%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818074537+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818074537+01'00') /Title (From History to Theory) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4370 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(From History to Theory)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One could perhaps argue that, so far as the popular academic imagination is concerned, America has never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had much of a reputation so far as historical theory goes. True, nowadays one may point to the contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hayden White, and if we go back a bit further, Becker and Beard; and of course one can?t forget Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Novick?s )] TJ ET BT 82.340 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That Noble Dream)] TJ ET BT 172.340 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; but this is a fairly meagre haul for nearly 150 years of historical writing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English and Continental writers have dominated the field for much of the 20th century, although now they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face competition from post-colonial writers ? ?the West and the rest?, so to speak. It is this impression that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerwin Klein wishes to correct in )] TJ ET BT 199.316 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From History to Theory)] TJ ET BT 314.312 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The essays contained within the book focus upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the history of various words and phrases key to scholarly historical discourse in the twentieth century?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially upon ?English usage in North America? \(p. 4\). This approach is taken in order to try and move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away the focus on continental events and ideas that has predominated for the past century or so. This does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not mean that ?William James is more important than Frederich Nietzsche, or that we should write more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books about Zora Neale Hurston than Martin Heidegger, but for students of history and theory the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States is the elephant in the corner? \(p. 4\). Yet Klein?s book is much more than this ? nothing less than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the troubled relationship between history and theory in the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first term Klein looks at, ?historiography?, indeed has a long and curious history. It is an unloved word, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reflected in its absence from a wide array of dictionaries and encyclopaedias?. But it has fared better than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1166)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerwin Lee Klein)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780520268814)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of California Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley, CA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Timmins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8590 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the word ?historiology?, which is unlikely to take its place in the historian?s canon, despite efforts from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likes of Peter Novick and Hayden White. Most historians date the beginning of historiography to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gottingen school; the first 60 years of the 20th century might be considered the golden age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. By ?the end of the 1950s, many departments of history in the United States expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graduates and sometimes undergraduates to suffer through at least one course in general historiography? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26\). It was pyrrhic victory though. Historiography up to this point had emphasised generality; now ?its usage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to constrict? \(p. 29\). The courses grew more specialised, ?but the profession held on to a vague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation that students would learn a simple creation tale that stretched from the origins of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking \(located anywhere from Herodotus to Herder\) to the emergence of history as a discipline in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century Germany and culminated in one?s favourite \(and usually American\) predecessors? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29\). At worst, the ?historiography course was an empty formal exercise allowing its professor to rant at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length upon a topic which he \(seldom she\) had little or no special competence? \(p. 30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klein?s second chapter is a superbly written account of the fortunes of the philosophy of history prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what has come to be known as ?the linguistic turn?. As he notes at the outset, the term ?philosophy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history? has by and large been replaced by ?history and theory? ? most notably the leading journal in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field of historical theory is entitled thus. As Klein notes, one can hardly blame George Nadel \(the first editor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Theory)] TJ ET BT 132.344 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) for not calling the journal )] TJ ET BT 264.992 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historiography)] TJ ET BT 338.996 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but ?the avoidance of another obvious title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is curious ? to this day, there is no periodical in English that calls itself )] TJ ET BT 376.664 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophy of History)] TJ ET BT 482.000 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 57\). In my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own writings I often note that, while I am a great critic of postmodernist philosophy of history, a return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the analytical philosophy of history that preceded it is not desirable either. As Klein correctly notes, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1952 analytical philosophy of history primarily meant looking at ?covering laws?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.312 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.312 497.955 m 442.304 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.304 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Prior to the birth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytic philosophy of history, there was not much worthy of name, aside from Collingwood and maybe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakeshott. Philosophy of history at this point generally meant metaphysics. As Patrick Gardiner put it in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to his )] TJ ET BT 125.024 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of Historical Explanation)] TJ ET BT 305.036 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the expression ?philosophy of history? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded by some \(if not all\) as ?signifying a submarine monster, dredged from the deep waters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century metaphysics, its jaws occasionally opening to emit prophecies in a dead \(or at any rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign\) tongue ? the language of Hegelian dialectic?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.944 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.944 412.419 m 305.936 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.936 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Some thought of it ?as a mysterious subject, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite philosophy, not quite history, but a kind of vaguely disreputable amalgam of both?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.324 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.324 398.163 m 475.316 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset then, the new analytical philosophy of history tried to separate itself from old slightly dubious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphysical philosophy of history. The problem was however, that outside the academy speculative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophies of history were in vogue publically in the post war period. D. C. Somervil?s abridgement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toynbee?s )] TJ ET BT 89.000 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Study of History)] TJ ET BT 177.332 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( made the bestseller lists in 1947; while the likes of Isaiah Berlin and Daniel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bell found themselves catapulted into the public spotlight with their critiques of speculative historicizing. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as ?professional philosophy was concerned, it was hard to say which was worse: the totalizing biases of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculative philosophy of history or its success on the book club circuit? \(p. 44\). Formerly relegated to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dustiest corner of the library, philosophy of history now found itself promoted the racks of the corner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drugstore. Analytic philosophers of history therefore had to devote a large amount of time debunking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphysical philosophies of history. This was a slightly absurd situation; ?no text on philosophy of science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would devote half its chapters to a respectful debunking of Aristotelian physics and Linnaean biology. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the philosophy of history texts did precisely that? \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What killed analytic philosophy of history? In a nutshell, Klein argues that it was the death of logical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positivism. Analytical philosophy of history was dependent upon positivism following Hempel; but a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of logical positivism at that. Only Hempel and Popper were generally quoted in textbooks; Carnap, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quine, Frege and Tarski may well not have existed. Concentrating upon a handful of figures ?kept the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversation moving in something like a straight line? \(p. 50\). Even Collingwood could be re-described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?a premptive response to logical positivist accounts of science? \(p. 50\). But the works of Quine and Kuhn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shot a stake through the heart of positivism, and philosophy of history ?left itself only one place to turn; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient notion of history as art? \(p. 53\). Debates about whether history was an art or a science had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going on since the professionalization of history, but ?the fights that materialized in the 1960s [would] take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much nastier turns? \(p. 54\). Philosophy of history?s inability to ?constitute itself as a subject as a science )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.3117 498.2695 442.3037 510.1495 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.9437 412.7335 305.9357 424.6135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.3237 398.4775 475.3157 410.3575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7549 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to logical positivist models, and its continuing investments in old fangled humanisms, made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history an obvious target for critics? \(p. 55\). Hayden White?s )] TJ ET BT 331.292 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Burden of History)] TJ ET BT 438.956 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is now retrospectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered to be the firing of the starting pistol. Historians were advised to aspire to the styles of the likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michelet and Burckhardt, as well as utilising the techniques of modernist art. No longer ?could historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credibly claim epistemic privilege? \(p. 58\). The great age of history as a science was over, for better or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a thrilling second chapter, Klein loses his way somewhat in the next two chapters in describing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various components of the linguistic and cultural turn. Indeed, these chapters are an implicit commentary on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lack of impact that these so-called revolutionary developments have had on the historical profession. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While they work as a brief primer of intellectual history on how these ideas developed, by and large \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas\) are not related back to the historical profession. Indeed, this is not the first book in which an author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has faced this problem. The accepted narrative is that the linguistic turn has revolutionised historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking, but author?s are always hard pressed to find examples of this in actual historical practice. Whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avenues of thought such as speculative philosophy of history struck a chord with the public, as we saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier, the same cannot be said of postmodernism ? Derrida could never have been found in the drugstore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way that Toynbee was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five gets back on track with a look at the rise of memory studies. In many ways it might be argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the rise of memory studies constitutes the real revolution in historical theory and practice, one that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a far more wide-ranging impact than postmodernism. Memory ?is replacing old favourites ? )] TJ ET BT 498.932 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture, language)] TJ ET BT 118.676 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? as the word most commonly placed with history, and that shift is remaking historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination? \(p. 114\). Heavily linked to the rise of Memory \(with a capital M\) is the Holocaust, an event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has rapidly become a touchstone for historians looking to defend the objectivity of their discipline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against postmodernist attacks. Two events in particular ? Hayden White?s claims that events could plausibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be emplotted in a number of different ways, and revelations of Paul De Man?s anti-semitic writings during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second World War ? made academia take a very dim view of deconstructionism. Memory, Klein argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?appeared to answer these problems, either by consuming history whole or by weaving it into it so as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide a an authentic linkage with the past while still preventing the totalizing narrative closure that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians believed marred the work of their predecessors? \(p. 128\). Closely linked to this is the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust is a ?limit event? ? that is to say an event that defies historical interpretation or representation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the Holocaust argument is not the only one that can made to account for the rise of Memory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Nora has argued that ?we are obsessed with memory because we have destroyed it with historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness? \(p. 134\). Another argument posits that memory ?is a new category of experience that grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the modernist crisis of the self in the nineteenth century and then gradually evolved into our current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usage? \(p. 134\). A third states that ?memory is a mode of discourse natural to people without a history, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so its emergence is a salutary feature of decolonization? \(p. 134\). However, none of these explanations on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own can fully account for the memory boom. The roots of the rise in memory lead into Klein?s? final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, which ?takes off the academic gown? and examines how memory is used by the right-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian movement in the US to reduce history to eschatology. The ?insistent association of memory with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semireligious language not only undercuts the claims of memory to critique metaphysics, but it also opens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubling vistas? \(p. 136\). In the United States, the rise in academic enthusiasm for memory studies has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincided with a variety of conservative Christian commemorative discourses? \(p. 141\). Moreover, in ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s and 1990s, academics in retreat from scientism and nihilism blundered into a linguistic space shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly by religious thought and culture? \(p. 159\). When academics talk about memory, they tend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think of protests against oppressive regimes of modernity such as Nazism or imperialism. Unfortunately, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian conservative have jumped on the memory bandwagon, and cast themselves as an unfairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecuted minority who are on a crusade to recover America?s Christian heritage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the author himself disclaims any notion of comprehensiveness, Klein?s book is nonetheless a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating look at the troubled relationship between history and theory in the 20th century. Ironically, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurring motif of the past 100 years or so has been the desire to )] TJ ET BT 345.284 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(escape)] TJ ET BT 377.936 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from history. As he states, for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 3170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?some, the escape from historical discourse promised an escape from the traumatic events it narrated ... For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, historical discourse appeared so compromised by complicity that with the crimes of various states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that that only a full and complete emancipation seemed likely to bring about other sorts of revolutions? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(169\). Similarly, trying to define just what motivated the linguistic turn in American academia is a tricky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business. Klein rejects Richard Wolins? argument that ?besotted Americans foolishly imported viral strains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of irrationality? from across the Atlantic \(p. 164\). Similarly, Franois Cusset?s narrative that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodification of linguistic radicalism was the result of ?the isolation, provincialism, and entrepreneurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of the American University system? \(p. 166\). One hopes that Klein will in the future will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertake a more comprehensive survey of historical theory; as it is, this brief effort deserves to be read by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone with an interest in the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carl Hempel, ?The function of general laws in history?, )] TJ ET BT 334.964 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Philosophy)] TJ ET BT 441.632 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 39, \(1942\), 35?48.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 118.004 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Gardiner, )] TJ ET BT 149.660 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nature of Historical Explanation,)] TJ ET BT 332.672 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1961\) p. ix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.656 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.656 572.739 m 489.644 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.348 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.348 558.483 m 140.336 558.483 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 543.151 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 525.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 525.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1166)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 523.977 m 328.316 523.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 499.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7809)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 587.3095 118.0037 599.1895 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 435.6557 573.0535 489.6437 584.9335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3477 558.7975 140.3357 570.6775 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 524.2915 328.3157 536.1715 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1166) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000525 00000 n 0000000607 00000 n 0000005029 00000 n 0000005138 00000 n 0000005248 00000 n 0000005357 00000 n 0000008918 00000 n 0000009046 00000 n 0000009130 00000 n 0000009228 00000 n 0000017871 00000 n 0000017901 00000 n 0000018029 00000 n 0000018065 00000 n 0000018095 00000 n 0000018223 00000 n 0000018259 00000 n 0000018289 00000 n 0000018417 00000 n 0000018453 00000 n 0000018518 00000 n 0000026120 00000 n 0000026225 00000 n 0000029448 00000 n 0000029575 00000 n 0000029630 00000 n 0000029758 00000 n 0000029813 00000 n 0000029940 00000 n 0000029976 00000 n 0000030104 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30200 %%EOF