%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140419004846+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140419004846+01'00') /Title (British Prime Ministers and Democracy: From Disraeli to Blair) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3905 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(British Prime Ministers and Democracy: From Disraeli to Blair)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Addressing the Joint Session of Congress in 2003, Tony Blair issued a stirring defence of the democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea. Words like ?freedom? and ?democracy?, he declared, were not ?American values or Western values?:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 235.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They are the universal values of the human spirit and anywhere, any time, ordinary people are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the chance to choose, the choice is the same. Freedom, not tyranny. Democracy, not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.680 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.680 205.161 m 137.672 205.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 168.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was a view that would have surprised many of his predecessors. As Roland Quinault reminds us in his new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, democracy in its modern form is of remarkably recent vintage. Britain retained a restricted franchise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well into the 20th century; indeed, John Major was the first prime minister born under universal suffrage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For most of the 19th century, democracy was a term of parliamentary rebuke; and as late as 1927, the )] TJ ET BT 523.580 125.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mail)] TJ ET BT 56.684 111.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( campaigned furiously against extending women?s suffrage. Slowly, however, universal suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established itself as the founding principle of British politics, with democracy as its civic religion. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a revolution in both the practice and ideology of the British state, and it forms the subject of )] TJ ET BT 478.304 82.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministers and Democracy)] TJ ET BT 158.660 68.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1150)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roland Quinault)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781441104281)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(302pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Saunders)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.6797 205.4755 137.6717 217.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7315 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quinault selects ten prime ministers for study, mining their speeches and publications for democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary. There is no shortage of material, an indication both of the novelty of democracy and of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived fragility. Quinault?s timescale encompasses two World Wars, the Cold War and a ?War on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terror?, all of which could be narrated as struggles for democracy. Lloyd George declared democracy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peril from Tory aristocrats, Ulster unionists and even the opponents of conscription, while Baldwin accused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade unionists of menacing ?everything for which democracy stands? \(p. 105\). Churchill warned of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist ?Gestapo?, and Thatcher found enemies of democracy in the trade unions, the Labour party and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Commission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For most of this period, democracy had to operate alongside a competing political language: that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism. Quinault?s treatment of this subject is one of the strengths of the book. For some, the two were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutually exclusive. Salisbury thought ?the Hottentots, the Indians and other non-Teutonic races? simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unsuited to democratic government?. Churchill claimed in 1897 that ?East of Suez democratic regimes are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible? \(p. 147\); and even in the 1950s, he remained ?sceptical about universal suffrage for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hottentots? \(p. 152\). MacDonald thought imperialism ?distasteful to the democratic spirit?, and worried that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders habituated to imperial rule abroad would be careless of democracy at home \(p. 125\). Yet empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could also be viewed as a force for democracy promotion. Lloyd George hailed the Empire as a ?democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonwealth of nations? \(p. 85\), while Baldwin insisted that ?the prospects of democracy? were Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highest priority in India \(pp. 111?12\). Even MacDonald believed that a new kind of empire, ?under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic guardianship?, could be a force for peace \(pp. 125?6\). Labour leaders saw themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructing a new form of colonial connection, based on democratic internationalism. For Attlee ? a product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the former East India College at Haileybury ? the liquidation of the Raj was a case in point; proof that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?true democracy rejected imperialism? in favour of ?a polity of free nations? \(p. 169\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Democratic ideas could be a weapon for imperial reformers; yet they might also be used to justify imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule, if the conditions for self-government seemed absent. Attlee worried, privately, about the capacity for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy in India, which he thought a ?British invention? with no collective identity \(p. 161\). In Africa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald looked only to a ?semi-democracy in which the people are partly enfranchised or elect part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the governing authority? \(pp. 125?6\). This allowed Churchill to oppose Indian self-government on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ostensibly democratic grounds. Rather than transferring responsibility to ?an electorate comparatively small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and almost entirely illiterate?, he argued, the government of India should remain accountable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster, ?the most democratic parliament in the world? \(p. 148\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the Second World War and again during the Cold War, Churchill offered a new vision of empire as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bulwark of democracy. The British Empire, he told Roosevelt in 1944, ?has spread and is spreading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy more widely than any other system of government since the beginning of time? \(p. 150\). That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to become a pervasive national myth, and helped British politicians ? of both right and left ? to narrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonisation. By reframing the empire as a vehicle of democracy, decolonisation could be remembered as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a triumph that vindicated, rather than repudiated, the imperial project. As Thatcher told a Japanese television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(station in 1982, Britain had a ?great imperial past? and had ?been one of the greatest, most fervent advocates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of democracy ? of any country in the world?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.292 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.292 219.603 m 264.284 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quinault offers ten premiers for analysis: Disraeli, Gladstone, Salisbury, Lloyd George, Baldwin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacDonald, Churchill, Attlee, Thatcher and Blair. Some readers, inevitably, will cavil at the selection. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asquith is a striking omission, given his struggle with the House of Lords, his hostility to women?s suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the enthusiasm of his opponents for referenda. So, perhaps, is Bonar Law, who gave his blessing to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paramilitary army in 1914 on overtly democratic principles. A case might also be made for Harold Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose ?Social Contract? promised to ?re-establish faith in the working of Britain?s democracy?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.600 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.600 122.067 m 511.592 122.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 511.592 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line must be drawn somewhere, and Quinault provides a reasonable spread across party and period. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious, perhaps, is the case against the biographical approach itself, with its emphasis on ?great? men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. Quinault anticipates that objection and addresses it directly. ?The transition to democracy?, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges,)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.2917 219.9175 264.2837 231.7975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.5997 122.3815 511.5917 134.2615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7593 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 772.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a collective achievement that owed much to the aspirations of the people in general and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their pressure for inclusion in the political system. It was, however, the political elite that largely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined the pace and character of that peaceful transformation \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not everyone will find this convincing. It treats democratisation primarily as a legislative process, carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through in reform acts and other statutory changes. Viewed as a )] TJ ET BT 343.280 691.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(social)] TJ ET BT 371.948 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( transformation, or as the rise of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political idea, the prime ministerial focus is more doubtful. The Victorians, in particular, often saw franchise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms rather as a )] TJ ET BT 126.644 662.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(consequence)] TJ ET BT 187.952 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of democracy than as its vehicle, seeing them as wise accommodations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growing power of the )] TJ ET BT 158.324 648.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(demos)] TJ ET BT 188.984 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For G. C. Brodrick, for example, the Second Reform Act was but one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the symptoms of democratic progress?, ?a change resulting, in part, from democratic pressure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributing to strengthen that pressure?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.324 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.324 618.771 m 244.316 618.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each chapter covers a single prime minister and follows a recurring template. For each premier, Quinault )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compiles their statements on democracy and, where relevant, on such ancillary subjects as enfranchisement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportional representation, the House of Lords and the monarchy. The intention, presumably, is to facilitate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison, but the approach does involve some problems. The first concerns language. Quinault states at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outset that ?No attempt is made, in this study, to define ?democracy? other than on the terms of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premier? \(p. 2\); but in practice, his subjects are constantly judged against a normative standard. Disraeli?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boast, in 1867, that ?we do not ? live ? under a democracy? is deemed ?factually correct because a majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of adult males were still excluded from the electoral roll? \(p. 23\). Lloyd George, by contrast, ?failed to live )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to his reputation as a reforming democrat? \(p. 95\). Of the four ?tenets of true democracy? outlined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher, Quinault rules that ?none of them is inherently democratic? \(p. 196\). That generates a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incoherence, and obscures the extent to which the meaning of ?democracy? has mutated over time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Depending on )] TJ ET BT 104.672 437.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(who)] TJ ET BT 124.676 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was using it and )] TJ ET BT 208.340 437.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(when)] TJ ET BT 233.672 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, democracy could be a form of society, a particular social class, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a type of government; and each of these had many variants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second difficulty resides in the nature of the cohort. Politicians of this kind present peculiar challenges in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of political thought. These were not public intellectuals but participants in a competitive arena, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which speech and narrative are political acts. That is not to deny their intelligence, nor to suggest that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas lacked agency; but their primary purpose as rhetoricians was not the disinterested study of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science. With occasional exceptions, their remarks on democracy were made while addressing some other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more immediate concern ? a strike, perhaps; an election; or a budget. That does not make these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncements unimportant, but it reminds us of the political purposes they serve. We cannot abstract a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politician?s understanding of democracy from a compilation of his or her remarks on the subject. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements must be understood within a larger public dialogue, in which politicians struggle not just to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrate but to reshape their environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point here is not simply that politicians are ?pragmatic?, a designation that raises more questions than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers. Politics is the art of the possible; but politicians are architects, as well as inhabitants, of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space in which they operate. They build, as well as respond to, that framework of received ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional wisdoms by which all governments are constrained; and, in this respect, politics is as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the )] TJ ET BT 81.344 184.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shaping)] TJ ET BT 119.348 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the possible as it is about accommodating oneself to it. Needing democratic votes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians in the 20th century incorporated the language of democracy into their particular political creeds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generating sub-categories like ?liberal democracy?, ?social democracy? and ?Tory democracy?. In so doing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, they were not passive worshippers at the democratic shrine: they were claiming the right to define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what democracy )] TJ ET BT 115.988 127.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(meant)] TJ ET BT 145.316 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and to label their opponents as its enemies. This requires us to think about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political purposes behind rhetoric, and the use of words like ?democracy? as a weapon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quinault is by no means insensitive to context, and he is particularly attuned to the international influences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on democratic debate. Yet there is little sense here of politics as dialogue, or of the purposive nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric. Nor is there any substantial engagement with the problems of language. The result is fun to read )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.3237 619.0855 244.3157 630.9655 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7343 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and brings together an array of interesting material; but there is a tendency to take politicians at their word. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To illustrate this point, it might be useful to look briefly at three prime ministers explored in this book: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disraeli, Baldwin and Thatcher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disraeli began his career as a Tory radical, after the Whig Reform Act of 1832. In a series of writings, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the most important was )] TJ ET BT 181.676 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vindication of the English Constitution)] TJ ET BT 390.704 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1835\), he outlined a populist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of Toryism, that pitted the democratic legitimacy of his own party against the selfish ?oligarchy? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Whigs. This had little to with the franchise or with elective institutions in general: for Disraeli, the Tory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party was the ?truly democratic party of England? because it embodied national institutions, like the Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England and the House of Lords. They were democratic precisely because they were national, whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whiggism appealed to ?sectional? interests like nonconformity and Irish Catholicism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quinault describes the )] TJ ET BT 144.332 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vindication)] TJ ET BT 200.336 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as the ?fullest exposition of Disraeli?s political views? \(p. 17\). It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly the longest; but it was very much a response to its times, when Tories were seeking a populist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to Whig reform. By the time Disraeli re-engaged with democratic ideas in the 1850s and 1860s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was operating under very different conditions. No longer a political outsider, he was now leader of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative party in the House of Commons, at a time when the global reputation of democracy was at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly low ebb. Leading a party that was gravely suspicious of democracy, he cheerfully joined in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general condemnation. ?If you establish a democracy?, he warned in 1859, ?you must in due season reap the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruits of a democracy?, listing an array of apocalyptic scenarios that ranged from war and confiscation to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military coup \(p. 20\). Addressing his constituents in 1865, he urged them to ?legislate in the spirit of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Constitution ? and not fall into a democracy, which is the tyranny of one class, and that one the least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightened?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 98.336 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 98.336 485.955 m 112.328 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the 1850s and 1860s, Disraeli used the menace of ?democracy? as a hammer with which to beat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal reform bills. Hence, when he took responsibility for Conservative reform bills in 1859 and 1867, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was essential to distance his proposals from any taint of democratisation. At a time when even reformers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to distance themselves from the term, Disraeli?s disclaimers of democracy in 1867 were not so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?factually accurate? as tactically astute ? a means of creating political space, which provided the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover for an act of mass enfranchisement. Gladstone had been less adroit in 1866, drawing tortuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between the sense in which his reform bill was and was not democratic. The price was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction of his reform bill and the fall of the government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time Baldwin came to the premiership, in 1923, politics was operating under very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints. During the First World War, the British state had finally ranged itself unambiguously under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banner of democracy. Lloyd George called the War ?a struggle ? for the democracy of Europe? \(p. 85\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Churchill described it as a conflict between ?the democratic nations of the world? and the Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imperialist bureaucracy? \(p. 143\). At the same time, the 1918 Representation of the People Act conceded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal manhood suffrage and partial female suffrage, while full adult suffrage was achieved in 1928. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s speech in 1929 formally declared the British state a ?constitutional democracy? \(p. 132\) ? the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, Quinault suggests, that it had committed itself so unambiguously. Yet there was no guarantee that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new system would work. The elections of 1922, 1923 and 1924 delivered completely different results; not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much an electoral swing as a series of violent ricochets. The new electorate seemed dangerously volatile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear of its mind from one year to another. With an economy dislocated by war, public finances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbalanced by debt and the Bolshevist shadow rising in the East, it remained to be seen how the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electorate would work in practice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context, Baldwin offered himself as the guide and teacher of democracy. ?The task of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation?, he declared in 1923, ?is to save democracy, to preserve it and to inspire it?. His strategy was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embrace democracy, while warning of its fragility. ?Democracy?, he declared, ?calls for harder work ? than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any [other] form of government?. It ?can rise to great heights; it can also sink to great depths. It is for us so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conduct ourselves ? that we may achieve the heights and avoid the depths? \(pp. 102?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin?s commitment to democracy is not in doubt; but it is worth thinking about the political purposes )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 98.3357 486.2695 112.3277 498.1495 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7351 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this served. Baldwin tended to define ?democracy? against ?dictatorship?; a polarisation to which we are so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(habituated that it can almost pass without notice. But the inter-war dictatorships, and their would-be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitators in Britain, themselves deployed a rhetoric that was populist and sometimes explicitly democratic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as it had been possible, in the Victorian era, to champion ?popular representation? while disclaiming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name of ?democracy?, so it was possible in the inter-war period for ?democrats? to reject parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. Baldwin?s achievement was to nail ?democracy? so firmly to the parliamentary system that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could hardly be pulled apart. The scale of this achievement ? infusing medieval institutions with democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy ? is easy to overlook.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chief beneficiaries, however, were the Conservatives. Tory politicians had been deeply nervous about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their prospects under the new electorate. Indeed, it was such anxieties that had secured Baldwin the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership; for his rival, Lord Cromer, was thought too aristocratic for ?this democratic age? \(p. 101\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Embracing ?democracy? gave Baldwinian Conservatism a moral purpose and a populist flavour, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminding his party of their need for a democratic communicator. At the same time, the requirements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic management provided cover for political retreats ? the abandonment of protection in 1924, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to rearm in the 1930s. Elections were routinely framed by Baldwin as tests of democracy, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pass mark seemed invariably to be Conservative success. Above all, democracy allowed Baldwin to talk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a conciliatory and inclusive political language, while marginalising his opponents. Conservatives, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed unctuously, upheld ?the lifted torch of democracy?, while Labour was ?snuffing the wick of a lamp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is burning too dimly? \(p. 105\). Arthur Bryant called the Conservative college at Ashridge ?the first non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propagandist college of democratic citizenship?, a claim that Quinault rightly describes as ?disingenuous? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 108\). Yet the assertion captures a feature of Baldwinian Conservatism to which Ross McKibbin famously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew attention: its capacity to annex such hegemonic values as ?democracy? and ?freedom?, in an ostensibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-partisan ?conventional wisdom?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.656 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.656 469.443 m 227.648 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to deny the sincerity of Baldwin?s democratic pronouncements, or his achievement in a period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(littered with the corpses of democratic regimes. But nor should we take him at face value as the disinterested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion of democracy. To suggest, for example, that MacDonald championed reforms ?which directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefited his ? career?, while Baldwin, ?by contrast?, took up a cause that ?brought him no obvious personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gain? \(p. 240\) is to take the latter too readily at his own valuation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher had a less consensual style than Baldwin, but she shared his understanding of the power of rhetoric. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To a greater extent than any leader since Churchill, Thatcher spoke a language of national crisis, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy itself was at risk. That was only plausible because so many others also thought democracy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peril in the 1970s; but the threat was not necessarily understood in Thatcherite terms. The Labour party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented the )] TJ ET BT 100.664 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives)] TJ ET BT 168.656 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a menace to democracy, projecting the ?Social Contract? as a reassertion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the democratic process? against the ?authoritarian and bureaucratic? methods of their opponents. In books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like )] TJ ET BT 55.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arguments for Democracy)] TJ ET BT 182.324 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Tony Benn called for democratic control over industry, while the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union of Miners presented itself as a democratic opposition to Thatcher. For most of Thatcher?s time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament, the prevailing vision of democracy had been social democratic, presenting nationalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries, the welfare state and free collective bargaining as part of the constitutional architecture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context, what Thatcher was fighting for was not so much the )] TJ ET BT 361.304 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(future)] TJ ET BT 389.972 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of democracy as the right to )] TJ ET BT 530.276 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(define)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. Against the industrial democracy championed by Benn and the corporatist democracy of the Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contract, Thatcher upheld a conservative vision of democracy founded upon parliamentary government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer choice. Her conception of the ?property owning democracy? was markedly individualist: property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to be vested in individual members of the )] TJ ET BT 257.660 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(demos)] TJ ET BT 288.320 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, not in ?democracy? as a collective. She dismissed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic credentials of trade unions, and rejected the claims made for public ownership as a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic control. In its place, she offered the neoliberal concept of ?the democracy of the market?. As she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put it in 1978,)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.6557 469.7575 227.6477 481.6375 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 6832 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the democracy of the ballot box, important though it is, is only one form of democracy. In a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truly free society ? it must be reinforced by the democracy of the market, in which people can )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cast their vote, not once every four years or so, but every day as they go about their daily )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.684 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.684 740.307 m 121.676 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this perspective, the Thatcher era marked the triumph of a particular conception of democracy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centring on Parliament and the free market, over those alternative models of social, industrial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plebiscitary democracy with which previous leaders had wrestled. It was a struggle that had crossed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox party divides, pitting proponents of representative institutions ? like MacDonald and Baldwin ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against advocates of direct democracy within their own parties. The triumph of ?representative? over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?direct? democracy is one of the more remarkable themes of modern British politics, and might usefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been addressed in this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Democracy?, Quinault concludes, ?is always a work in progress? \(p. 244\). It might better be described as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(word)] TJ ET BT 58.688 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in progress, fashioned not simply by reform acts and structural changes but by a rhetorical struggle for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political advantage. As Quinault?s book reminds us, democracy is not a timeless verity, but something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingent and embattled, to be puzzled over by one generation after another. As new democratic debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arise over European institutions, public sector strikes and coalition government, that seems as true of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own time as of the century-and-a-half preceding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.475 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 454.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Richards, ed., )] TJ ET BT 145.676 454.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tony Blair in His Own Words)] TJ ET BT 289.352 454.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\), p. 249.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.676 454.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.676 453.459 m 460.664 453.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 440.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interview for Nippon Television, 14 September 1982; )] TJ ET BT 325.316 440.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Thatcher: Complete Public )] TJ ET BT 64.016 426.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Statements, 1945?1990)] TJ ET BT 176.012 426.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [CD-ROM] \(Oxford, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.652 426.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.652 424.947 m 367.640 424.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 412.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 412.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 412.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain Will Win With Labour)] TJ ET BT 276.356 412.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(October 1974\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.000 412.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.000 410.691 m 409.988 410.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 397.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. C. Broderick, ?The progress of democracy in England?, )] TJ ET BT 349.616 397.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 443.276 397.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14, 81 \(Nov. 1883\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(913.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 382.179 m 139.004 382.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 369.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 113.684 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22 May 1865.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.680 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.680 367.923 m 240.668 367.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 355.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. 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