suggests, amounted to nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than 'a time-bomb ticking under the law'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the conclusion to the book reviews the current situation of the law on blasphemy in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising both the patently unsatisfactory nature of the legacy of the )] TJ ET BT 379.628 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 428.624 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case and the need for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear understanding of the history of this issue in order to address the unresolved tensions of its present state. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Nash points out, in the years since the )] TJ ET BT 235.328 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 284.324 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case, the issue of blasphemy has resurfaced, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably in the Rushdie affair, but also in relation to the actions of the British Board of Film Censors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their refusal to grant a certificate to the film )] TJ ET BT 246.968 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visions of Ecstasy)] TJ ET BT 334.304 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Moreover, in recent years - and especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wake of the controversy over)] TJ ET BT 191.636 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Satanic Verses)] TJ ET BT 286.628 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - the focus of debate has tended to shift towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the inequality of the existing blasphemy laws in their failure to protect the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities of religious believers other than Christians. Thus recent discussion of the law on blasphemy has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often proposed that modernisation of the law might mean its extension rather than its abolition. The danger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus remains that religious groups - especially those acting 'from below', from the grassroots - might seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move the law on blasphemy yet further in a threatening or restrictive direction. In modern culture, Nash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warns, blasphemy can easily represent 'a dangerously open door to those who might wish to profit from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of the offended.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blasphemy in Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 177.008 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important book. It provides an account, an analysis and an interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the modern history of an issue that, as the author insists, remains a matter of intense debate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy in our own day. David Nash is quite right in his insistence that a mature handling of the issue in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary society will require familiarity with its past - and his book should be read with care by anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplating participation in such contemporary discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not least because of this, it is therefore a pity that the production of the book has suffered from some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant weaknesses. Tighter editorial control and proof reading would have eliminated a number of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more notable errors in spelling and punctuation and might also have identified and addressed what appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be corrections or amendments that have been less than fully or satisfactorily integrated with the surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. A more liberal use of commas would also make many passages much easier to read. It appears from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction \(p.14\) that Part One of the book should consist of chapters one and two, whilst Part Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprises chapters three to nine. Unfortunately the Contents page places the division between the two parts )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after chapter three. The discussion of radical and critical movements within Christian theology in the 1970s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as part of the contextualisation of the )] TJ ET BT 218.984 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 267.980 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case\) is particularly disappointing and contains several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistakes: the editor of )] TJ ET BT 144.008 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Myth of God Incarnate)] TJ ET BT 275.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was John Hick \(not Higg\); the essays in that collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably 're-interpreted' the concept of the divinity of Christ rather than 'denying' it \(to say that they simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied it is to accept at face value the criticisms of their conservative opponents\); and the Gay Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movement was founded in 1975, not 1977.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of content, two critical points might be made. First, it is not clear that the chapter on blasphemy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory contributes greatly to Nash's argument. It is clear that the author is himself sceptical of the claims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and, indeed, his critique of the shortcomings of the theories considered is highly persuasive. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present reviewer, however, it is at least arguable that the space used for the discussion of theory might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been better deployed in addressing a number of examples omitted from the book. Thus, chapter three might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully have included a discussion of the 1867 case of )] TJ ET BT 301.304 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cowan v Milburn)] TJ ET BT 385.976 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, not least as an example of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing appeal to Hale's dictum, whilst the opening of chapter eight might have included some reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Lord Denning's judgement in 1949 that the law of blasphemy was by then a dead letter. Similarly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion might usefully have included at least brief reference to several other major contributions to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-)] TJ ET BT 58.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 107.012 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and post-Rushdie debates over blasphemy. These would certainly include the 1985 Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission Report on Offences Against Religion and Public Worship; the three Commission for Racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equality seminar reports, )] TJ ET BT 158.000 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law, Blasphemy and the Multi-Faith Society)] TJ ET BT 372.656 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 378.656 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Free Speech)] TJ ET BT 438.296 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 464.624 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain: a Plural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society)] TJ ET BT 68.672 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in 1990; and the )] TJ ET BT 202.004 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Second Review of the Race Relations Act 1976)] TJ ET BT 425.636 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published in 1992.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reference to these items leads readily to the second criticism of the content - or more accurately of the title - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book. The sub-title, )] TJ ET BT 161.672 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1789 to the Present)] TJ ET BT 255.332 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is problematic precisely because the author concentrates on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period 1789 to 1980 and specifically disclaims any attempt to address the Rushdie affair and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for the issue of blasphemy in any detail. Nash's reasons for so delimiting his study \(see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially page 12\) are persuasive. It is entirely reasonable to suggest that a historical study of the use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy laws in the last two hundred years should stop at the )] TJ ET BT 342.656 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 391.652 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case, and to argue that the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised by the Rushdie affair demand another separate study. But in that case the title and sub-title of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should have reflected this chronological limit - for it is certain that the consideration of blasphemy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Britain 'to the present' ought to include the debates to which the Rushdie affair gave rise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such criticisms notwithstanding, however, it would be both unfair and unreasonable to dwell on these at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense of recognising the significant and valuable strengths of the book. I have already suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blasphemy in Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 177.008 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides an essential historical context for contemporary discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of blasphemy, but in addition it is appropriate to single out two specific strengths of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the book reveals the essential instability and confusion that surrounded the history of blasphemy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain from the late nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. The Coleridge dictum was assumed - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by those in authority, including crucially the Home Office - to have provided a means of 'modernising' this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law without recourse to new legislation. By the 1920s it was clear that some sharper clarification was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desirable, but attempts to achieve this end came to nothing. And in 1977, the Coleridge dictum was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively reversed by the verdict in the )] TJ ET BT 230.960 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 279.956 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case. The Rushdie affair then re-opened debates about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possible extension of the blasphemy laws in a multi-faith society. )] TJ ET BT 368.660 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blasphemy in Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 511.652 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a timely reminder of the failure of earlier attempts to clarify, repeal, or extend the law on blasphemy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for that failure. The short but revealing chapter on the attempts at repeal or extension between 1913 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1938 is particularly valuable in this respect. The difficulties of definition encountered then would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly bedevil any attempt to extend the law to other religions today and the chapter should be required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading for anyone disposed to propose such a course of action.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, )] TJ ET BT 75.344 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blasphemy in Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 218.336 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( correctly identifies the role of public opinion in the definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blasphemy and the consequent potential power of grassroots religious activism 'from below' as a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial concern. The success of such grassroots activism in the )] TJ ET BT 356.300 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay News)] TJ ET BT 405.296 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case was a salutary warning. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequently, the power of such grassroots campaigning - especially when allied to the high profile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns of politically conservative leaders - was demonstrated again both in the debates over religious )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3780 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education during and after the passing of the 1988 Education Act, and in the passing of the controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clause 28 of the 1986 Local Government Act. The currently renewed controversy over the proposed repeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Clause 28 - and the powerful alliances between religious leaders of various faith communities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to repeal - suggests that the power and influence of resurgent and conservative religious forces in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Britain would be likely to make any extension of the blasphemy laws both increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrictive and potentially repressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consideration of the recent religious history of Britain suggests that any extension of the blasphemy laws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would tend to protect the opinions, beliefs and sensibilities only of those who belonged to major religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions. The opinions, beliefs and sensibilities of, for example, members of the many New Religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Movements in modern Britain, or of contemporary Pagans, or adherents of a variety of alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritualities would enjoy no such protection. And nor would the deeply held opinions, beliefs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities of non-believers, humanists, agnostics or atheists - despite the fact that, as James Fitzjames )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen pertinently argued in the context of )] TJ ET BT 247.652 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Freethinker)] TJ ET BT 325.304 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prosecution of 1883:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('All the more earnest and enthusiastic forms of religion are extremely offensive to )] TJ ET BT 94.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who do not believe them. Why should not people who are not Christians be )] TJ ET BT 94.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protected against the rough, coarse, ignorant ferocity with which they are often told )] TJ ET BT 94.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they and theirs are on the way to hell-fire for ever and ever?')] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nash uses that quotation from Stephen in his discussion of F.W.Foote and )] TJ ET BT 392.672 470.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Freethinker)] TJ ET BT 470.324 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prosecution. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes his own study of blasphemy with the judgement that, 'In modern Britain we should avoid the path )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of extension which beckons so seductively to some.' He is quite right - and his book is a persuasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration of the reasons for that judgement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 382.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 364.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 364.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/115)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 362.937 m 322.316 362.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 337.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/710)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 363.2515 322.3157 375.1315 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/115) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000005359 00000 n 0000005469 00000 n 0000005578 00000 n 0000009139 00000 n 0000009267 00000 n 0000009351 00000 n 0000009416 00000 n 0000016726 00000 n 0000016791 00000 n 0000024833 00000 n 0000024898 00000 n 0000033659 00000 n 0000033743 00000 n 0000037576 00000 n 0000037704 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37799 %%EOF