%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150704154405+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150704154405+01'00') /Title (Survival and Discord in Medieval Society, Essays in Honour of Christopher Dyer) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3685 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Survival and Discord in Medieval Society, Essays in Honour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Christopher Dyer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This festschrift pays tribute to one of our most distinguished medievalists, who has helped shape the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through his teaching and writing, and through his active support for societies and individuals. He has ranged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely, bringing to the forefront issues and evidence that had hitherto been ignored, using the evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeology and the landscape as well as the more traditional documents of the historian. This volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a variety of explorations whose starting points are appropriately local, national and international in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn. The seven pages listing his publications reflect the wide range of his work. His Middle Ages is a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full of people, acting and interacting in a wide range of ways in which their lives and goods have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought in from the cold.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grenville Astill?s article reminds us of the recipient?s welcome readiness to be concerned with archaeology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and settlement. He examines the development of rural settlement between the 8th and the 13th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising the complexities of its development: phases of particular importance as in the 8th and the 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, and a wide range of geographic, market and demographic influences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1162)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Goddard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Langdon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miriam Mller)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782503528151)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(306pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brepols)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turnhout, Belgium)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hare)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6823 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late Harold Fox explored the importance and the value of waste through a study of Dartmoor. To the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry, waste offered a vital extra resource. Meanwhile lords also sought to tap and manorialise this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth, but with only limited success against the customary rights of the tenants, although they achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater success against outsiders. A case study of Okehampton Park emphasises the economic value to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lord of parkland, and renting pasture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Britnell assesses the impact of Postan?s article on the 15th century, ?a brash article? that has been so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hugely influential, evaluating its continuing validity and limitations both within the context of what Postan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was trying to do, and of subsequent work that has done so much to emphasise the complexity of the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the overconfidence of his generalisations. Britnell urges us ?to abandon battles between optimism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pessimism? and to turn to ?more subtle analyses of development? exploring the responses to the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period that were to be influential in the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The treatment of towns is restricted to the great, Winchester, Nottingham and Chester rather than the small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns which the recipient has done so much to establish as worthy of our attention. Richard Goddard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the work of the late medieval borough courts with their predominance of debt cases, focussing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nottingham and Winchester. In so far as debt cases provide a measure of economic activities, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the activity of the economy in the later 14th century and the difficulties of the economy from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1420s. But while this is enough to emphasise that the economy ?ebbed and flowed?, the paucity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester?s documentation after 1433 poses considerable difficulties. How far had it seen recovery in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1430s and 1440s? How long was the recession? As suggested here, the recovery may have resulted from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declining role of courts or record keeping.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Laughton?s study of the regional capital of Chester shows the detailed painstaking attempts to impose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law and order, but with limited success. Below the formalities of the structure of urban government, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens were heavily involved in the attempted maintenance of the peace through the provision of sureties or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bonds and arbitration. James Masschaele shows how the national legal system of assizes, gaol deliveries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace sessions served to connect town and countryside. With the large number of jurors required to attend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the countryside it would not merely have been a point of contact, but, as several hundred visitors might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be expected to come, would be good for business and trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Swanson continues his treatment of tithes and other spiritualities, the economic demands of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, examining three parishes in the Peak district of Derbyshire. He emphasises the need to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignoring spiritual revenues and especially tithes, despite the rarity of the sources. Here his accounts are for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1400?1 and 1537?8, supplemented by the chapter act books, with the tithes being leased to a variety of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including nobility, gentry and some merchants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Langdon examines the wage rate in the building industry and royal castles where so much of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence lies, exploring the problem of wage rates and their stickiness: the tendency to become fixed at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain level. He emphasises the way that the additional family labour of children and women could be used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a modifier of wages, and highlights the difficulties in raising a workforce 1270s and 1280s, to add to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better known and more dramatic labour shortage after the Black Death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A group of articles explore aspects of the relationship between individual peasants, their community and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lord. Philipp Schofield examines the role of trespass legislation in the manor courts, and how central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court law may have been moulded and utilised by the manorial courts and as a product of peasant activity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Tomkins examines the process of leasing on a Buckinghamshire clayland manor and the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the village community. Here the demesne was leased particularly early, in 1320, and this communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lease remained for the next five centuries. It showed a mixture of collectivism and individualism. The lease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was collective and by probably the 15th century the tenants had converted most of the demesne into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common pasture, and were prepared to stand up and fight the lord \(New College, Oxford\). But at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time the individual interests of the tenants were crucial and the pasture land held by the demesne tenants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were only open to a small proportion of the village tenantry. The fight against New College was a struggle in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5393 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of individual enterprise, but by the 16th century many of the tenants lived outside the village and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sublet. The 14)] TJ ET BT 102.344 786.869 Td /F1 10.7 Tf [(th)] TJ ET BT 110.642 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-century community of the village had rotted away. Chris Briggs examines the critical role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peasant elite in acting as reeves or officials for the lord: they could benefit from the role, and for the lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had the advantage of knowing the local conditions and issues. Essentially they acted as an intermediary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the lord and his tenantry and, before the Black Death, the system seemed to work on the manors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined, according to the court presentments: at least there was a common interest between reeve and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. But on the evidence of Great Eversden and a series of presentments, there may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing difficulties with their bailiffs in the later 14th century, raising the question of whether such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties may have been a factor in generating the leasing of the demesnes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean Birrel, in her essay on Alrewas, provides a further example of early 14)] TJ ET BT 396.920 660.821 Td /F1 10.7 Tf [(th)] TJ ET BT 405.218 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-century conflict between lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and community over the terms of their landholding, suggesting that the 1341 custumal should be seen not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an imposition from the lord but as the product of negotiation between the lord and the tenantry, after earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggles concerning heriots. Miriam Mller examines the long-term changes in the diet of the labouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes as seen in both the literary evidence and the more prosaic record of the account rolls and the harvest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boon works, which suggest a shift to better grains or meat, or to fresh meat and fish. But food inequalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also seen as symbolic of the differences between the poor and the landed, of class divisions, and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could become a source of social conflict, as with legislation on hunting in parks and warrens, as also at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manorial level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two essays focus on popular revolts, exploring the European dimension to a subject that Dyer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in his work on the Peasants? Revolt of 1381. Bas van Bavel opens up the four big rural revolts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Low Countries in the century or more before the Black Death, which occurred in very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances to later revolts, at a time of rising population. Here was a relatively free peasantry, in a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of weak manorialism, and with strong traditions of free and communal associations enhanced by a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market; it ran into conflict with lords backed by the church, and support from a distance around. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts were more regional in character, in contrast to the situation in the larger 14th-century revolts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and France. Samuel Cohn compares and contrasts the English experience and the traditional focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on 1381 with continental patterns of popular revolt. He emphasises the lack of confidence and the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of rural revolt after 1381 and our need to pay more attention to urban conflict and protest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. But perhaps we also need to give more attention to a comparison of 1381 with the later revolts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1450 and 1549?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a welcome and much deserved volume. It ends with a list of Dyer's publications so far, and leaves us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking forward to more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 275.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 257.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 257.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1162)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 256.377 m 328.316 256.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 231.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 217.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7805)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 256.6915 328.3157 268.5715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1162) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004393 00000 n 0000004502 00000 n 0000004612 00000 n 0000004721 00000 n 0000008282 00000 n 0000008410 00000 n 0000008494 00000 n 0000008559 00000 n 0000015435 00000 n 0000015519 00000 n 0000020965 00000 n 0000021093 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 21189 %%EOF