%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930231158+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930231158+01'00') /Title (Britain, Ireland, and Continental Europe in the Eighteenth Century: Similarities, Connections, Identities) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4057 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain, Ireland, and Continental Europe in the Eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century: Similarities, Connections, Identities)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rise of the Atlantic world as a framework for understanding early modern and 18th-century Britain has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been one of the most significant historiographical developments of the last 25 years. Together with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concurrent and linked re-emergence of imperial history it has helped reshape perceptions of Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in the 18th century, leading scholars to rethink older exceptionalist viewpoints and to revisit old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions in new and innovative ways. Stephen Conway, in his studies of the impact on British and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society of first the American War, and then the mid century wars, has made important contributions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions about the place of these countries in the Atlantic world. His new book, however, seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that the Atlantic is not the only context within which Britain and Ireland should be located but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they should be seen also as part of Europe and integral parts at that. He argues not only that Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland were closely linked to the continent, but also, importantly, that contemporaries saw themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway is not alone in attempting to reassess Britain?s relationship with the continent, and he acknowledges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other important recent contributions by Tony Claydon, Brendan Simms, and Jeremy Black among others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His approach is, however, different to theirs both in terms of geographical range and of scope. While their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus was on England \(in Claydon?s case\) or Britain \(Simms and Black\), Conway brings Ireland fully into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1152)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Conway)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199210855)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(356pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Walsh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8120 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his story. Here he builds on recent Irish scholarship which has sought to integrate the Irish experience into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider European narrative, best exemplified by Ian McBride in his recent survey text )] TJ ET BT 441.260 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland: The Isle of Slaves)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.664 766.563 m 177.656 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 177.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and in the publications emanating out of the ?Irish in Europe? project based at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NUI Maynooth. Claydon?s )] TJ ET BT 167.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe and the Making of England, 1660-1760)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.988 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.988 752.307 m 411.980 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.980 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( emphasises the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion as well as foreign policy, while a detailed consideration of the latter theme lies at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simms?s )] TJ ET BT 80.360 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three Victories and a Defeat)] TJ ET BT 219.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.680 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.680 723.795 m 236.672 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black has also focused much of his attention on military and diplomatic connections though he has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written on the Grand Tour. Conway goes further again with his discussion of a variety of themes ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from political economy to migration, to improvement as well as more traditional topics such as the Tour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military, maritime and diplomatic links between the British Isles and the European continent. The thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of his book makes it easy to navigate, while also allowing the reader to gain a ?panoramic view? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-European connections \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway begins his study in 1689 with the ?Glorious Revolution?, and his first chapter examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional legacy of the revolution showing how it could be seen both as proof of English/British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionalism as well as evidence for the interconnectedness between Britain, Ireland and the continent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many contemporaries saw the revolution as proof of the resilience and superiority of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution. This was a view that gained more and more currency as the century went on, reaching its zenith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the French Revolution when events across the channel seemed only to demonstrate the validity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a reading of events 100 years previously. Conversely, however, as Conway shows, it was also possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to view the revolution in a ?less chauvinistic? manner, and see it as a European event, with far reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences beyond the shores of Britain or Ireland. The perceived success of the revolution allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries to compare and contrast other forms of constitutional government, and to hope for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further extension of their ?liberties? to other European states. As the century went on, continental legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental ideas were emulated in Britain, while the French revolution, like the American one before it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced some British and Irish subjects to question just how many ?liberties? they really enjoyed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1688 revolution has long been recognised as marking a turning point in the history of British foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. It marked the beginnings of a century of much more active British military involvement on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent. First the Dutch, and then the Hanoverian, connection ensured that it was no longer possible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English/British ministers to maintain an isolationist position. The presence of the Jacobite court in exile and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing fears of a French-backed Stuart invasion of Britain and Ireland further motivated official and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular interest in events on the continent. Fear of the French has long been regarded as a determining factor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the make-up of both British foreign policy and identity and Conway does not disagree with this reading. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He does, however, suggest that British policy and appeals for public support of what were sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpopular interventions were at least partly influenced by common ideas of a continental identity based on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared sense of ?European liberties?. The sincerity of appeals to these shared ?liberties? or indeed to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common ?Protestant Interest? is difficult to gauge ? as he acknowledges ? but the fact they were made at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates there was an audience for such sentiments. Such sentiments, and indeed appeals, were only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible because of the increased knowledge of European affairs which permeated British and Irish society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this period. This is visible even in Irish Gaelic poetry, as the work of Eamonn O Ciardha and Vincent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morley has demonstrated, even if such sources suggest identification with Britain?s continental enemies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than with her allies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1688/9 did not just mean dramatic alterations in Britain?s constitution, government and foreign policies, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also in finance, even if historians no longer agree that the political revolution marked the start of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial revolution. Whether it really was the beginning or not it certainly accelerated changes already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible during Charles II?s reign. The need to pay for King William?s wars was a vital contributory factor to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the series of innovations that so fascinated and frightened contemporaries in the early decades of the century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?new finance? needed investors to make it work and Conway highlights the importance of foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investors in British funds, but he also points to British and Irish investment in European markets showing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such investment was not just confined to such instances of the spectacular as John Law?s Mississippi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scheme in 1719?20. Such capital flows across borders were important in the creation of a common European )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6637 766.8775 177.6557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.9877 752.6215 411.9797 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.6797 724.1095 236.6717 735.9895 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7270 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial system, something which it is clear contemporaries realised. Integrated capital markets were but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one dimension of the economic links between the British Isles and the continent. More important in fostering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections were the ever-growing trading networks which continued to be of vital importance even during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the golden era of Atlantic trade in the middle decades of the century. While there was undoubtedly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explosion in transatlantic trade it did not lead to decline in trade with the continent; instead both sectors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew. Indeed, as Conway shows, the period after the American War saw European trade achieve a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence, something which he argues led to calls for greater commercial ties between European states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ties which contemporaries like Jeremy Bentham and the Scottish political economist James Anderson felt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more important than political divisions. As a frustrated Bentham pointed out politics could be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy of trade and in this case political exigencies won out. Such calls for further economic integration then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as now were not heeded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first three chapters of this book, as well as later chapters on British and Irish maritime and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with the continent, cover themes one might expect in a conventional book on the subject. One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the things that makes this book different, as suggested earlier, is the equal focus given to topics usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside mainstream historiographies. Thus we get treatments of topics such as politeness, improvement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual exchanges, and the Grand Tour as well as religion. These chapters not only integrate their themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the broader narrative, but they also offer interesting insights drawn from the author?s very impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival diggings. The chapter on ?politeness? is especially wide-ranging, perhaps not surprisingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the slippery nature of its theme, including explorations of language proficiency, musical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplishment, and gardening. Conway is keen to test not just how continental influences could be seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Ireland, but also how contemporaries, at least within the upper ranks of society, reacted to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences; did they, essentially, make them more European? He concludes that a European consciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did develop, arguing that the common interpretation of the French Revolution as a threat to European culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated that an understanding of a shared European culture had permeated British and Irish elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society even at the same time as national and ?patriotic? identities were also on the rise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such fluid identities were the product of intellectual and cultural exchanges; two themes explored in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail in the book. In his treatment of the Grand Tour, Conway takes it more seriously than many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream historians, while also being fully aware of the absurdities of it all. For instance he asks the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinent but rarely asked question, how did local populations on the continent react to the arrival of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often decadent and occasionally debauched young aristocratic young men from Britain and Ireland into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their locale? He also stresses the importance of connections garnered by tourists and the sense of solidarity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that tours could engender between ruling classes across Europe, once more returning to one his central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments that we should avoid interpretations which neglect the possibility of multiple identities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such multiple identities were perhaps never more clearly demonstrated than in the persons of those Irish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons who earned a living abroad. These were, as Conway points out, employed in numerous different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacities which went beyond the obvious categories of soldier, sailor, priest, and merchant, although all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were important. They were joined on the continent by economic migrants, by Irish and Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innkeepers \(the originators of that modern fixture of so many European cities, the Irish bar?\) as well as by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the significant British medical diaspora, whose reach extended all the way to the Russian court. Analysing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mental worlds of these migrants is difficult, as Conway acknowledges, making it impossible to fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decipher their competing identities. Through the use of a small number of well documented examples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably the Scottish merchant William Dalrymple, he is nevertheless able to posit suggestive conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the conflicted loyalties and complicated mentalities of his case studies. Similarly he examines their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts ? those migrants who arrived in London and elsewhere in the British Isles ? noting the hostile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception they often received. Writing about Ireland, he observes that continental Protestants were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received warmly as a further bulwark in the defence of the ?Protestant interest?. What he neglects to mention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that many of the German Palatines who arrived in the early years of the century were less impressed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their new surroundings, and moved on quickly to the American colonies. They evidently did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately feel at home in Ireland.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4379 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great achievement of this book is to highlight the manifold connections that existed between Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and the continent. These connections allowed for similarities to be emphasised at least as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences in contemporary debates and for at least some of the residents of Georgian Britain and Ireland to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see themselves, at least some of the time, as Europeans. This argument is convincing and is also important in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating the dangers of seeing Britain as inherently exceptional, as an island, or archipelago, off the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west coast of the European continent. Conway?s achievement is to show that this was not so, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries knew it too. His conclusions carry weight because of the mass of evidence, both primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary, which is employed to back up his case. There are occasional selection biases with the periods and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures upon which he has worked before \(the American War, the mid-century conflicts and Jeremy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bentham\) all well represented. This is perhaps inevitable in a work of this ambition, as is his greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration on British examples. Despite this as an historian of Ireland I found much that was new in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish material that is cited. The inclusion of Irish and Scottish material adds much to this study not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it shows that residents of these peripheries could be Europeans even before they were Britons. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian McBride, )] TJ ET BT 131.000 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth Century Ireland: The Isle of Slaves)] TJ ET BT 354.308 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.636 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.636 546.483 m 485.624 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Claydon, )] TJ ET BT 139.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe and the Making of England, 1660?1760)] TJ ET BT 368.672 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.992 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.992 532.227 m 519.980 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brendan Simms, )] TJ ET BT 147.020 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Three Victories and a Defeat)] TJ ET BT 286.340 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.664 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.664 517.971 m 421.652 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is very grateful to Dr Walsh for a thorough and thoughtful review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.853 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 436.947 m 240.992 436.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 433.615 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 415.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 415.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1152)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 414.441 m 328.316 414.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 389.464 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7795)] TJ ET BT 34.016 360.664 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33582)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.6357 546.7975 485.6237 558.6775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.9917 532.5415 519.9797 544.4215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.6637 518.2855 421.6517 530.1655 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 437.2615 240.9917 449.1415 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33582) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 414.7555 328.3157 426.6355 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1152) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000004799 00000 n 0000004908 00000 n 0000005018 00000 n 0000005127 00000 n 0000008688 00000 n 0000008816 00000 n 0000008900 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000017171 00000 n 0000017201 00000 n 0000017329 00000 n 0000017365 00000 n 0000017395 00000 n 0000017523 00000 n 0000017559 00000 n 0000017589 00000 n 0000017717 00000 n 0000017753 00000 n 0000017818 00000 n 0000025141 00000 n 0000025253 00000 n 0000029685 00000 n 0000029813 00000 n 0000029868 00000 n 0000029996 00000 n 0000030051 00000 n 0000030179 00000 n 0000030234 00000 n 0000030361 00000 n 0000030462 00000 n 0000030590 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30686 %%EOF