%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417144112+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417144112+01'00') /Title (thelstan: The First King of England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4331 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(thelstan: The First King of England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan might not, to the uninitiated, seem a very likely candidate for a volume in the prestigious Yale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Monarchs series. He lacks the name-recognition associated with a Conquerer or a Confessor, and is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the subject of any compelling anecdotes about beaches or cakes which have wormed their way into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular consciousness. To say thelstan is forgotten might be to go too far, but he is certainly not well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered outside a select audience of Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 298.952 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(illuminati)] TJ ET BT 345.632 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Foot swims against this current. Even undertaking a biography of thelstan is a strong statement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the importance she would assign to him and his reign \(which spanned the years 924?39\), and her central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point in this book is encapsulated by the subtitle: ?First King of England?. The achievement which lies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately behind this acclamation is thelstan?s conquest, in 927, of the Viking kingdom of York. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory was just one act in the process by which warrior-kings of the West Saxon dynasty of Ecgberht )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(802?39\) created a kingdom which broadly approximated modern England in extent. Alfred the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(871?99\) and his son Edward the Elder \(899?924\), along with the latter?s sister thelfld \(d. 918\) and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband thelred \(d. 911\), rulers of the Mercians, set the scene for thelstan?s )] TJ ET BT 421.268 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(coup de grace)] TJ ET BT 489.248 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by seizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Viking rulers all territory up to the Humber in the years down to 924. The kingdom they created was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, it should be stressed, ?reconquered? from the Vikings: it was a new and distinct entity which had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessor as a political unit. Neither was there any overwhelming desire to stop once York was taken early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1151)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Foot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300125351)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rory Naismith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7673 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in thelstan?s reign. A meeting of all the kings of Britain followed shortly after in 927, at Eamont Bridge in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cumbria, where all ? according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and associated sources ? swore an oath of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace, under the overlordship of thelstan. Charters and coins of thelstan from around that time began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style him not ?king of the Saxons?, or even ?king of the Anglo-Saxons? as had been customary for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors. Instead, he was )] TJ ET BT 177.968 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rex totius Britanniae)] TJ ET BT 277.304 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?king of all Britain?. This was no empty claim: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan?s court ? as revealed by an unusually detailed series of charters ? regularly played host to Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princes and other visitors from all corners of Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is good reason, then, to respect thelstan?s place in English history and recognise that his reign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided some of the proudest moments of the West Saxon dynasty. thelstan was widely celebrated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Latin and vernacular verse, and his name became one of the most favoured of his dynasty. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fame spread well beyond the English Channel and the North Sea, and thelstan enjoyed a position of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and respect throughout Western Europe. Young princes in need of whipping into shape, or whose kin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had fallen victim to war or intrigue back home, were packed off to stay with him; among those who enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan?s hospitality were the Norwegian Hkon \(king 934?61\); Alan, heir to the duchy of Brittany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(936?52\); and the future Louis IV, king of the West Franks \(936?54\). thelstan?s cosmopolitan court also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted older and wiser foreigners, among them the famous scholar Israel the Grammarian. He spent at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least some of his time creating the numerological board game ?Die of the evangelist?, which was enough of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a hit to draw the interest of a visiting Irish bishop.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon kings of the 10th century are not generally known for their prominence on the European stage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which makes thelstan all the more impressive. That he accomplished so much despite a somewhat rocky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(road to the throne is truly outstanding. The death of Edward the Elder in July 924 precipitated a short crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his fragile kingdom. Kingship was as a rule restricted to a small body of throne-worthy kinsmen of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outgoing king, but the selection of a candidate from among those kinsmen by the magnates was still a crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the king-making process. The decisions of aristocracies in different parts of Edward?s kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened to tear it asunder, and demonstrated persistent local loyalties. In 924 thelstan apparently won )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition in Mercia as king ? probably in part because he had been raised there ? while in Wessex his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger half-brother lfweard was elected by the local )] TJ ET BT 304.604 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(witan)] TJ ET BT 331.280 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The resultant division proved brief, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lfweard died in a matter of weeks, but thelstan faced ongoing difficulties in Wessex: his coronation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deferred until 925 and took place in Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, outside the West Saxon heartland; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy against him was fomented at Winchester; and another grown half-brother, Edwin, met his death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a mysterious boating ?accident? in 933. A large part of thelstan?s difficulties in gaining full acceptance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay in the dubious circumstances of his birth: even if not illegitimate, as Foot argues, his mother was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly less prestigious than the king?s next two wives, on whom Edward sired nine more children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan thus had to overcome considerable hurdles to gain acceptance throughout his kingdom, let alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become one of the most successful English kings of the 10th century. But although his reputation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured as an icon of warlike kingship, reconstructing his life rather than his career is a unique challenge. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The writing of any medieval biography is of course vulnerable to the dictates of scarce and tendentious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. Kings present special problems. On the one hand they loom large ? sometimes overbearingly so ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the embodiment of earthly might, as wielders of sacral authority and as the focal point of their kingdoms? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political lives. On the other, a king?s capacity to define \(rather than be defined by\) powerful, age-old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions was limited, and texts or other sources granting a genuine window onto the personality or inner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts of early medieval monarchs are few.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foot recognises these obstacles in the opening chapter of her book, and acknowledges the high degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?self-conscious construction and manipulation? needed to overcome them. The problems in piecing together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan?s biography are compounded by the difficulty of the sources for his reign. thelstan had no Asser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Einhard; no contemporary biographer to enshrine his reputation in terms which would survive to resonate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with later readers. Knowledge of his achievements must be spliced together from a broad and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpromising array of sources ? even more so than is usually the case with early medieval history. Few are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more difficult to handle than an important passage in the )] TJ ET BT 308.648 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta regum Anglorum)] TJ ET BT 421.304 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( composed by the 12th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century writer William of Malmesbury, which on the face of it constitutes an adulatory survey of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7465 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan?s life and achievements. Yet although William states that he did indeed draw on an older source, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the age and authority of that source have been the subject of debate, and so Foot is only able to deploy its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence with caution. Not all the sources for thelstan are mired in such difficulties, or at least not any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more. Scholars of recent generations have risen with aplomb to the challenges posed by the sources for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan?s reign. Simon Keynes has shown what can be learned from the charters and from a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated manuscripts; Michael Lapidge has gathered contemporary Latin poems and mined them for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information; and Christopher Blunt has turned thelstan?s complex coinage into a showpiece of numismatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship. Foot?s contribution to the story of thelstanian studies is primarily a synthesis of earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research; a most valuable exercise given the disparate locations, perspectives and contexts of previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications. Points where her own interpretation adds significantly include, for example, an intriguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the background to the crowns which the king sports in both manuscript illuminations and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coins. This might be taken further with reference to earlier Anglo-Saxon practice and contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with other European kingdoms. Here, Foot suggests that thelstan?s crowns might well reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the actual appearance of crowns worn at royal gatherings. In this way she tugs on the same thread as John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddicott, who has recently taken thelstan?s accession as the starting-point of his history of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament. For both writers, thelstan?s reign comes across as a time of innovation and reorientation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, creating a model for his successors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The legacy of thelstan?s reign is another area in which Foot expands substantively on previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship. The ?cult of Alfred the Great? is well known, but those of other kings \(though much smaller in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact\) have attracted less attention. thelstan?s reputation in the millennium since his death has endured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several peaks and troughs. In the late 10th and 11th centuries he was a hero, and the relative attention he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received in Anglo-Saxon sources carried his fame through into the writings of 12th-century historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William of Malmesbury ? whose home monastery was thelstan?s final resting place ? devoted particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to fleshing out the patchy account of the king he pieced together from earlier sources. But Foot also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traces the sad decline of thelstan?s memory in modern times. The Freemasons preserved one holdout of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectful but garbled memory of thelstan, for they traced their origins in England back to him and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?son? Edwin. What must surely have been thelstan?s nadir came in a ?British Faire? held in the southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States in 1983, where the local Freemasons touted their patron, thelstan, as ?king of Wessex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandson of Albert the Great?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This survey of thelstan?s posthumous fate forms a natural epilogue to a book which is fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic, as befits a figure whose life is so filled with lacunae, though the book?s arrangement makes certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowances to chronology. Foot?s study is divided into eight principal chapters. After a more general and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical introduction, the first chapter states the claim for thelstan?s recognition as the first king of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and briefly surveys some of the martial and political highlights of his reign. Chapter two focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Family?, including the king?s curious surfeit of sisters. In Foot?s words, ?any man whose parents managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to provide him with eight or even nine sisters deserves our sympathy?. Foot pauses to consider the possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the king?s complex family situation, and of thelstan?s upbringing in the household of his aunt in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mercia. She suggests that the overbearing femininity of thelstan?s early life perhaps led him not to take a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife ? a curious decision for any medieval ruler, which meant that perpetuation of the dynasty was reliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(after 933\) on his much younger surviving half-brothers. thelstan?s affection for them and for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous other royal youths fostered to him from all over western Europe even lead Foot to ask if he might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been ?happiest in a male environment?, but she wisely exercises restraint before venturing too far into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of thelstan?s sexuality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan was certainly not lacking in machismo, and his military achievements figure as prominently here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they do in the original sources. A chapter on ?War? goes through the several campaigns of thelstan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from York and expeditions against the men of Cornwall and what would become Scotland, to the famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle of )] TJ ET BT 76.676 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brunanburh)] TJ ET BT 135.344 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It was there, in 937, that thelstan faced off against a combined host of Dublin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vikings, Scots and Strathclyde Welsh. According to an anonymous poet whose work was preserved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ?never was there greater slaughter on this island ? since from the east the Angles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Saxons came over the broad sea?. Bloody though it was, the battle ended in resounding victory for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6259 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thelstan, and his enemies were put to flight. )] TJ ET BT 256.664 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brunanburh)] TJ ET BT 315.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains among the most important unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations in Anglo-Saxon history. Foot reviews the many sites which have been proposed, and she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautiously supports an identification of Brunanburh with Bromborough, Cheshire. Her approach largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on discussion of the diverse, and often discordant, primary sources, supplemented with reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent analysis by later scholars. Much the same is true of her treatment of thelstan as a manipulator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of justice and administrative mechanisms in a chapter on his ?Kingdom?; the focus here falls on charters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law-codes and coinage. Other chapters cover the ?Church?, especially the king?s relations with the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopate and patronage of education and ecclesiastical institutions; while the king?s household and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itinerary are discussed in ?Court? \(supplemented by an appendix listing attestations of the king?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements\). Slightly surprisingly, it is the penultimate chapter which opens with the king?s death and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interment, which is used as a lead into thelstan?s taste for relic collecting and support of English saints. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following this is a chapter entitled ?British monarch? which picks up the general political themes of the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first chapter, but which is positioned as a prelude to the epilogue on thelstan?s posthumous reputation, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it revisits in more detail the king?s claims to pan-British rule and his establishment of grand ambitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the West Saxon dynasty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be no doubt that Foot has laid out the evidence for all aspects of thelstan?s fascinating reign in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion which makes the underlying point abundantly clear: that although his impact must be pieced together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from scraps and fragments, they are clearly the remnants of what was once a mighty edifice, greater than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sum of its considerable parts. Hers is the culmination, it would be fair to say, of a collaborative effort. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing the work of previous scholars together and arranging and juxtaposing their scattered contributions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligently ? with her own important observations as well ? Foot has shed much-needed fresh light on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?First King of England??s life, times and works. Readers outside the narrow academic fraternity familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with all branches of recent research will now be able to access thelstan in all his glory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet it is worth asking again the question Foot herself poses at the start of the book: is this indeed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography? One has to wonder if, impressive though they are, the available materials are more notable for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they lack and imply than for what they make clear. thelstan ?the man? remains very much an elusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure ? even more so than many of his Anglo-Saxon counterparts: rescuing him from obscurity means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronting a portrait which is irretrievably faded. One would have appreciated a return to this question at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the close of the volume. In some instances, such as the treatment of )] TJ ET BT 360.296 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brunanburh)] TJ ET BT 418.964 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or of William of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malmesbury?s controversial thelstanian material, it might also be claimed that Foot is perhaps overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautious in her discussion, and it would have been interesting to learn if her years of work on the king had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led Foot to harbour stronger opinions on any of these matters. Finally, the excellent production standards of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press should not go unnoticed: they have produced a volume of very high quality, with full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annotation, a generous 16 pages of illustrative plates and a number of maps, all for a price within reach of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general readers and students as well as academic libraries. thelstan may remain, fundamentally, an icon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than a fully fleshed out individual, but in laying out all of the evidence so clearly Foot has created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable synthesis of the very best of Anglo-Saxon scholarship and highlighted a pivotal period in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 228.271 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 210.491 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 210.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1151)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 209.097 m 328.316 209.097 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 184.120 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7794)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 209.4115 328.3157 221.2915 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1151) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000539 00000 n 0000000621 00000 n 0000005004 00000 n 0000005113 00000 n 0000005223 00000 n 0000005332 00000 n 0000008893 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000009105 00000 n 0000009170 00000 n 0000016896 00000 n 0000016961 00000 n 0000024479 00000 n 0000024563 00000 n 0000030875 00000 n 0000031003 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31099 %%EOF