%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 36 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 61 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721234147+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721234147+01'00') /Title (Varieties of Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century English Radicalism in Context) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4162 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Varieties of Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Radicalism in Context)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scholarship on the intellectual, religious and political history of early modern England presents a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of terms such as ?orthodox?, ?deist?, ?atheist?, ?radical?, and their respective ?isms?. These labels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conceptual categories they imply have received renewed study in relatively recent years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.228 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.228 222.033 m 490.220 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.220 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is among the most significant contributions to clarifying the meaning and significance of one of these terms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely radicalism, which has proven to be a ?flexible? conceptual category.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Conal Condren has pointed out, it was not until the late 18th century that ?radical? became a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term associated with extensive political and social reform, and it was not until 1819 that Jeremy Bentham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coined the word ?radicalism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.980 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.980 138.753 m 191.972 138.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.972 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Ariel Hessayon and David Finnegan observe in their brilliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Introduction? to the volume, which traces the history of the term and examines its different uses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, ?radicalism? has always been far from being a univocal word: its different meanings largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depend on the methodological approaches adopted for studying 17th- and 18th-century England. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect, Hessayon and Finnegan identify three main approaches, which are named ?nominalist?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?substantive? and ?functional?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1157)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ariel Hessayon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Finnegan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754669050)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diego Lucci)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.2277 222.3475 490.2197 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.9797 139.0675 191.9717 150.9475 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6706 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nominalist approach, which is adopted by scholars such as Conal Condren and Jonathan Clark, entails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the removal of anachronism from our discourses on historical phenomena.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.620 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.620 768.819 m 404.612 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.612 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( According to this approach, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be anachronistic, and therefore inappropriate, to use the term ?radicalism? when talking of eras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceding its coinage. The nominalist approach is thus skeptical about the use of any kind of historiographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category. But if we accept this premise, we should also avoid using any kind of periodization \(and thus terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as ?antiquity?, ?medieval?, ?modern?, etc.\). Nevertheless, the nominalist approach highlights the risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the term ?radicalism? is used as a container that can be filled with different contents, in accordance with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different needs and aims. This is indeed what happens when adopting the opposite approach, which is called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?substantive?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The substantive approach was predominant from the late 19th century to the second half of the 20th, and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the core of two divergent historiographic currents:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?One was bourgeois and liberal, essentially concerned with tracing the growth of democratic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and republican ideas in response to acute social and economic tensions as well as drawing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels between the English and French Revolutions. The other was Socialist and Marxist, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise emphasising secular class struggle but this time under the shadow of capitalism? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These two trends dominated historiography at least until the 1970s, and the Marxist current, with historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Christopher Hill, Rodney Hilton, A. L. Morton and E. P. Thompson, who tried to give greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to ?history from below?, was particularly influential in the rethinking of the English Revolution in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century. Nevertheless, the substantive approach presents two significant shortcomings: first of all, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies an ideological and teleological consideration of the past; moreover, it fails to integrate traditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious dissent within an organic conception of radicalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, the authors of the essays presented in this volume have largely preferred a functionalist approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the study of English radicalism. This approach takes into account the different contexts that saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of ideas and movements labeled as ?radical? in that they ?challenged the fundamental political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious or social axioms of their day? \(p. 25\). This approach was championed by J.C. Davis in the 1980s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the dependency of radicalism on context was later underscored by, among others, Jonathan Scott and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glenn Burgess.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.008 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.008 326.163 m 122.000 326.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 12 essays in this volume, written by scholars in various fields of history and literature, originated at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference held at Goldsmiths, University of London, in 2006. These essays deal with radicalism in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the English Revolution and with other applications of the terms ?radical? and ?radicalism? in 17th- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their chapters, Nicholas McDowell, Noam Flinker and Ariel Hessayon deal with some of the main radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures of the English Revolution. McDowell?s essay examines the language of religious radicalism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640s, with special focus on the poems of Richard Crashaw and John Saltmarsh. McDowell highlights that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these authors were strongly influenced by literary currents external to the English context, such as post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tridentine Catholic poetry. Thus, their radical ideas were expressed in a style that proves the continual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction between vernacular and humanist, popular and elitist traditions. Another representative of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism of the English Revolution, Abiezer Coppe, drew on non-English and even non-Christian literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hermeneutical traditions. In his chapter, Noam Flinker shows how Coppe used the rabbinical exegetical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method of the Midrash in combining millenarian warnings and social reform claims, sexual imagery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual awakening. All these elements of Coppe?s prose made his prophetic style particularly powerful. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very famous and influential radical was Gerrard Winstanley, whose reformist thought is the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hessayon?s essay. Hessayon?s research on Winstanley is extremely significant. In fact, the role that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologian and revolutionary leader played in his time was particularly valued by the Marxist historian )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.6197 769.1335 404.6117 781.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.0077 326.4775 121.9997 338.3575 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7232 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Hill, whose work was crucial to reassessing the Diggers? importance, but entailed obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological distortions of Winstanley?s background, ideas and goals. In this respect, Hessayon points out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Winstanley?s heterodox religious views did not result from a sort of ?unexpected aberration? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status quo, but originated in a spiritual journey characterized by distinctive Puritan and Baptist phases. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end, the revolutionary potential of General Baptism, in matters of social justice and egalitarianism, played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial role in the ?radicalization? of Winstanley?s positions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mario Caricchio?s and Jason Peacey?s chapters analyze the role of bookselling and pamphleteering in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and religious debates of the English Revolution. Caricchio concentrates on Giles Calvert, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main publishers and booksellers in England between 1641 and 1660. Caricchio maintains that Calvert?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bookshop was part of a cluster of social networks that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?took part in the heated debate about Church settlement and religious toleration from a shared )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antinomian and spiritualist standpoint. In this sense, the core authors of Calvert?s stable [?] can )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be considered an offshoot of the ?radical? wing of the Reformation? \(pp. 72?73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his analysis of royalist politics and pamphleteering in the late 1640s, Jason Peacey stresses that radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, especially in matters of religious, social and political reform, penetrated into various areas of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and, therefore, were shared by different, and sometimes clashing, milieus. Therefore, Peacey argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that radicalism was a phenomenon largely independent from the distinctions between Royalists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentarians, and actually influenced both sides of the political spectrum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that radical ideas influenced English politics and culture across the political spectrum is confirmed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Jim Smyth?s excellent study of republican Empire-building and its ideological foundations. Smyth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underscores that a sense of English superiority was widespread and deep-rooted in the time of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, and was nurtured by both Protestant providentialism and the rediscovery of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism, as is manifest in James Harrington?s )] TJ ET BT 286.652 410.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oceana)] TJ ET BT 323.972 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1656\). The context in which providentialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and republican ideals emerged and spread ? a context characterized by anti-popery, the alleged Irish threat, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely shared desire to avenge the 1641 massacres, and the need to fund the Parliament?s armies ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined with a view of England as an elected nation and led to the invasion of Ireland and, later, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Dutch Wars. I would like to observe that Smyth?s thesis on the significance of both ideology and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical context is corroborated by the fact that, in 17th-century England, republicanism was furthered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rediscovery of classical republican theories and the emergence of a new interest in Jewish political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources among Christian scholars.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.996 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.996 309.651 m 211.988 309.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 211.988 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is no accident that the perception of England as a ?New Jerusalem? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an important theme in the Puritan colonial and imperial enterprises. In this respect, Smyth correctly calls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to Machiavelli?s influence on Harrington and other republican thinkers, with particular regard on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Italian author?s distinction between ?republics for increase?, such as Rome, and ?republics for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preservation?, such as Venice, and his preference for the former. Briefly, the rise of republicanism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England was part of the momentous process of evolution of European political culture in the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era, a process that J. G. A. Pocock has termed ?the Machiavellian moment?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.936 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.936 224.115 m 412.928 224.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The English Revolution attracted the attention of political observers even in countries geographically and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally distant from England. In his chapter, Stefano Villani concentrates on the echo that the Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had in Italy, where numerous diplomats and intellectuals conceived of the English events as different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other rebellions or civil wars. However, most Italian observers stressed especially the merely economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social dimension of the Revolution, and interpreted it as resulting from the opposition between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic elites and the middle and low classes. Most Italian commentators dismissed the religious motives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and claims of the Revolution as mere pretexts to conceal political ambitions and raise popular support. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, several Catholic writers used England as an example to demonstrate that religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterodoxies, when permitted by toleration policies, necessarily led to social and political unrest, and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed the English turmoil as the inevitable result of the separation from Rome?s authority.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.9957 309.9655 211.9877 321.8455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.9357 224.4295 412.9277 236.3095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6482 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last five essays in the volume deal with the development of radicalism after the Puritan Revolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These essays draw attention to the necessity to relocate the concept of radicalism and adapt it to different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical contexts. Nevertheless, as Warren Johnston observes in his chapter on apocalyptic ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities must be taken into account when examining the evolution of English radicalism. In this regard, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnston particularly stresses that the main elements of mid 17th-century apocalyptic ideas were still present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the apocalyptic trends of late 17th-century England, and these concepts indeed continued to play a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in English religious life well into the 18th century, among both mainstream Anglicans and Dissenters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also Sarah Hutton underscores continuities in the development of radicalism. In her chapter, she suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Cambridge Platonists? rationalism resulted mainly from their exposure to the debates that inflamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th-century England. Therefore, although refraining from reinterpreting Cambridge Platonism tout court in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a radical framework, Hutton argues that the Cambridge Platonists can be numbered among the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?radicals? in light of their ?sweet reasonableness?, which, despite their substantial disinterest in political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, was abhorred by their detractors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandra Hynes, Giovanni Tarantino and Jason McElligott concentrate on intellectuals of the ?long eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? who are commonly labeled as radicals. Hynes examines the correspondence between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian minister Joseph Boyse and the antiquarian Ralph Thoresby, who was a Dissenter until his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversion to the Church of England in 1699. The two Nonconformists? letters prove that, in the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the Glorious Revolution, ?it was the State and the Established Church that defined what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical and not Dissenters? \(p. 206\). On this point, Hynes correctly observes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?During this period, [?] different beliefs and church systems were accommodated within or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the established State Church so that a sense of religious continuity was achieved. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term radicalism implies the transformation of a system and in terms of religious radicalism )] TJ ET BT 64.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests a move from mainstream belief to alternate beliefs. Those who dissented from the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs expounded by the State Church therefore had to find ways to ensure that their belief )] TJ ET BT 64.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system survived? \(p. 205\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giovanni Tarantino?s chapter focuses on Anthony Collins, a freethinker, a bibliophile, a heterodox disciple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of John Locke, and one of the leading figures of the intellectual current later called ?English deism?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarantino?s essay turns the attention to the concept of ?radical Enlightenment?, proposed first by Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob in the early 1980s and recently reformulated by Jonathan Israel.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.268 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.268 311.907 m 384.260 311.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.260 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This concept has proven extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential in recent historiography on the Enlightenment. By ?radical?, scholars of the Enlightenment mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rationalist trends that, in matters of religion, attacked revealed religion and its inconsistencies and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters of politics, questioned the divine right system of cultural and political power of the Church and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian State. In this respect, Tarantino maintains that the analysis of Collins?s impressive library, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisted of more than 10,000 titles, makes it:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?possible to chart his brilliant and irreverent use of the weighty traditions of ?orthodox? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, his direct involvement in an uncompromising journalistic campaign to moralise )] TJ ET BT 64.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life and his unflagging denunciation of the abuse of popular credibility by the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical authorities? \(p. 222\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the work of the early 19th-century polemicist William Hone, examined in Jason McElligott?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, confirms that there is continuity in the history of English radicalism, if one considers the rejection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any compromise with the past and the attitude to sweep away existing political, social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures as its main features. Hone was indeed a fierce enemy of the status quo and harshly attacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political corruption, scorned any form of tyranny, oppression and bigotry, and ?was interested in reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more than the system of political representation in Parliament? \(p. 258\). Although Hone eventually )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.2677 312.2215 384.2597 324.1015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 4595 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned progressive politics and embraced reaction, his criticism of the system of power of the time and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his projects for extensive social and political reform influenced the liberal tradition of thought in nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we have seen, this volume has the merit to highlight the evolution of English radicalism in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern era by concentrating on different issues, authors and historical contexts. The functionalist approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is largely adopted in this book, helps understand the interconnections between radical ideas and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts in which these ideas emerged and had an impact. It has been maintained, particularly by J. C. Davis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other historians who oppose the Marxist vulgate, that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?canonical English radicalism failed because it did not sufficiently delegitimate the old )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchical order, established Church and traditional basis of society; nor did it adequately )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate the new republic, alternative forms of Church government or far-reaching social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change; nor was there an effective transfer mechanism to get from the displaced system to its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacement? \(p. 22\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their introduction to the volume, Hessayon and Finnegan consider Davis?s analysis persuasive, in view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the republic?s eventual failure to legitimate itself and survive after Cromwell?s death. On the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while avoiding teleological interpretations of the English Revolution and its outcomes, this volume helps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader appreciate the development of radicalism in the age of the Puritan Revolution and beyond. This book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is therefore a useful resource to find the red thread that runs throughout more than one century of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. In that era, and especially after the Glorious Revolution of 1688?9, England experienced remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and political reforms, which often resulted from a long-lasting, exhausting cultural battle between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox and the radical for the improvement, or even the overcoming, of the system of cultural and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the time. For this reason, I think that the tradition of English radicalism, starting in the time of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Revolution and developing well into the 19th century, was not a complete failure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would like to conclude with some remarks on the specificity of English radicalism. As the two editors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this volume point out, the prevailing view is that the distinctive trait of the English Revolution, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiated it from other rebellions, religious wars \(including the Thirty Years? War\) and the general crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the mid 17th century destabilizing other European countries \(from France to Ireland, from the Iberian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peninsula to Naples\), was its radicalism. In fact, the variety of religious views and political positions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged in England provided the English Revolution with a degree of pluralism \(and conflict\) unmatched in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other contexts. However, in view of the functionalist approach adopted in this volume and highlighting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical development of radicalism and its dependency on contexts, I agree with the two editors that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism was not peculiar to England.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 9113 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Hessayon and Finnegan observe in their )] TJ ET BT 245.648 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Introduction)] TJ ET BT 305.648 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when studying 17th-century English radicalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are enough indications for ?transnational contexts?, such as the influence of non-English religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical traditions on English authors and circles, interactions between England and Continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, and the impact of the English Revolution on European imagination. I would like to add some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections on this issue. As a matter of fact, if one considers the background of the English Revolution, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undeniable that the rediscovery of classical republicanism and the theories of the ?Hebrew Republic?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a powerful influence on the Puritan mentality, were indebted to a form of late Renaissance humanism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filtered through Erasmus and other Continental authors, and to the researches of Dutch thinkers such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grotius and Cunaeus: in fact, both John Selden and James Harrington acknowledged their debt to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch ?unorthodox? authors and their republican theories. Moreover, if one considers the span of time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the English Revolution, and particularly the period between the Glorious Revolution and Walpole?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era \(as some chapters of this volume do\), it must be admitted that English radicalism continued to develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also thanks to stimuli from abroad \(for instance, from Dutch culture, which transmitted to England various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versions of Cartesianism, Spinozism, and the anti-Trinitarians? insistence on the reasonableness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all these reasons, new and comprehensive studies that consider early modern radicalism in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnational dimension and historical development would be strongly welcome. As regards specifically the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English context, the volume edited by Hessayon and Finnegan is definitely a precious resource for scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and students who want to have a better understanding of English radicalism. This book is indeed a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contribution to clarifying radicalism as a conceptual category, its fundamental elements, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application to different contexts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Atheism from the Reformation to the Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 312.008 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Michael Hunter and David Wootton \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992\); )] TJ ET BT 98.348 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Margins of Orthodox: Heterodox Writings and Cultural Response)] TJ ET BT 436.340 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 439.340 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( 1660)] TJ ET BT 466.340 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 472.340 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1750)] TJ ET BT 496.340 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Roger )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Lund \(Cambridge, 1995\); )] TJ ET BT 204.668 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Radicalism, 1550)] TJ ET BT 328.340 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 334.340 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1850)] TJ ET BT 358.340 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Glenn Burgess and Matthew )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Festenstein \(Cambridge, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 377.667 m 269.324 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conal Condren, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Language in Seventeenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 422.996 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1994\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(155?8. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.344 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.344 349.155 m 153.332 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.; J. C. D. Clark, ?Religion and the origins of radicalism in nineteenth-century Britain?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Radicalism, 1550)] TJ ET BT 187.688 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 193.688 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1850)] TJ ET BT 217.688 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 241?84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.016 320.643 m 334.004 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. Davis, ?Radicalism in a traditional society: the evaluation of radical thought in the English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth, 1649?1660?, in )] TJ ET BT 223.676 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Political Thought)] TJ ET BT 359.360 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3, 2 \(1982\), 193?213; Jonathan Scott, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England?s Troubles: Seventeenth-Century English Political Instability in European Context)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2000\); Glenn Burgess, ?Radicalism and the English Revolution?, in )] TJ ET BT 455.660 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Radicalism, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1550)] TJ ET BT 88.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 94.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1850)] TJ ET BT 118.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 62?86. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.344 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.344 249.363 m 231.332 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Tuck, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy and Government, 1572?1651)] TJ ET BT 332.984 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\); Eric Nelson,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hebrew Republic: Jewish Sources and the Transformation of European Political Thought)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 206.595 m 237.656 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. G. A. Pocock, )] TJ ET BT 145.340 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republican Tradition)] TJ ET BT 167.024 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.344 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.344 178.083 m 330.332 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret C. Jacob, )] TJ ET BT 158.324 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans)] TJ ET BT 497.636 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1981\); Jonathan I. Israel, )] TJ ET BT 186.656 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1650?1750)] TJ ET BT 118.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.664 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.664 135.315 m 250.652 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are happy to accept Dr Lucci's review of this collection and are grateful to him for his thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of all the essays as well as his constructive remarks.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 79.471 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 61.691 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 61.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1157)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 60.297 m 328.316 60.297 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 35.320 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3357 377.9815 269.3237 389.8615 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3437 349.4695 153.3317 361.3495 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.0157 320.9575 334.0037 332.8375 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 177.3437 249.6775 231.3317 261.5575 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6677 206.9095 237.6557 218.7895 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.3437 178.3975 330.3317 190.2775 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.6637 135.6295 250.6517 147.5095 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 60.6115 328.3157 72.4915 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1157) >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7800)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 63 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000000704 00000 n 0000004918 00000 n 0000005027 00000 n 0000005137 00000 n 0000005246 00000 n 0000008807 00000 n 0000008935 00000 n 0000009019 00000 n 0000009048 00000 n 0000009176 00000 n 0000009212 00000 n 0000009241 00000 n 0000009369 00000 n 0000009405 00000 n 0000009496 00000 n 0000016255 00000 n 0000016285 00000 n 0000016413 00000 n 0000016449 00000 n 0000016479 00000 n 0000016607 00000 n 0000016643 00000 n 0000016734 00000 n 0000024019 00000 n 0000024049 00000 n 0000024177 00000 n 0000024213 00000 n 0000024243 00000 n 0000024371 00000 n 0000024407 00000 n 0000024491 00000 n 0000031026 00000 n 0000031056 00000 n 0000031184 00000 n 0000031220 00000 n 0000031285 00000 n 0000035933 00000 n 0000036066 00000 n 0000045232 00000 n 0000045360 00000 n 0000045415 00000 n 0000045542 00000 n 0000045597 00000 n 0000045725 00000 n 0000045780 00000 n 0000045908 00000 n 0000045963 00000 n 0000046091 00000 n 0000046146 00000 n 0000046274 00000 n 0000046329 00000 n 0000046457 00000 n 0000046512 00000 n 0000046638 00000 n 0000046734 00000 n 0000046799 00000 n trailer << /Size 63 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 47004 %%EOF