%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418025715+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418025715+01'00') /Title (The History of the Scottish Parliament. Volume 3: Parliament in Context, 1235-1707) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4083 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The History of the Scottish Parliament. Volume 3: Parliament in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Context, 1235-1707)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To a political historian, little is more important than politics \(in the broad sense, as in the case of this book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporating religious division and the Reformation\), and a book about a parliament is pre-eminently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political. To a non-political historian like this reviewer, politics has to earn the priority accorded to it for, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shall, be discussed, there were other priorities ? and sometimes higher ones such as rank, lineage, loyalty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinship and estate for which both political preferment and religion would not infrequently be sacrificed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of governance will certainly wish to study this volume; but what might attract non-political or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-Scottish historians, on the other hand, would be an examination of the evolution of the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament reflected the broader nature of the country and how it was run, and the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarity/dissimilarity with other nations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the third volume in the )] TJ ET BT 181.688 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Scottish Parliament)] TJ ET BT 345.692 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series. The first two tackled significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodes in national parliamentary history in a roughly chronological manner. The editors charged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors to this volume, by contrast, to adopt ?a loftier approach that seeks to address the broad themes?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So the early chapters cover how Parliament was comprised: the relationship between Parliament and Crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although that informs almost every chapter\), and the nature of each Estate \(with the addition of Shire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1164)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan R. MacDonald)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780748614868)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles McKean)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7638 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commissioners after 1587, there were technically four estates for a few decades ? shire, burghs, nobility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy ? before, with the increasing political emasculation of the clergy in Parliament, back to three\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle chapters focus upon procedures, the relationship between parliament and the judiciary, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament?s entanglement with social )] TJ ET BT 221.324 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mores)] TJ ET BT 250.652 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The concluding essays address broader political ideas and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, the extent of Parliament?s role in the shaping of Scottish history. Some chapters are almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely historiographical whereas others are peppered with new research and primary sources; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectively they demonstrate how the dismissive perception of an ineffectual and disorganised Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament entirely under the whim of the monarch peddled by Enlightenment historians is so wide of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mark.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, most historiography about the Scottish parliament has followed the Enlightenment?s lead: namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Scotland suffered from the malign combination of a supine parliament, arbitrary rule and self-interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and remote aristocrats. Indeed, during the 17th century, as the 1752 )] TJ ET BT 360.620 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Proposals for certain Public Works in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 85.352 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( put it, ?we remained in a strange equivocal situation little better than that of a conquered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(province?; and that remained the received wisdom until the late 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish parliamentary history can be taken back confidently to at least 1286 with the use of the term ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of the realm?, although James Burns points out that William the Lion was recorded as having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held a full parliament over a century earlier. The centre of gravity of this volume, however, lies generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1450 and 1688, when a body already profoundly important to Scots history broadened and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepened its role. Its relative decline during the early 17th century with the monarch absent in London was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reversed effectively by the revolution of the 1640s, when the Covenanters governed through parliament to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent that it could be described as ?the beating heart of the nation?. In 1689, once again, Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government )] TJ ET BT 94.340 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was )] TJ ET BT 116.012 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since, despite the editors? exhortations, no chapter presents an overview of the )] TJ ET BT 415.940 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nature and distinctiveness )] TJ ET BT 544.268 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this parliament, these must be inferred from this volume; and a very intriguing picture of Scots governance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges. In essence, it was essentially collaborative and inclusive, with the king-in-parliament at its apex, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held in place by subtle checks and balances in a manner that seems rare within a European content. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps reached its apogee in the 1590s ? not surprisingly given the modernising nature of its intelligent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly educated king who had, already, had his country mapped \(by Timothy Pont\), its weights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures revamped, and its landowners and their seats listed by the Privy Council. It was all of a piece in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The key points were these. First, the Scots monarch was )] TJ ET BT 306.644 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(primus inter pares)] TJ ET BT 395.312 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(first among equals\), a fact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose implications Charles I was to show himself dangerously ignorant in 1633. This state was symbolised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the monarch?s central position in a single-chamber parliament, arranged in a horseshoe form, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch at the centre. From his throne, James VI would have viewed the nobility, barons and their guests, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all appropriately ranked, on his left; and on his right, the burgh and shire commissioners, the residual clergy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(but 13 of them at maximum\) and )] TJ ET BT 199.004 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(their )] TJ ET BT 224.672 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guests. Standing, facing him, were the lesser barons and lairds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those permitted to remain with their hats on in the king?s presence, were those who had a vote. \(Before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, the clergy had been the First Estate ? albeit a quiescent one, even if it did furnish the country?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ablest administrators such as Bishop James Kennedy ? whereas after it, they slipped to a weak fourth prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being annihilated by the Covenanters in 1639\). This, therefore, was the representation of the ?community of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the realm? of Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impression of a communal approach to Scottish government was reinforced by the existence of three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other institutions at the heart of governance. It was to the Court of Session, founded in 1532, that Parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divested itself of most of its judicial powers, although its role as a court of final appeal remained uncertain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Convention of Royal Burghs emerged from the chrysalis of the Court of the Four Burghs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in 1487 ?for the welfare of the merchants and the common profit of the burghs?. It became, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Macdonald points out, unique in Europe in that it organised merchants on a national basis, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided both monarch and legislators with an urban sounding-board \(it was virtually an urban parliament\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was responsible for raising urban tax revenues, in proportions determined by it. It also had the power to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7302 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorise the raising of subscriptions for burghs either hit by a natural disaster, or seeking to invest. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally summoned itself to meet before Parliament, and its relationship to Parliament was expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the elected burgesses. Possibly from the late 13th century, when towns were expected to wage war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside clergy and nobility, burgesses from royal burghs \(some one some two, elected by the burgh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council\) were attending Parliament. Their number eventually reached 67 although the arrival of shire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioners in 1587 diminished their significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third of these bodies was the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which came into being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the Reformation Parliament of August 1560 to govern the national kirk. Although independent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament, it was to Parliament in 1560 that it owed the existence of its church, and the two bodies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-dependent with a strong relationship. Prior to this, there had been little legislation on ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters, but that was to change. Moreover, commendators ? lay holders of ecclesiastical property and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore a titular part of the clergy ? now sat in Parliament as clergy. A crucial period was the 1640s, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the General Assembly had been released from a 20-year purdah. As Kirsty McAlister and Roland Tanner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss, despite the extremely close relationships between the Assembly and Parliament, the two bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained distinct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This impression of an essentially collaborative approach to governance is enhanced by considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary management. The business was formulated in the Privy Council, and the agenda prepared by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lords of the Articles \(a drafting committee of 40 representative members abolished only in 1689\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historiography has regarded the Articles with much hilarity, depicting them as mere creatures of the crown, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas they turn out to have been appropriately efficient and, when required, suitably independent. Once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the business was determined, and debated as necessary in prior meetings of the estates, the business was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed before Parliament with the intention that decisions would be reached by consensus \(although that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withered in the 17th century\). Voting was in public. Thus, before the 1633 coronation of that most unsubtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch Charles I, there was a subtlety of checks and balances between institutions and groups that could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withstand periodic tensions. Indeed, parliament was becoming stronger at a time when equivalents in Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were declining and, as Gillian MacIntosh and Roland Tanner point out, it could show considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence. Unafraid of obstructing the monarch, it helped scupper James? plans for a Union with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England in 1605.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To a great extent, the emphasis upon king-in-parliament lay at the core of the concept. There is some dispute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as to whether the monarch was present in Parliament quite as regularly as claimed by Alastair Mann, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regal authority was nonetheless required. When it found itself lacking both monarch and regalia in 1571, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baby King James VI?s parliament commissioned a substitute crown to signal legitimacy. The momentous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions of the 1560 Reformation Parliament remained questionable for years afterwards, since it had sat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the monarch \(then in France\). Mary Queen of Scots always dissembled on the matter, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ratification only became possible upon her forcible abdication seven years later. That raises the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual need: could the monarch do without Parliament or vice versa? At bottom, the king could avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling parliament only if he had no need of money, was making no constitutional or religious change, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treaty to approve, no embassy to send or receive, no marriage to negotiate, nobody to forfeit, and no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financing and planning of military expeditions: above all, no ratification of regime change. Thus, in the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of James IV \(when he had the comfort of a Tudor dowry\) Parliament met rarely. Once his great-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandson James V1 had moved down to the munificence of London, it was the same. But generally, in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively unwealthy country, monarchs required both money and the parliaments to provide it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the above list, it is evident both that Parliament?s locus was a wide one. It existed because Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs were not absolute, albeit since its origins may lie, as Mark Godfrey suggests, as a court of law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presided over by the monarch, required to exercise justice and determine legal disputes, that was a concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that evolved. For it became much more than that. James Burns observes that the term ?community of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm? implied that the realm was distinct from the ruler, and that Parliament was the guardian of the status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the kingdom and its people. Its agreement legitimised crown/government policy. For example, in 1309, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert I was said to have been chosen king ?with the concurrence and consent of the people? as expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Parliament. The Three Estates first appeared as such in 1357, at about the time that the concept of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditional rather than absolute political power was developing. As Keith Brown points out when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the destruction of house of Albany in 1425, no noble family could resist the combined power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king and Parliament. In 1444, James II vowed not to take any action regarding the ?common profit of realm? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without parliamentary consent, and by the end of the century, it was accepted that Parliament could restrain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyrannical monarchs. By the time John Mair wrote his )] TJ ET BT 295.988 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Majoris Britanniae)] TJ ET BT 431.336 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1521, he could state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Parliament could make laws that bound the monarch. It is surely noticeable, on the other hand, that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was parliament that had held the country together during Scotland?s sadly frequent minorities, avoiding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential for ruinous civil wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An emerging question that this volume does not address is the extent to which James VI?s increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian views were made possible only by his transfer to England. James was a considerable author ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he had written both on poetry and witches \(the latter possibly a weapon in his struggle with his cousin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Stewart earl of Bothwell\), and it is little surprise, given his upbringing by George Buchanan and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fractured childhood, that he turned his writing to kingship and governance. By 1600, James had published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The True Lawe of Free Monarchies)] TJ ET BT 205.004 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and)] TJ ET BT 225.332 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Basilikon Doron )] TJ ET BT 311.000 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which he claimed that since there had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings before Parliament, kings had precedence, and so he advised his son to avoid holding any. What is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more debatable is whether this represented, as Julian Goodare puts it, ?a trend to absolute monarchy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly given the king?s careful and moderate relations with Parliament during the closing years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The context was Parliament?s possibly most effective period during the early 1590s when it undertook its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(busiest legislative programme. Indeed, petitions to it had become so numerous \(it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating to know what they concerned\) that a vetting committee was proposed in 1594. The explosion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation in this period included the social legislation outlined by Mann ? such as interference in marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consanguinity, divorce, clandestine marriages, protection of property through the control of marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes, legal guardianship, and noble education abroad ? but it is frustrating not to have comparatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from other countries to examine whether Scotland was being typical or extreme in its measures. How did, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, its blasphemy laws compare, and why ? as compared to England ? did Scotland execute so few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious martyrs in the later 16th century ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But these parliaments had also been fractious, and the king was deeply angry at being imprisoned by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious mob during a meeting of the Privy Council in Edinburgh?s tolbooth in 1596. A desire to redefine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rules to prevent such an occurrence would have been understandable. It is equally possible that had he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not moved down to the more rarefied position as King of England, James?s political tomes would have had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much effect as his blast against tobacco. But there was no )] TJ ET BT 326.960 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(primus inter pares )] TJ ET BT 418.628 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in London: for, as David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stevenson has pointed out, nobles were on their knees before the king down there. Never in Scotland, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I was to discover in 1633 to the mutual fury of the king and the earl of Rothes. Moreover, there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no shortage of cash when compared to Scotland. So whether the Scots? subtle approach to governance would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have permitted James VI to realise his absolutist fantasies had he remained up north is an open question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, whilst the Scottish Parliament would naturally be important to Scots, what was its significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond? To some extent, the authors appear to expect of the reader pretty detailed knowledge of the country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a number of instances of this ? notably the brief reference to the de Soulis conspirators without any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further information as to who they were \(those who conspired to replace Robert I ? Robert the Bruce ? with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baliol only a few years after Bannockburn\). Or why Crail was unsuccessful in its appeal to the Convention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Royal Burghs against the erection of nearby Anstruther Easter into a royal burgh. After all, there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very good case: for by comparison with Europe, there were far too many royal burghs too close to each other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Fife for any to develop deep and long term economic momentum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also an occasional myopia. The reason why the 1527 Parliament was so poorly attended was surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the king remained in the hands of the Douglases. It was the last throw in the Douglases? 60-year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign to regain their position as first family of the kingdom from the upstart Hamiltons, and, depending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon their allegiance, a large number of Scots might have felt it dangerous to attend. Equally, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation that Charles I had less experience of his Scottish realm than his father is something of an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6945 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understatement. As David Stevenson has pointed out, regal ignorance and cultural incomprehension between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two countries was a major factor in the build-up to the wars after 1637 ? particularly the negative impact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Patrick Gordon of Ruthven?s term, of ?the English devil of keeping state?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occasionally a slip may be detected. Mann?s view that the Reformation Parliament was ?surprisingly slow? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to take action on alcohol and drunkenness reveals either a knowledge of 16th-century revelry not vouchsafed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the reader, or a somewhat anachronistic expectation of moral restrictions from the new religious regime. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That expectation makes it all the more surprising to learn that the banning of Robin Hood, the Abbot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Misrule and the Queen of the May was not the work of the miserable Presbyterians of the 1560s, but of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gay catholic Mary of Guise in 1555. It is equally curious, given parliament?s vigour in defending the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country?s interests, to learn of its willingness three years later to agree to grant Mary Queen of Scots? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband the crown matrimonial, which put Scotland on track to become a colony of France. To confuse the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter further, it was a total novelty to this reviewer to learn that the Estates then debated deposing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen in August 1559.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To some degree, these points reflect how the political perspective of this volume dominates the approach. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Brown observes, for example, that distinctions between old and new nobility had ?no meaning beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signifying rank within the nobility?. That meaning must, therefore, have been enormous. As recent research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Charles Wemyss and others into aristocratic priorities and behaviour has revealed, rank had supreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance, followed by kinship, lineage and estate. Politics and religion took their place thereafter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, after Parliament had instructed the preparation of the Decree of Ranking in 1606, there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instances where aristocrats came to private agreements whereby the rank of an office of state remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinated to aristocratic rank.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would appear that the parliaments of the 1640s were the most dramatic, those of the 1690s the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentarian in the modern sense, and those of the 1590s the most alluring. Yet those of the 1690s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate, perhaps, the essential weaknesses of a system governed by consensus. Despite the presence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burgesses in parliament and the activities of the convention of royal burghs, most Scots burghs were in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parlous financial state by 1700, many bankrupt. They were wholly unable to invest in harbours and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of trade in the manner of their Dutch contemporaries. The system to do so was lacking. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary whip-round amongst other penniless burghs was hardly likely to provide the necessary level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital. Indeed, it would have required favouring a few burghs over the others who would nonetheless have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to have contributed; and as the EU is discovering, such a )] TJ ET BT 329.636 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dirigiste )] TJ ET BT 372.644 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course sits ill with consensus. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly worth noting that Scottish urbanism accelerated between 1707, when Scots burghs lost their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual parliamentary seats, and 1832, when they got them back again. Perhaps this example raises a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question about the effectiveness of the way the Scottish Parliament did its business.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Conclusion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether there was a significant distinction in the way the Scots governed themselves before 1707 remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inferential, and like all inferences, subject to misapprehension. Although the contributors to volume three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were required to be overarching, that takes the form of examining fairly tightly-circumscribed subject areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the span of Scottish parliamentary existence. Inevitably, there is some overlap and repetition: but that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable for providing credence for the larger stories that are trying to be heard. In a major research project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like that into the Scottish Parliament, there are evolutionary stages once the base information is to hand. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volumes one and two addressed parliament through case studies. Volume three does so through themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From volume three emerges the need for something further: namely an overarching examination of both its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness and its distinctiveness within Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 81.555 m 240.992 81.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 78.223 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 60.443 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 60.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1164)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 59.049 m 328.316 59.049 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 81.8695 240.9917 93.7495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33218) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 59.3635 328.3157 71.2435 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1164) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 323 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7807)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33218)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000599 00000 n 0000000681 00000 n 0000004816 00000 n 0000004925 00000 n 0000005035 00000 n 0000005144 00000 n 0000008705 00000 n 0000008833 00000 n 0000008917 00000 n 0000008982 00000 n 0000016673 00000 n 0000016738 00000 n 0000024093 00000 n 0000024158 00000 n 0000031696 00000 n 0000031787 00000 n 0000038785 00000 n 0000038910 00000 n 0000039011 00000 n 0000039137 00000 n 0000039233 00000 n 0000039298 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39673 %%EOF