%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 36 0 R 44 0 R 49 0 R 59 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916045536+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916045536+01'00') /Title (Debates on the Holocaust) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4527 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Debates on the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholarly research on the Holocaust, carried out in many disciplines but especially in the field of history, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic and constantly progressing; several giant leaps in its expansion can be discerned, mainly since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the 1970s. Testifying to the vibrancy and ?the sheer scale of contemporary Holocaust historiography? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as Tom Lawson rightly points out in his introduction to the book reviewed here\) is the fact that the library )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Yad Vashem, Israel's research and memorial institution for the Holocaust, has in the last two decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enriched its collection with some 4000 titles every year! Consequently, historiographical overviews of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretational debates, schools, stages in the development and the impact of political, social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments on research etc. are much needed ? both for scholars in, and students entering, the field, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as for the growing audience interested in the topic, both laymen and educators \(Lawson states that ?this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is primarily designed as an introductory text for students and teachers? \(p. ix\)\). Nevertheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of such overviews, especially analytical ones, has remained limited )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.284 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.284 143.625 m 413.276 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.276 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, perhaps as a result from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear by scholars ?that any attempt to interrogate its history can only be partial and incomplete? \(p. 1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, first of all, Lawson should be lauded for his courage in attempting this challenge; but then he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also succeeded in writing a quite comprehensive ? though not unproblematic ? analysis of most of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates in the field, while colligating an abundance of literature into his most readable narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson's book is part of a series called )] TJ ET BT 224.804 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Issues in Historiography)] TJ ET BT 343.472 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which takes on diverse historical ?events? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1160)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Lawson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719074493)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Michman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.2837 143.9395 413.2757 155.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 5693 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the Norman Conquest, The French and English Revolutions\) and processes \(the American Civil War era, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of the British Empire, black civil rights in America\). As such, by showing ?the ways in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust has been rendered and represented as History?, that is, by revealing ?the complexity of historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to uncover the Holocaust past?, the field of Holocaust research is used as a test-case ?to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that historians and history-writing have an enduring social and political relevance? \(p. 2\); Lawson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizes this point because he believes that the Holocaust has been left outside the notion which is by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now a historical consensus in the West, that ?past and present collide in their markedly provisional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives?. He is right to a considerable extent in stating this point and it is justified by both in the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the vast area of ?sub-events? in the Holocaust \(i.e. in establishing what should be included in it\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the quite unique accompanying phenomenon of Holocaust denial; nevertheless, since the end of the 1980s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are definitely enough Holocaust historians who deal with the topic while subscribing to the above-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned historiographical consensus. In this context, it would have been rewarding for the readers if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson had dedicated in the introduction at least a paragraph to the path-breaking conference organized by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saul Friedlnder in 1990, later published in the volume )] TJ ET BT 302.000 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Probing the Limits of Representation )] TJ ET BT 483.008 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1992\): it dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively with these issues, and most of the articles in that volume are still of relevance today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book consists of eight chapters, each dealing with a major challenge of Holocaust historiography which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to debates and controversies. The chapters follow a certain chronology, from the mid-1940s through to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years, because different challenges became dominant in different periods. This issue is important for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizing the varying relevance of the Holocaust in different contexts, yet the analysis of each such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge often moves freely between earlier and later periods when the author felt that it suited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument being made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one deals with the first post-1945 attempts to conceptualize the understanding that the persecution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Jews during the Nazi era had some special characteristics which made them stand out among the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other atrocities carried out by that regime.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.640 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.640 443.187 m 249.632 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 249.632 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lawson rightly refutes the quite common observation that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an ?absence? of historiography ?or at least a silence? \(here he quotes historian Dan Stone and refers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, among them Michael Marrus\). He shows convincingly that much was written already at the time; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the scholarly studies were mostly written by social scientists and legal theoreticians \(some had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been written already during the war itself, for example by Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?genocide?,\), not by historians; the prosecution of Nazi war criminals also served in shaping first depictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Holocaust. However, these methodologies generalized about psychological motivations and the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and historical context, thus trying to universalize the Jewish suffering. Lawson explains that the tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(render universal meaning to the persecution of the Jews ? thus starting in fact a first debate about ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universality or specificity of the genocide of the Jews? \(p. 24\) ? had already begun during the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, and resulted from the policy developed by Jewish leaders and intellectuals to try to draw the attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the leaders of the free world to the Jewish fate and to encourage them to undertake rescue activities by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing that these atrocities were of relevance to humanity in general.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.6397 443.5015 249.6317 455.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 9181 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This interesting insight might be true for the wartime period, but does not explain the universalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches explored by scholars during the first decade after 1945 ? and Lawson does not elaborate on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further. This reviewer believes that it had to do on the one hand with the social scientific methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tools used \(as it is their nature to generalize and develop models\), but also with the fact that many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars were Jewish refugees of assimilated German Jewish origins, some of them belonging to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankfurt School, who shied away from emphasizing the specific Jewish aspects of the atrocities. Lawson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also deals in this chapter with the important volume of historical works written by survivor historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing on the activities of Polish Jewish survivors ? in Poland, the USA and Israel. This phenomenon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, was much broader and varied than presented by Lawson, going far beyond this group and these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 654.771 m 95.000 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 95.000 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, Lawson does not deal with the historiography that emerged in Germany, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the Institute for Contemporary History \()] TJ ET BT 262.652 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institut f)] TJ ET BT 302.996 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(r Zeitgeschichte)] TJ ET BT 385.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in Munich, established in 1952 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(this institution is mentioned in chapter two, but in a different context\), and the Centers for Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education \()] TJ ET BT 89.672 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zentrale f)] TJ ET BT 136.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(r politische Bildung)] TJ ET BT 238.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which were established as a result of the Allied demand from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West-Germany on its inception in 1949 to embark on the re-education of the German people.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.932 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.932 597.747 m 494.924 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two takes the Eichmann Trial, conducted in 1961 in Israel, as its starting point, claiming that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?approaches to the understanding of the Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 279.632 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 294.968 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( change around the time of the Eichmann trial? \(p. 53\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson subtitles this chapter ?war crimes prosecutions and the emergence of Holocaust narratives? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interprets the account presented by the prosecution in the Eichmann trial, and Hanna Arendt's famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-account )] TJ ET BT 114.320 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eichmann in Jerusalem )] TJ ET BT 230.636 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1963\) as presenting and even shaping to a large extent the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretational poles of Nazism and anti-Jewish policies nicknamed later intentionalism and functionalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by historian Tim Mason. Lawson contends that ?the former emphasized Nazi ideology in its explanation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the emergence and then prosecution of genocide; the latter was more concerned by the cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural preconditions and determinants of mass violence? \(p. 53\). The intentionalism/functionalism debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been described and analyzed by many historians \(and Lawson comes back to it in a later chapter\), but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way Lawson presents its basics is ? though challenging - not convincing in my eyes. Arendt's )] TJ ET BT 484.460 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eichmann in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem. A Report on the Banality of Evil )] TJ ET BT 246.332 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be detached from her 1951 path-breaking study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Totalitarianism)] TJ ET BT 181.712 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; her approach fits in neatly with the universalizing approach so well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by Lawson in chapter one. Arendt emphasized the disastrous impact of the totalitarian state on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct of the individual, while the functionalists emphasized the escalating effect of structural bureaucratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivalries and fights over competencies. Arendt attributed much of the power of the totalitarian state to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern anti-Semitism, while for the functionalists this was of minor importance. In Arendt's totalitarianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach the leader also plays a role, while in the view of extreme functionalists such as Hans Mommsen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler was a weak dictator and in fact of minor importance in the unleashing of the Holocaust, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bubbled up and crystallized thanks to the bureaucracy. Although starting with the Eichmann trial, Lawson is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged to chronologically go back into the 1950s and even into the 1940s in order to find the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosecutions of war criminals and the metanarratives created by them and in historical works of that period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as Leon Poliakov's )] TJ ET BT 156.164 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harvest of Hate)] TJ ET BT 232.820 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1951\). Here he includes also Raul Hilberg's )] TJ ET BT 450.944 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the European Jews)] TJ ET BT 125.336 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published at the same time of the Eichmann trial \(1961\) but written in the decade before.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 229.347 m 48.008 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus the weight of the literature published before that trial is so important, that the question arises why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trial was chosen at all as a starting point for this chapter. Moreover, this pre-1961 literature overlaps with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature analyzed in chapter one, thus undermining the chronological division between these periods as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by Lawson. Another problem in this chapter is that throughout it Lawson uses the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?genocide?, which in those years was hardly in use. When he then emphasizes ?that the label 'Holocaust' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped fix the genocide of the Jews in popular memory ? There is seldom any need to describe the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide of the Jews as the Jewish Holocaust?, he is definitely right; but when he states that ?there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt to what one is referring when one uses the word? he is not, because both historiography and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse grappled with the problem of the exact periodization and the precise nature of the Holocaust.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.912 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.912 115.299 m 541.904 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three focuses on the ?bystanders to the Holocaust?, rightly starting with German playwright Rolf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hochhuth's play )] TJ ET BT 114.836 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Deputy )] TJ ET BT 173.492 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET BT 177.488 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Stellvertreter)] TJ ET BT 262.472 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) first staged in 1963. This play accused Pope Pius XII of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having known of the tragedy that befell the Jews and refraining from serious action. The deliberately )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.0077 655.0855 94.9997 666.9655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.9317 598.0615 494.9237 609.9415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 229.6615 48.0077 241.5415 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.9117 115.6135 541.9037 127.4935 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8808 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial play paved the way to a path of research which examined the role of those who were neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perpetrators nor the victims. Lawson focuses on ?the Pius [XII] Wars? and ?the Allies and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust? and gives an excellent comprehensive analysis of these issues \(though missing some important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies such as Shlomo Aronson's )] TJ ET BT 199.844 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler, the Allies and the Jews)] TJ ET BT 344.504 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2004\), but entirely leaves out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion the bystanders inside Nazi-ruled Europe. Lawson explains that he disagrees with Michael Marrus' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioning if bystander historiography, which is often tainted by ?political, theological and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immanence?, is history-writing at all. Lawson argues ?almost the opposite, that it is in this immanence, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reality that the bystander debate is a discourse about now, that we may find ? the ?meaningfulness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?? \(p. 113\). I agree with him. But for those who do not look upon the Holocaust only through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(angle of the English sphere of language but also through the scholarly and popular literature written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, especially since the end of the 1960s \(after the students revolts\), the lack of an overview and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the debates in Europe is a major flaw: it is precisely in Europe, first in the West and since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s in the East, that the local ?bystander? attitudes to the persecutions of the Jews, have been and still are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the major reason behind the ever-expanding interest in the Holocaust; coping with this historical chapter has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the prism of self-evaluation and soul-searching for entire societies \(especially in The Netherlands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and Poland\). Lawson relates to these countries \(and others\) briefly in chapter five, when focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1990s and suggesting a breakdown of metanarratives into \(among other things\) ?National Holocausts?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet there the focus is on active collaboration and that does not cover real 'standing by?. In this category of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bystanders? also Jewish bystanders should have been included, that is the Jewish communities and leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Free World. The fierce debates inside these communities, especially in Israel \(since the 1950s\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States \(since the end of the 1970s\), have sometimes been the dominant issues in their entire discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Holocaust \(such as in the so-called ?Post-Zionist Debate? in Israel in the 1990s\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.620 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.620 495.699 m 467.612 495.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four returns to the intentionalism/functionalism debate at its height, in the 1970s and 1980s. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis here is helpful in general, yet one finds a somewhat strange inversion of the development: usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functionalism is seen as a reaction to intentionalism, which had emerged after 1945 as the first major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretational tendency; yet Lawson deals with intentionalism as a reaction to functionalism. In reality, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development was complicated: early intentionalism preceded functionalism, and is alluded to as such in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter two; a later, more sophisticated version of intentionalism?\(the leading scholar of this approach being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eberhard Jckel\) emerged vis--vis the functionalist challenge, and it is with this intentionalism that Lawson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals in this chapter ? but he does not clarify this distinction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters five and six deal with perpetrator history of the 1990s and the beginning of the first decade of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millennium. Chapter five, which is subtitled ?the end of the Cold war and the breakdown of Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metanarratives?, rightly sees in the downfall of the communist bloc in 1989?90 a major turning point in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Indeed, ?during the 1990s a group of younger German scholars working in the archives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former communist bloc challenged the metanarratives which had dominated the study of the Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the 1960s? \(p. 154\). They enriched knowledge about the Holocaust with a real wave of studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing to possible additional motivations for the mass murder, to tensions between centre and periphery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the problematic nature of decision-making, to the involvement of local populations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation and sometimes even the initiation of murder campaigns )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.656 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.656 229.347 m 395.648 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 395.648 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and hence questioned the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology. However, did this really mean the breakdown of metanarratives as Lawson suggests? It is precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the end of the 1990s, that ? on the basis of the broader knowledge gained by the newly uncovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources ? several major metanarratives emerged in the form of comprehensive studies: by Saul Friedlnder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in part one of his )] TJ ET BT 122.336 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nazi Germany and the Jews)] TJ ET BT 259.988 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1933-1939: The Years of Persecution)] TJ ET BT 439.976 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which came out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997; part two, )] TJ ET BT 110.012 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nazi Germany and the Jews)] TJ ET BT 247.664 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1939-1945: The Years of Extermination)] TJ ET BT 438.992 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published ten years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, in 2007\), by Peter Longerich in his )] TJ ET BT 231.992 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politik der Vernichtung )] TJ ET BT 348.320 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1998; recently translated into English and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(updated: )] TJ ET BT 78.344 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 127.676 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2010\), and by Ian Kershaw in his two-volume magnum opus on Hitler \()] TJ ET BT 477.968 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1889?1936: Hubris)] TJ ET BT 128.348 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1998; )] TJ ET BT 164.684 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler, 1936?1945: Nemesis)] TJ ET BT 300.344 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2000; amazingly, Lawson does not analyze this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrative and influential study by Kershaw\). All three attribute, though in different ways, a central place to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Semitism, that is, to ideology and cultural images \(Friedlnder coines the term ?redemptive anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Semitism?\) as well as to Hitler. All three also identify the relevant period as 1933?45, that is, they identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entire period of the Nazi regime with its destructive anti-Jewish policies, not limiting ?the Holocaust? to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.6197 496.0135 467.6117 507.8935 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 381.6557 229.6615 395.6477 241.5415 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 5977 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comprehensive murder campaign of the Jews since 1941.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six is called ??Ordinary men?: rethinking the politics of perpetrator history?. In this chapter Lawson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes Christopher Browning's well-known study from 1992 on Order Police Batallion 101 and its murderous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itinerary as the starting point. The chapter follows that on the assumed breakdown of the metanarratives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wake of the collapse of the Communist bloc. However, it becomes clear after several pages that here too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins are to be found in a much earlier period \(the 1970s\), with the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 451.256 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alltagsgeschichte )] TJ ET BT 538.916 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of everyday life\). Lawson?s analysis in the first part of this chapter is excellent, though I would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed it earlier in the book, precisely because this approach started in the 1970s. In a )] TJ ET BT 447.260 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de force)] TJ ET BT 509.252 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the heading of ?The politics of modern perpetrator history?, Lawson combines the historiography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea of political religion and ? in a much too short and uncritical mode ? the more recent interpretational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courses of colonialism and genocide. Lawson, according to his introduction and the formulations in this sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, seems to embrace these interpretations. He writes that ?to some scholars ? comparison with colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide is anathema because it seems to lessen the particularity of Jewish suffering? \(p. 225\). He does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal with what should have been pointed out in a book emphasizing the interwoven-ness of history-writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with current contexts, namely how politicized the field of genocide studies has become, and how indeed this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of explanation in fact detracts major parts of the understandings of the Holocaust so meticulously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built up over decades. It therefore does not ?lessen the particularity of Jewish suffering?, as Lawson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulates it, but lessens ? or even \(sometimes intentionally!\) downplays the scope and enormity of the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Jewish project \(such as for instance the importance of the Holocaust in western Europe; it also provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no convincing explanation of the Nazi obsession to deport to Auschwitz, by means of boats and trains, at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late stage such as August 1944, a remote and tiny Jewish community as the one of Rhodes\).)] TJ ET BT 477.632 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of genocide studies since the beginning of the 1980s and its current relationship with Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies deserves a chapter by itself: genocide studies started as an offspring of Holocaust studies and so to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say under its auspices, but has developed in recent years into an independent field, sometimes even clashing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Holocaust studies; this parting of ways was recently demonstrated by the fact that in the series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Handbooks two separate volumes appeared, one of )] TJ ET BT 318.944 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust Studies)] TJ ET BT 405.944 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the other of )] TJ ET BT 470.264 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Genocide Studies)] TJ ET BT 553.916 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 412.419 m 48.008 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven changes the focus to debates on Jewish responses to Nazism. Lawson touches upon some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the major issues \(resistance, ghettos, Jewish Councils\), but it is in many respects the weakest chapter of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. He states that ?the historiography of Jews and Jewish behavior under the ?Final Solution? has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore developed problematically since the end of the war ? this is an historiography defined almost by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence?. This is a gross misrepresentation: although less voluminous then perpetrator history, a lot has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written on issues not only of resistance and collaboration, but also about the fate of emancipation, questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jewish solidarity \(or not\) and social cohesion \(or not\), class struggle, religious life and theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses and much more. Indeed, the major part of studies on these aspects is to be found in Hebrew, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yiddish and European languages; once again, the absence of non-English studies in this chapter is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 412.7335 48.0077 424.6135 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 9293 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter \(eight\) shifts to the debated role of testimonies and )] TJ ET BT 360.632 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(memoires)] TJ ET BT 407.288 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lawson does not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiate between the two genres\) in Holocaust historiography and memory. His is a fair representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of some of the dominant approaches and challenges in this field ? the issue of the blurring of fact and fiction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the stands taken by scholars against and in favor of using these as historical sources ? but much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can and )] TJ ET BT 74.000 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(should)] TJ ET BT 106.004 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be said. Lawson rightly concludes that ?whichever way we turn, we are brought back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position that using testimony is problematic? \(p. 299\). However, it is of major importance to emphasize that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses claim in their testimonies and )] TJ ET BT 228.008 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(memoires)] TJ ET BT 274.664 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to present historical reality, sometimes even expressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their anger that ?historians do not really understand? the reality of the time. Therefore, there is not only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of how to use these sources, but there is often a clash between ?memorial history? and ?academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?. On the other hand, the volume of oral and written Holocaust testimonies and memoiristic literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is so vast and has been so much studied in the last three and a half decades, that sophisticated use of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of source material has been developed by Holocaust historians and scholars from other disciplines, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has consequently become a model for similar use in other fields of history, especially in genocide studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As can be understood, this book has left me with very mixed feelings. On the one hand, Lawson has taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up an enormous challenge and his is the only attempt to write a comprehensive overview of Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography in one narrative since Michael Marrus's )] TJ ET BT 299.792 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust in History )] TJ ET BT 424.460 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1987\); his awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aspects of historical writing and actual relevance is similarly most important, although the declared goal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contextualize the debates is not upheld throughout the entire book. On the other hand, and as pointed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above, the analyses are often problematic \(even if thought-provoking\) from chronological and thematical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points of view, and omit important debates and aspects. The lack of an in-depth discussion of the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the terminology Shoah \(actually: )] TJ ET BT 207.668 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 225.668 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Shoah\), Holocaust, cataclysm, )] TJ ET BT 377.312 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Khurbn)] TJ ET BT 413.984 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Judeocide and genocide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, and the competition between the terms as representing both conceptual debates on the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event and the importance of the media \(cinema, TV\) and politics \(such as the Middle East peace process as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalyst for the US Holocaust Memorial Museum\) in promoting understandings and images, is in my eyes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major deficiency. Add to this the almost complete disregard of non-English research literature \(except for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what has been translated into English\), the slovenly proofreading )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.304 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.304 414.675 m 369.296 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 369.296 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and some factual mistakes )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.608 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.608 414.675 m 521.600 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 521.600 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one will understand my deep reservations too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most notable ones are: Lucy S. Dawidowicz, )] TJ ET BT 303.308 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust and the Historians)] TJ ET BT 465.980 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1981\); )] TJ ET BT 98.348 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historiography of the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 275.684 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Israel Gutman and Gideon Greif \(Jerusalem, 1988\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael R. Marrus, )] TJ ET BT 161.000 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust in History )] TJ ET BT 285.668 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1989\); Ulrich Herbert, ?Vernichtungspolitik: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neue Antworten und Frage zur Geschichte des ?Holocaust??, in )] TJ ET BT 374.600 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalsozialistische )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vernichtungspolitik 1939?1945. Neue Forschungen und Kontroversen)] TJ ET BT 401.996 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Ulrich Herbert)] TJ ET BT 498.632 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Frankfurt, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\), pp. 9?66; Dan Michman, )] TJ ET BT 220.664 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust Historiography: A Jewish Perspective. Conceptualizations, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Terminology, Approaches and Fundamental Issues )] TJ ET BT 311.996 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2003\); )] TJ ET BT 393.656 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historiography of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 113.348 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Dan Stone)] TJ ET BT 190.004 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 293.000 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust Historiography in Context: Emergence, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Challenges, Polemics and Achievements)] TJ ET BT 257.984 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. David Bankier and Dan Michman)] TJ ET BT 446.948 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Jerusalem, 2008\); and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most recently: )] TJ ET BT 135.344 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies)] TJ ET BT 345.668 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Peter Hayes and John K. Roth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2010\). Of course, there are more overviews of Holocaust historiography in different )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries \(such as West Germany, East Germany, The Netherlands and Israel\) and on certain issues )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as ghettos or rescue\), sometimes in the form of introductions to studies or in encyclopedias; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short overviews are sometimes given also in literature on the historiography of Nazism and the Third )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reich. Nevertheless, altogether the volume of this genre is meager.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.952 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.952 135.315 m 439.940 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I regret the fact that Lawson chose to skip the period of the Nazi state itself \(1933?45\) as a first period )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of research and debates \(although he makes several observations on pp. 23?6\): in fact, scholarly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to document and analyze what was happening started as early as 1933: the Wiener Library, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned by him as one of the post-war institutions, started its activities already in 1933 in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam, as part of the Dutch Jewish ?Committee for Special Jewish Interests?; surveys were made )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by refugee committees throughout; and articles were published in scholarly journals such as )] TJ ET BT 508.280 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jewish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 36.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Studies)] TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj [49 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.3037 414.9895 369.2957 426.8695 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [49 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.6077 414.9895 521.5997 426.8695 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.9517 135.6295 439.9397 147.5095 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R ] /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 5938 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.016 795.075 m 121.004 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET BT 84.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust Historiography in Context)] TJ ET BT 263.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.348 780.819 m 320.336 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an extensive and penetrating analysis of this historiography see: Nicolas Berg, )] TJ ET BT 462.296 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Holocaust und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(die westdeutschen Historiker. Erforschung und Erinnerung )] TJ ET BT 351.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Gttingen, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.660 752.307 m 494.648 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, although Hilberg's book was published in 1961 and is dealt with by Lawson as a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of that period, he used a much later edition of the book, in which Hilberg altered several )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulations; see one quote on p. 73.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.000 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.000 709.539 m 295.988 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET BT 84.344 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust Historiography: A Jewish Perspective)] TJ ET BT 319.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 11?40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.980 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.980 695.283 m 429.968 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only in two notes on p. 264 Lawson refers to this issue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.664 681.027 m 385.652 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson entirely disregards the importance of the European unification process on this issue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.608 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.608 666.771 m 547.604 666.771 l S BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 652.515 m 78.008 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Handbook of Holocaust Studies)] TJ ET BT 274.340 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 280.676 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Handbook of Genocide Studies)] TJ ET BT 487.652 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Donald )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloxham and A. Dirk Moses \(Oxford, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.988 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.988 624.003 m 334.976 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many typos and misspellings - for instance, on p. 21: Musselman, instead of Muselmann; p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41, sentence without an end; p. 50, note 111: Zbiniew instead of Zbigniew; p. 202 ? missing word in a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence 22; p. 313: book by Mosse misses place of publication; and more.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.980 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.980 581.235 m 483.968 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance: Yad Vashem was not established in 1957 \(p. 32\) but officially by a Knesset bill in 1953, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and had already a first incarnation in the period 1946?1950; the SS rank )] TJ ET BT 412.292 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(SS- und Polizeif)] TJ ET BT 488.960 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 494.960 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hrer)] TJ ET BT 515.624 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is never )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in the documentation as )] TJ ET BT 218.336 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schutzstaffeln- und Polizeif)] TJ ET BT 349.676 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 355.676 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hrer)] TJ ET BT 376.340 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 21\), although SS is an acronym )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for )] TJ ET BT 81.008 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schutzstaffeln)] TJ ET BT 147.680 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; Raul Hilberg and Ernst Nolte are defined as historians, although both were political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists; etc.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.348 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.348 509.955 m 191.336 509.955 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 494.623 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 476.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 476.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1160)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 475.449 m 328.316 475.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 450.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7803)] TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.0157 795.3895 121.0037 807.2695 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 266.3477 781.1335 320.3357 793.0135 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.6597 752.6215 494.6477 764.5015 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.9997 709.8535 295.9877 721.7335 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.9797 695.5975 429.9677 707.4775 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6637 681.3415 385.6517 693.2215 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.6077 667.0855 547.6037 678.9655 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 652.8295 78.0077 664.7095 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.9877 624.3175 334.9757 636.1975 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.9797 581.5495 483.9677 593.4295 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 51 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.3477 510.2695 191.3357 522.1495 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 54 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 475.7635 328.3157 487.6435 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1160) >> endobj xref 0 85 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000005216 00000 n 0000005325 00000 n 0000005435 00000 n 0000005544 00000 n 0000009105 00000 n 0000009233 00000 n 0000009317 00000 n 0000009346 00000 n 0000009474 00000 n 0000009510 00000 n 0000009594 00000 n 0000015340 00000 n 0000015370 00000 n 0000015498 00000 n 0000015534 00000 n 0000015639 00000 n 0000024873 00000 n 0000024903 00000 n 0000025029 00000 n 0000025065 00000 n 0000025095 00000 n 0000025223 00000 n 0000025259 00000 n 0000025289 00000 n 0000025415 00000 n 0000025451 00000 n 0000025481 00000 n 0000025609 00000 n 0000025645 00000 n 0000025736 00000 n 0000034597 00000 n 0000034627 00000 n 0000034755 00000 n 0000034791 00000 n 0000034821 00000 n 0000034949 00000 n 0000034985 00000 n 0000035069 00000 n 0000041099 00000 n 0000041129 00000 n 0000041255 00000 n 0000041291 00000 n 0000041389 00000 n 0000050735 00000 n 0000050765 00000 n 0000050893 00000 n 0000050929 00000 n 0000050959 00000 n 0000051087 00000 n 0000051123 00000 n 0000051251 00000 n 0000051306 00000 n 0000051467 00000 n 0000057458 00000 n 0000057585 00000 n 0000057640 00000 n 0000057768 00000 n 0000057823 00000 n 0000057951 00000 n 0000058006 00000 n 0000058134 00000 n 0000058189 00000 n 0000058317 00000 n 0000058372 00000 n 0000058500 00000 n 0000058536 00000 n 0000058664 00000 n 0000058719 00000 n 0000058845 00000 n 0000058900 00000 n 0000059028 00000 n 0000059083 00000 n 0000059211 00000 n 0000059266 00000 n 0000059394 00000 n 0000059449 00000 n 0000059577 00000 n trailer << /Size 85 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 59673 %%EOF