%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 45 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722204750+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722204750+01'00') /Title (The Law of Organized Religions: Between Establishment and Secularism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3844 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Law of Organized Religions: Between Establishment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Secularism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book which could very easily slip under the radar of most historians. Even had they noticed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title, and had their curiosity piqued by the sub-title, after checking the academic discipline of the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Julian Rivers is Professor of Jurisprudence at Bristol University\) many might well have decided that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book was probably of no professional interest to them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet, there is a great deal of material in this book of relevance to historians, and not just those whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen subset is constitutional, legal or ecclesiastical history. In writing these reviews, reviewers are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requested to place the book under review in its historiographical context. I must profess this is difficult as, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strictly speaking, this does not fall within such a context, but individual chapters do contain considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material which does.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivers gives an overview of the law as it applies to religious bodies from Magna Carta through to the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day. He concentrates in chapter one on the non-Established denominations, including Judaism. Here his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment is brief but comprehensive. The most obvious example to take is the law as it changed with regard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales as this was the major non-reformed Christian faith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Rivers admits in his preface that the book is Anglo-centric, so apologies to those from Scotland\). A large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1161)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julian Rivers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199226108)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(424pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olive Barnes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of law proscribing Catholicism had been enacted from the reign of Elizabeth I through to 1829. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dealing with the dismantling of these laws, historians of Catholicism in England have been accused as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeing the relief from these laws as a Whiggish development ? the First Relief Act of 1778, the Second in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1791 and finally Catholic Emancipation in 1829.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.340 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.340 752.307 m 282.332 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.332 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The enactments of these statutes certainly relieved the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of Catholics in England and removed many of the disabilities under which they had laboured, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not the whole story. The 1813 Act is omitted from this chronology. Prior to the 1801 Act of Union of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Britain and Ireland, Catholic relief had proceeded at a somewhat faster rate in Ireland. The 1813 Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended the Irish relief of 1793 to those transferring to offices in England. One of the major anomalies was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the position of officers in the Army. The 1793 Act in Ireland had allowed Catholics there to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissions up to the rank of colonel; Catholics in England were not allowed to take commissions. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to regularise the position of Irish Catholic soldiers in England was made in Parliament in 1805 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the annual debate on the Army Act, but failed due to King George III?s refusal to accept any further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions to Catholics. To what extent Irish office holders, whether in the army or in other positions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered because of the unevenness of the law, has not, to the best of this writer?s knowledge, been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Relying on statute law to declaim that Catholicism was, from 1829, on a par with the other Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominations, omits consideration of case law. In this area, common Catholic practices such as leaving a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy for a priest to say masses for the soul of the legatee were deemed to be ?superstitious? until 1919 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when in the case of )] TJ ET BT 129.656 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bourne v Keen)] TJ ET BT 200.972 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the previous decision of the courts was overturned. For much of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, from 1834 when such a legacy was first declared to be superstitious \()] TJ ET BT 407.936 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(West v Shuttleworth)] TJ ET BT 503.936 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), advice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was given in Catholic publications as to an appropriate wording of one's will to effect such a legacy legally.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 483.699 m 48.008 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So that, although full civic rights were granted to Catholics in 1829, the decision in )] TJ ET BT 453.320 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(West v Shuttleworth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented Catholics from exercising one of the principal tenets of their faith ? to pray for the souls of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deceased \(such legacies were legal in Ireland\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one is really the only strictly historical chapter in this book. The following nine chapters look at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific aspects of engagement between religions and the state. Rivers covers all aspects of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement: education, welfare, rites of passage, chaplaincies, access to public discourse by religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies, the legal position of ministers of religion \(their employment rights and so on\). His coverage is wide, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing all the major, well-known denominations and faiths, and some minority religions ? including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example an account of the Druids? wishes to celebrate the summer solstice at Stonehenge. Each chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes a brief account of the history of that particular aspect of law. For example, in the chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare, Rivers takes the story right back to the time of the Reformation and carries the reader forward to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt by the Catholic adoption agencies to gain exemption from the recent equality laws regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adoption by gay couples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because of the Human Rights Act 1998, many judgements in England now reflect international human rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws and decisions. Chapter two shows how human rights, at first deemed to be individualistic, developed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granting rights to religious groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three looks at the constitution of religious bodies. Rivers traces these developments starting with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century trust law. In this area such questions as the ownership of property loom large. In the case, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, of a monastic community, who actually owns the property? How should the law intervene in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of a dispute? The ownership of the religious community's property was particularly difficult if that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community were Catholic and male, as they were illegal in English law until the Catholic Relief Act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1926. Rivers does not delve into the history of how those communities existed and managed their property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership, which under their rule should have been communal. It was an issue which was recognised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics in the 19th century as the testimony of various witnesses to the House of Commons Select )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee in 1870 testifies. It was also an issue, in terms of the wider ownership of church property, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop Bourne of Westminster laid before his fellow bishops at their annual meeting in 1904. On that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion Bourne outlined some of the difficulties encountered when church property was held in trust by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laymen ? a device used to circumvent the difficulties which the law posed.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.3397 752.6215 282.3317 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 484.0135 48.0077 495.8935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8526 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were also difficulties for the non-conformists. In the case of a dispute amongst a congregation, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the congregation should retain the property? The danger for the courts in such cases was that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be accused of taking sides in a doctrinal dispute which they were not competent to adjudicate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Endeavouring to remain neutral as to doctrine and apply the law strictly was a major consideration for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts. Many of these denominations had been founded on the principle of congregational pre-eminence with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no hierarchical structure; how could the court decide on property ownership in a situation of schism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament has passed a number of Acts referring to individual denominations such as the Baptist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congregational Trusts Act \(1950\) and the Presbyterian Church of England Act \(1960\) which empowered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts without involving them in doctrinal disputes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout this book it is clear that the trajectory in the law is towards toleration of religious pluralism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is shown in the chapter on chaplaincies. Chapter four deals with modern employment law as it refers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers of religion but chaplains are unusual in that they are directly employed by a particular organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(e.g. the Armed Services or the Prison Service\) and hence the separate chapter on this subject. Prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crimean War, the Army Chaplaincy service employed Church of England chaplains only. The history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic chaplains in the Army has been written by T. Johnstone and J. Hagerty )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.632 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.632 571.491 m 434.624 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.624 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and in the British Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army by M. Mulvihill.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.028 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.028 557.235 m 159.020 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 159.020 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the more religiously pluralist environment of Britain, members of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian faiths are assured of chaplaincy services too. The one area which diverges from the equality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaplains of all faiths is in the Prison Service where the Church of England chaplain is )] TJ ET BT 452.624 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(primus inter pares)] TJ ET BT 541.292 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education, its development, its history, the battle by non-conformists for non-denominational education and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Catholics for funding for its schools has been well-recounted in numerous books and papers. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubtful if Rivers adds greatly to that which is already published. However, as this book does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate wholly on education, just one observation is of note. From the very beginning, education was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be instruction in the Christian faith. In this one area, the organised religions have maintained their influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a considerable degree and education benefits from specific protection when considered from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective of international human rights. The history of educational provision in the United Kingdom has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to a complexity unmatched in other areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of these areas is that of welfare. In this chapter Rivers notes what he terms as three ?secularizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments?. The dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII removed the main medieval providers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charitable relief. The onus for relief of the poor was placed on parishes by an act in 1572. The creation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charity Commissioners in 1597 and a further Elizabethan Charity Act in 1601 led to an upsurge in charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving and the establishment of various institutions. In medieval times the giving of alms was understood to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a spiritual benefit to the giver and thus focussed on the afterlife; the new institutions founded in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 17th century were for the betterment of people in this life. As these were not Church bodies, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular, but not atheistic as they often had chaplains attached. ?But a structural differentiation had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached which enabled a distinction to be drawn between religion and welfare?. The Poor Law hospitals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century followed this pattern of having chaplains even though they were not religious foundations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the common model in much of Europe at the time\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second ?secularizing moment? was the creation of the Welfare State after the Second World War. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war period, organisations such as Dr Barnardo?s, founded on Victorian principles of philanthropy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which included proselytism and rescue became more secularist, even though individual members may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained a faith-based motivation. With the State now being the major provider of welfare, many religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations began to operate in minority areas. Rivers suggests that the recent legislation to secure equality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and diversity may well turn out to be the third ?secularizing moment?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overviews of the history of religion in Britain have been written. O. Chadwick wrote extensively on religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Victorian era )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.992 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.992 95.811 m 143.984 95.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.984 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; G. I. T. Machin covered religion and politics in the 19th century in two volumes )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.280 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.280 95.811 m 552.272 95.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 552.272 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recently A. Hastings has reviewed the 20th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 309.956 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 309.956 81.555 m 323.948 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 323.948 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such volumes are supplemented by writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering aspects of individual denominations. D. Hempton has written on Methodism )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.988 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.988 67.299 m 462.980 67.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.980 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; J. Bossy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.024 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.024 53.043 m 109.016 53.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and many authors on the Established Church. The particular advantage of Rivers? book is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6317 571.8055 434.6237 583.6855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.0277 557.5495 159.0197 569.4295 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.9917 96.1255 143.9837 108.0055 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.2797 96.1255 552.2717 108.0055 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 309.9557 81.8695 323.9477 93.7495 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.9877 67.6135 462.9797 79.4935 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0237 53.3575 109.0157 65.2375 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 9044 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it approaches the subject from the perspective of the law, and not just statute law, but case law as well. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This latter aspect is frequently overlooked by historians and yet its effects are as important as statutes. Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mansfield is well-known to historians of 18th-century religious matters as being tolerant of such diversity as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed at the time. It was he who with other judges made it impossible in practice to secure a conviction for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a Catholic priest \(the punishment on conviction was life imprisonment\). In giving judgement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of )] TJ ET BT 70.664 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evans v Chamberlain of London)] TJ ET BT 226.664 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Mansfield remarked that the effect of the Toleration Act \(1689\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not merely to remove the penalties attaching to religious dissent but to bring about the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of non-conforming Protestantism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A lack of appreciation of the case law could lead to erroneous judgements or incomplete analysis. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned above that the )] TJ ET BT 158.000 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(West v Shuttleworth)] TJ ET BT 254.000 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( judgement had repercussions for Catholics until it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reversed in 1919 in )] TJ ET BT 129.332 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bourne v Keen)] TJ ET BT 200.648 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This was recognised by them at the time. Despite the 1860 Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Charities Act, bequests for masses for the soul of the testator were still illegal. In giving evidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1870 to a Select Committee of the House of Commons, the then Charity Commissioner expressed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion that there was no reason in law why all Catholic trusts should not be enrolled. When reminded of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(West v Shuttleworth)] TJ ET BT 130.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( judgement, he conceded that there may well have been trusts which would have failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the test of legality because of this.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.660 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.660 569.235 m 217.652 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.652 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rivers points out that the 1860 Act at least allowed the Charity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commissioners to apply such failing bequests to other Catholic charities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides a full index, Rivers includes 12 pages listing all the cases which he cites in his work, giving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages where they are mentioned and the source of the judgement. Those inexperienced in finding cases on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various websites such as Westlaw which make court judgements available to practising lawyers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics may need some help here from a legally trained friend or librarian. Rivers also lists all the statutes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited, again with page references.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivers? analysis and argument is legal and jurisprudential not historical and for non-lawyers \(and Rivers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that there may be such readers of this book\) much of the text will require close reading. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book may open up avenues for research for historians, some of which have been suggested above. But even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if no one were to undertake such research, Rivers has provided all historians of religion and religious bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England with a comprehensive work of reference. And while law students may complain of the cost of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text books which become outdated a year after they have been purchased, this will not be one of those. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the book was published in 2010, and some issues have already been decided since publication \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case concerning the Catholic Adoption agencies has finally been lost\), when historians come to write the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the New Labour government of 1997?2010 and the effects of the equality and diversity acts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivers? discussion of these will form an invaluable primary source, giving not only the law's history, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also the trajectory which it has taken in moving between Establishment and Secularism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Haydon, ?Parliament and popery in England, 1700?1780?, )] TJ ET BT 361.976 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary History)] TJ ET BT 470.972 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 19, 1 \(2000\), 49.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 223.107 m 118.004 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Catholic Directory 1848; unnumbered page, following August in the calendar.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.604 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.604 208.851 m 554.264 208.851 l S BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 194.595 m 90.344 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Johnstone and J. Hagerty, )] TJ ET BT 203.996 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cross on the Sword : Catholic Chaplains in the Forces)] TJ ET BT 489.344 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 166.083 m 149.000 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Mulvihill, 'Peculiar circumstances: Catholic chaplains of the Victorian British Army in India?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Electronic British Library Journal)] TJ ET BT 250.688 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2008\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.448 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2008articles/article3.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.448 137.571 m 525.116 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.116 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 542.108 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 8 November 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.636 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.636 123.315 m 260.624 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O. Chadwick, )] TJ ET BT 133.340 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Victorian Church \()] TJ ET BT 245.672 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecclesiastical history of England, volume 5\))] TJ ET BT 458.324 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1966\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Secularization of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century : the Gifford Lectures in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(University of Edinburgh for 1973?4)] TJ ET BT 236.684 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.004 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.004 80.547 m 387.992 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. I. T. Machin, )] TJ ET BT 144.668 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics and the churches in Great Britain, 1832 to 1868 )] TJ ET BT 419.000 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1977\); )] TJ ET BT 500.984 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the churches in Great Britain 1869 to 1921.)] TJ ET BT 295.676 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.324 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.324 52.035 m 431.312 52.035 l S endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.6597 569.5495 217.6517 581.4295 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 223.4215 118.0037 235.3015 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.6037 209.1655 554.2637 221.0455 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 194.9095 90.3437 206.7895 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 166.3975 148.9997 178.2775 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 295.4477 137.8855 525.1157 149.7655 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2008articles/article3.html) >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.6357 123.6295 260.6237 135.5095 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.0037 80.8615 387.9917 92.7415 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.3237 52.3495 431.3117 64.2295 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 67 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Length 2921 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Hastings, )] TJ ET BT 126.680 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of English Christianity 1920?2000.)] TJ ET BT 345.368 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(4th ed., London, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.356 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.356 795.075 m 519.344 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Hempton, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Methodism and politics in British society 1750?1850)] TJ ET BT 383.348 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New ed., London, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.656 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.656 780.819 m 550.652 780.819 l S BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 78.008 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bossy, )] TJ ET BT 110.024 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Catholic community, 1570?1850 )] TJ ET BT 330.692 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 409.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 409.016 752.307 m 463.004 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. P. Villiers, )] TJ ET BT 132.692 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Report from the Select Committee on Conventual and Monastic Institutions, &c.; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(together with the proceedings of the committee, minutes of evidence, and appendix)] TJ ET BT 460.964 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1870\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.956 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.956 723.795 m 558.944 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful that his work has caught the attention of historians and hopeful that it may contribute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the mutual enrichment of their respective disciplines. He has no wish to comment further on this review.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 667.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 650.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 650.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1161)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 648.777 m 328.316 648.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 623.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7804)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.bl.uk/eblj/2008articles/article3.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.3557 795.3895 519.3437 807.2695 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.6557 781.1335 550.6517 793.0135 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 766.8775 78.0077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.0157 752.6215 463.0037 764.5015 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.9557 724.1095 558.9437 735.9895 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 649.0915 328.3157 660.9715 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1161) >> endobj xref 0 80 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000660 00000 n 0000004556 00000 n 0000004665 00000 n 0000004775 00000 n 0000004884 00000 n 0000008445 00000 n 0000008573 00000 n 0000008657 00000 n 0000008748 00000 n 0000016489 00000 n 0000016519 00000 n 0000016647 00000 n 0000016683 00000 n 0000016713 00000 n 0000016839 00000 n 0000016875 00000 n 0000017001 00000 n 0000025580 00000 n 0000025610 00000 n 0000025738 00000 n 0000025774 00000 n 0000025804 00000 n 0000025932 00000 n 0000025968 00000 n 0000025998 00000 n 0000026125 00000 n 0000026161 00000 n 0000026191 00000 n 0000026318 00000 n 0000026354 00000 n 0000026384 00000 n 0000026510 00000 n 0000026546 00000 n 0000026576 00000 n 0000026702 00000 n 0000026738 00000 n 0000026768 00000 n 0000026893 00000 n 0000026929 00000 n 0000027069 00000 n 0000036166 00000 n 0000036196 00000 n 0000036324 00000 n 0000036360 00000 n 0000036487 00000 n 0000036542 00000 n 0000036670 00000 n 0000036725 00000 n 0000036851 00000 n 0000036906 00000 n 0000037033 00000 n 0000037088 00000 n 0000037216 00000 n 0000037316 00000 n 0000037444 00000 n 0000037499 00000 n 0000037625 00000 n 0000037680 00000 n 0000037806 00000 n 0000037861 00000 n 0000037980 00000 n 0000040954 00000 n 0000041082 00000 n 0000041137 00000 n 0000041265 00000 n 0000041320 00000 n 0000041446 00000 n 0000041501 00000 n 0000041629 00000 n 0000041684 00000 n 0000041812 00000 n 0000041867 00000 n 0000041995 00000 n trailer << /Size 80 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42091 %%EOF