%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 57 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818082148+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818082148+01'00') /Title (Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4148 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Railroaded: The Transcontinentals and the Making of Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard White is a prolific historian whose earlier works have changed our understanding of several periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American history. His 1991 book on the relations of white empires and Native polities in the Great Lakes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region reshaped views of First Nations history throughout the continent. His magisterial history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American West synthesized much of the ?New Western history?, the scholarship on the western regions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America produced by social historians after 1970.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.628 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.628 207.777 m 318.620 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.620 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The key insight of White?s history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American West was that this region of the country was largely the creation of the federal government, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lavished many handouts on the inhabitants of the sparsely settled western states. White?s research helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermine the traditional and heroic view of the western ?frontier? as a place of self-sufficient rugged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.696 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.696 150.753 m 115.688 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it was announced that Richard White was working on a history of the transcontinental railways, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were high hopes that he would produce a work that would be to the same scholarly standard as his earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books. White has fulfilled these expectations and has produced a work that develops many of the themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in his earlier research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(White has written an impressive revisionist history of the North American transcontinental railways and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1155)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard White)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393061260)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(736pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W W Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.6277 208.0915 318.6197 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.6957 151.0675 115.6877 162.9475 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their impact on the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Although some of the insights he presents in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work will not be entirely new to specialists in business and economic history, White?s book will help to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reshape how other historians, undergraduates, and the general public view the creation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcontinentals in the 19th century. This interdisciplinary book synthesizes research from some of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic and exciting areas of American historiography, including environmental history, the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology, and the cultural history of capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The transcontinentals have occupied a large part in the collective imaginations of both the United States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada. The traditional narrative involves the heroic story of how the United States began the construction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its first transcontinental mainline when it was still in the depths of the Civil War: even though the unity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South and North had not yet been assured, Lincoln wanted to build an iron road linking East and West. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photograph of the driving of the Golden Spike at Promontory Summit in Utah in 1869, which marked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completion of the line, is one of the most iconic pictures in American history. The subsequent creation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian Pacific Railway looms even larger in the Canadian historical consciousness. Indeed, for Canadians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the epic struggles to build this railway are even more important in the national social memory because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not overshadowed by a bloody Civil War. The photograph of the rather derivative Last Spike ceremony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that accompanied the completion of the Canadian line in 1885 is still famous in Canada. In Mexico, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways also loom large in the popular historical consciousness, although there the foreign entrepreneurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who built much of that nation?s railway network under the dictatorship of Porfirio Daz are today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered as capitalist imperialists. In the United States and Canada, in contrast, the entrepreneurs who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built the lines have traditionally been regarded as heroes. It is true that left-wing writers in both countries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular in the Progressive Era, subjected the projectors of these projects to a certain amount of muck-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raking revisionism, but for the most part the heroic image of the transcontinentals and those who built them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have endured. In the 1970s and 1980s, social historians in the United States and Canada modified the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public?s picture of their respective national transcontinentals by pointing out that hardworking Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labourers helped to make these nation-building projects possible. The emphasis on the contribution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese, which served the laudable purpose of underscoring the contribution of an ethnic minority to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national projects, left the idea that the railways should have been built in the first place intact. Few historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been so bold as to say that the lines were a waste of money and that the entrepreneurs who built them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were scoundrels. Moreover, North Americans? largely positive image of the transcontinentals and the men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who built them has reinforced an even more important narrative, namely, that entrepreneurs have played an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important and overwhelmingly positive role in the development of the two countries. The 19th?century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railroad barons are thus presented as precursors of Henry Ford and Steve Jobs, the entrepreneurs who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often regarded as embodying the very best of \(North\) American capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard White?s book demolishes this largely benign view of the transcontinentals. He shows that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction was plagued by incompetence and corruption. White points out that many of these lines were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial failures that ended either in bankruptcy or bailouts by the taxpayers. White appears to take a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular delight in documenting the failings of Leland Stanford, whose fortune endowed the California )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university that now employs him. In White?s narrative, the 19th?century railroad entrepreneurs have more in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common with the ?banksters? who were demonized in the American press after the 2008 financial crisis than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the saintly Steve Jobs. White?s interpretation of transcontinentals is the product of many years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painstaking research in archives and should not be interpreted as a barometer of current public opinion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States. However, his interpretation is certainly congruent with the temper of the times and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public?s increasing hostility to Big Business, which may explain the popularity of this book with non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics since it went on sale in the summer of 2011. White says in his introduction that this book was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by the fact that it was written in Silicon Valley in the aftermath of the dot-com boom \(p.xxxiii\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much like the internet stock craze of the late 1990s, the railway building craze of the 19th century saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation and destruction of vast fortunes and boosterish claims that new technologies were going to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform all areas of life for the better.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to exposing the failings of the entrepreneurs who created them, White challenges the notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transcontinental railways should have been built in the first place at all. More precisely, he questions )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7847 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether they should have been built in the 19th century. This part of his argument is, perhaps, the least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original aspect of this book. In the 1960s, the economist Robert Fogel argued that the Union Pacific had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a premature enterprise in the sense that was built ahead of a demand in a sparsely populated region that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not really support it. Fogel used masses of quantitative data to demonstrate that, contrary to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread view that railways ushered in economic modernity, the invention of the railway did little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase the rate of economic growth in the United States. Vogel argued that had railways never been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented, the GDP per capita figures achieved by the United States on 1 January 1890 would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached by 31 March 1890. In other words, railways, including the transcontinental lines, were only slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better forms of transport than their lower-tech alternatives, such as improved roads and canals. They did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically accelerate economic growth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.620 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.620 666.771 m 248.612 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.612 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Because it was presented in highly technical language and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses of intimidating numbers, Fogel?s analysis was read and appreciated mainly by academic historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the general public. White?s accomplishment has been present a revisionist account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcontinentals in a way that is accessible to the average university-educated person. White?s discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railway safety technology and freight rates, which could have been turgid in the hands of a less capable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author, is lucid and accessible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, there is much more in this book than White?s discussion of railway economics and technology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He discusses the impact of the railways on the lived experiences of Native Americans, farmers, ranchers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employees. His chapters on the political responses to the monopoly power of the railways are superb and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be essential reading for anyone seeking to understand 19th-century North American political economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard White?s efforts to re-incorporate business history into ?mainstream? North American history will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated by those business historians who feel that their research interests have been marginalized in most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North American history departments. Although this work is not business history in the same sense as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies produced by the late Alfred Chandler and his colleagues at the Harvard Business School, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly addresses the literature produced by management scholars and economists. It is relatively rare to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find a book by a historian that simultaneously applies concepts taken from the writings of the economist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Schumpeter and the Marxian sociologist James C. Scott. White should be commended for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eclectic use of theorists from many disciplines and across the political spectrum. Just as importantly, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be praised for his tri-national coverage. The present reviewer, like many scholars of North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history who hail from north of the Canada-US border, regards the division between ?American history?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Canadian history?, and ?Mexican history? to be somewhat artificial. The decision of many historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States to frame their research projects solely in terms of the boundaries of the present-day nation-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states is a parochial and annoying barrier to full scholarly understanding.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to praise in this excellent book. However, there are some flaws and omissions that ought to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified as well. While the introduction to the book speaks of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third of these countries is marginalized in the pages that follow. At the end of the book, one is left having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned relatively little about the impact of the transcontinentals on Mexico. Relatively few Spanish-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language primary and secondary sources can be found in the author?s notes, although there are some \(see p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(547\). The decision to marginalize Mexican history might imply to some readers that Mexico is somehow a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less important part of North America than the other two nations he considers. This reviewer would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed the opportunity to learn more about the economic, political, social, and ecological impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways on Mexico. Given that Mexico?s share of the North American population is vastly greater than that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Canada, White?s implicit scheme of prioritization is perhaps questionable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although White draws on the ideas of the Joseph Schumpeter \(1883?1950\) in discussing the entrepreneurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his book, he fails to utilise the conceptual tools that have been developed by more recent economists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Krueger?s concept of ?crony capitalism? could have been applied more effectively here. Crony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism refers to a superficially capitalist economy in which success in business actually depends on close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with government officials rather than one?s ability to produce goods consumers want to buy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crony capitalism typically involves a system of legal permits, quotas, subsidies, special tax breaks, and land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grants. Crony capitalists frequently wrap themselves in the flags of their respective countries to justify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handouts and special favours they get from the State.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.308 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.308 48.531 m 302.300 48.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.300 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The railroad barons described in White?s book )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.6197 667.0855 248.6117 678.9655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.3077 48.8455 302.2997 60.7255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 9088 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspond very closely to Kreuger?s concept of the crony capitalist. Given that the United States and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed countries now preach to the developing world about the virtues of public-sector transparency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evils of cronyism, it is worthwhile underscoring the point that the United States in the Gilded Age was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crony capitalism writ large. White might also have profitable employed the typology of entrepreneurship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed by the economist William Baumol, who distinguishes ?productive entrepreneurship? from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of entrepreneurship that harm rather than help society. Baumol speaks of rent-seekers, who engage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unproductive entrepreneurship,? and ?destructive entrepreneurship?, which would include drug dealers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others who sell products that are positively harmful. Some of the people in White?s cast of characters clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belong in the category of ?unproductive entrepreneurship.? Perhaps a few might be categorized as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?destructive entrepreneurs.? White could usefully have applied Baumol?s categories here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.572 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.572 666.771 m 479.564 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem with this book was that there was not enough on the technologies that rivalled and/or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complimented the railways. First, there could have been more here about river transport. White shows us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pages 162?9\) that ships remained a competitive way of transporting wheat from California after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completion of the transcontinentals. It should also be kept in mind, however, that steamships were able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navigate surprisingly shallow rivers in the Great Plains, most notably the Missouri. Even today, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shippers in the Canadian West prefer to use the Great Lakes system of lakes and canals to get their products )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ocean. The transcontinental railways developed ocean steamship services designed to feed traffic into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lines. Indeed, Canadian Pacific developed an integrated transport network that extended from Liverpool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Hong Kong and was regarded by contemporaries as an imperial, rather than a simply Canadian, project. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exploring the successes of these steamship lines might have forced White to revise his negative assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these companies. Moreover, there was not nearly enough in this book about telegraphy. The electric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telegraph connected California to the eastern states well before the railway did. Indeed, it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to control traffic and otherwise manage very long rail lines without the telegraph, especially when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were trains running in both directions on a single line of track. Without telegraphy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcontinentals would likely have been very different. Historians are beginning to rediscover the economic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, and military significance of the first telecommunications industry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.316 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.316 426.675 m 399.308 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 399.308 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The title of Daniel Walker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe?s recent volume in the Oxford History of the United States series alludes to the transformative impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of telegraphy )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.664 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.664 398.163 m 114.656 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.656 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and it is unfortunate that White?s otherwise excellent book did not utilise this new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard White,)] TJ ET BT 140.336 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1650?1815)] TJ ET BT 118.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 304.131 m 269.324 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard White,)] TJ ET BT 140.336 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own?: A History of the American West)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Norman, OK, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.660 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.660 275.619 m 221.648 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert W. Fogel,)] TJ ET BT 150.344 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Baltimore, MD,1964\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.340 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.340 247.107 m 229.328 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne O. Krueger , ?Why crony capitalism is bad for economic growth?, in )] TJ ET BT 425.936 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crony capitalism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(economic growth in Latin America : theory and evidence)] TJ ET BT 337.976 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Stephen Haber \(Stanford, CA, 2002\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 1-24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.012 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.012 204.339 m 161.000 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William J. Baumol, ?Entrepreneurship: productive, unproductive, and destructive?)] TJ ET BT 463.292 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy)] TJ ET BT 108.668 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 114.668 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 117.668 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(98, 5 \(1990\), 893?921; David S. Landes, Joel Mokyr, and William J. Baumol, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 147.315 m 224.324 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard R. John,)] TJ ET BT 147.680 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications)] TJ ET BT 428.324 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MS, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 118.803 m 118.004 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Walker Howe,)] TJ ET BT 171.980 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815?1848)] TJ ET BT 512.312 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NJ, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.004 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.004 90.291 m 198.992 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thom Hartmann Programme)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.youtube.com/watch)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 35.523 m 186.008 35.523 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.008 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.5717 667.0855 479.5637 678.9655 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.3157 426.9895 399.3077 438.8695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.6637 398.4775 114.6557 410.3575 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3357 304.4455 269.3237 316.3255 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.6597 275.9335 221.6477 287.8135 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 175.3397 247.4215 229.3277 259.3015 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.0117 204.6535 160.9997 216.5335 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.3357 147.6295 224.3237 159.5095 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 119.1175 118.0037 130.9975 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.0037 90.6055 198.9917 102.4855 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 35.8375 186.0077 47.7175 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t7l0-h2SECg) >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 5590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissent Magazine)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://dissentmagazine.org/article/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 197.672 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NPR Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.npr.org/2011/07/11/137497772/how-trains-railroaded-the-american-economy)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 752.307 m 463.952 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.952 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/17/books/review/book-review-railroaded-by-richard-white.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.795 m 505.628 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 508.628 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slate)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/books/2011/06/the_transcontinental_travesty.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 695.283 m 440.336 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 443.336 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Exchange)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://exchange-bhc.blogspot.com/2011/06/richard-whites-railroaded-attracts.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 666.771 m 428.960 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.960 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seattle Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/books/2015207613_br05railroaded.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 638.259 m 414.344 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 417.344 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street Journal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303657404576361331013796182.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 609.747 m 458.372 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.372 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diane Rehm Show)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://thedianerehmshow.org/shows/2011-06-13/richard-white-railroaded)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 581.235 m 385.628 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 388.628 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Page 99 Test)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://page99test.blogspot.com/2011/06/richard-whites-railroaded.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 552.723 m 374.996 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 377.996 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C-Span)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://wwww.c-spanvideo.org/program/Transco&showFullAbstract=1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 524.211 m 370.748 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.748 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Nation)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thenation.com/article/163050/trains-vain-richard-white)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 495.699 m 355.976 495.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.976 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 492.367 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 474.587 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 474.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1155)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 473.193 m 328.316 473.193 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 448.216 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.816 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7798)] TJ ET BT 34.016 419.416 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t7l0-h2SECg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=3983)] TJ ET BT 34.016 390.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.npr.org/2011/07/11/137497772/how-trains-railroaded-the-american-economy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 376.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/17/books/review/book-review-railroaded-by-richard-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.960 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white.html?pagewanted=all)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/books/2011/06/the_transcontinental_travesty.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 333.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://exchange-bhc.blogspot.com/2011/06/richard-whites-railroaded-attracts.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/books/2015207613_br05railroaded.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9] http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303657404576361331013796182.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.960 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10] http://thedianerehmshow.org/shows/2011-06-13/richard-white-railroaded)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11] http://page99test.blogspot.com/2011/06/richard-whites-railroaded.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12] http://wwww.c-spanvideo.org/program/Transco&amp;showFullAbstract=1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13] http://www.thenation.com/article/163050/trains-vain-richard-white)] TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 197.6717 793.0135 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=3983) >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 752.6215 463.9517 764.5015 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.npr.org/2011/07/11/137497772/how-trains-railroaded-the-american-economy) >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 724.1095 505.6277 735.9895 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/17/books/review/book-review-railroaded-by-richard-white.html?pagewanted=all) >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 695.5975 440.3357 707.4775 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.slate.com/articles/arts/books/2011/06/the_transcontinental_travesty.html) >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 667.0855 428.9597 678.9655 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://exchange-bhc.blogspot.com/2011/06/richard-whites-railroaded-attracts.html) >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 638.5735 414.3437 650.4535 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/books/2015207613_br05railroaded.html) >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 610.0615 458.3717 621.9415 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303657404576361331013796182.html) >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 581.5495 385.6277 593.4295 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://thedianerehmshow.org/shows/2011-06-13/richard-white-railroaded) >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 553.0375 374.9957 564.9175 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://page99test.blogspot.com/2011/06/richard-whites-railroaded.html) >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 524.5255 370.7477 536.4055 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://wwww.c-spanvideo.org/program/Transco&showFullAbstract=1) >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 496.0135 355.9757 507.8935 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thenation.com/article/163050/trains-vain-richard-white) >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 473.5075 328.3157 485.3875 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1155) >> endobj xref 0 83 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000004872 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000005091 00000 n 0000005200 00000 n 0000008761 00000 n 0000008889 00000 n 0000008973 00000 n 0000009002 00000 n 0000009130 00000 n 0000009166 00000 n 0000009195 00000 n 0000009323 00000 n 0000009359 00000 n 0000009424 00000 n 0000016932 00000 n 0000017023 00000 n 0000024923 00000 n 0000024953 00000 n 0000025081 00000 n 0000025117 00000 n 0000025147 00000 n 0000025273 00000 n 0000025309 00000 n 0000025463 00000 n 0000034604 00000 n 0000034634 00000 n 0000034762 00000 n 0000034798 00000 n 0000034828 00000 n 0000034956 00000 n 0000034992 00000 n 0000035022 00000 n 0000035150 00000 n 0000035186 00000 n 0000035314 00000 n 0000035369 00000 n 0000035497 00000 n 0000035552 00000 n 0000035680 00000 n 0000035735 00000 n 0000035863 00000 n 0000035918 00000 n 0000036046 00000 n 0000036101 00000 n 0000036228 00000 n 0000036283 00000 n 0000036410 00000 n 0000036465 00000 n 0000036590 00000 n 0000036684 00000 n 0000036845 00000 n 0000042488 00000 n 0000042615 00000 n 0000042715 00000 n 0000042842 00000 n 0000042976 00000 n 0000043103 00000 n 0000043261 00000 n 0000043388 00000 n 0000043523 00000 n 0000043650 00000 n 0000043782 00000 n 0000043909 00000 n 0000044035 00000 n 0000044162 00000 n 0000044292 00000 n 0000044419 00000 n 0000044540 00000 n 0000044667 00000 n 0000044788 00000 n 0000044915 00000 n 0000045033 00000 n 0000045160 00000 n 0000045277 00000 n 0000045405 00000 n trailer << /Size 83 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45501 %%EOF