%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826001831+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826001831+01'00') /Title (Encircled Lands: Te Urewera, 1820?1921) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4529 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Encircled Lands: Te Urewera, 1820?1921)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past few decades New Zealand has undergone a unique process of historical reappraisal. A nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that at one time liked to boast of having the finest ?race relations? in the world is today learning to come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms with a rather different reality. For many Maori the process of colonisation left behind an enduring trail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dispossession, marginalisation, poverty and bitterness. Growing anger at this legacy first reached wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public consciousness in the 1970s, as radical new protest movements emerged to challenge smug Pakeha )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(European\) assumptions about just how wonderful everything had been.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The creation in 1975 of a standing commission of inquiry known as the Waitangi Tribunal, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empowerment ten years later to investigate historical Maori grievances dating back to the signing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, were key cogs in the government?s attempt to defuse this growing unrest. But at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time that Maori were marching on the streets, occupying disputed land sites and making their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence felt, a new generation of historians was emerging to add its weight to revisionist accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation?s past. New Zealand history, at one time considered boring or best forgotten, became a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battlefield in the quest to demolish once-cherished national myths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith Binney, who died in February 2011, was one of a number of young historians based at the University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Auckland in the 1960s who, under the formidable guidance of Keith Sinclair, began to consider New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand history a field ripe for re-evaluation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.292 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.292 76.857 m 264.284 76.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.284 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Binney cut her teeth on the favoured historical argument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the day, debating the causes of Maori ?conversion? to Christianity. Her first book, a biography of missionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Kendall, was published in 1968. It was, however, a hiking trip through the remote and mountainous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1167)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith Binney)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781877242441)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(670pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bridget Williams Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wellington)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent O'Malley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.2917 77.1715 264.2837 89.0515 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7644 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urewera district several years later that inspired the series of works for which Binney would rise to public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence as among the finest New Zealand historians of her era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Binney?s unplanned quartet commenced with )] TJ ET BT 256.316 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mihaia)] TJ ET BT 290.984 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a 1979 study of the Tuhoe prophet Rua Kenana, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established a vibrant community deep in the Urewera heartland at Maungapohatu late in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. It was followed by )] TJ ET BT 168.656 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nga Morehu )] TJ ET BT 232.652 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1986\), an examination of the lives of several Tuhoe women that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought Binney?s superb skills as an oral historian to the fore, and then by )] TJ ET BT 393.644 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Redemption Songs )] TJ ET BT 485.636 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1995\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of East Coast prophet and military commander Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki, whose decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seek shelter in the Urewera district from marauding government troops in the late 1860s was to have dire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dreadful consequences for the Tuhoe people of that place.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.928 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.928 669.027 m 345.920 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Redemption Songs )] TJ ET BT 126.008 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won New Zealand book of the year in 1996 and was widely regarded as Binney?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnum opus. Or at least it was until the publication in 2009 of )] TJ ET BT 343.340 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encircled Lands)] TJ ET BT 422.336 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Binney?s massive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massively impressive study of the first century or so of Urewera contact with Europeans \(another book of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year winner, in 2010, and the final part of the quartet\). Widely praised for its meticulously detailed content, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Binney?s work in fact began life as just one of dozens of unpublished research reports prepared for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waitangi Tribunal?s Urewera district inquiry. Few stones are left unturned in the process of critically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining historical injustices in the Tribunal process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appropriately enough, Binney?s book opens with an electrifying account of some of the final Tribunal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hearings in that inquiry, held in 2005. In a vivid reminder of Tuhoe sufferings in the 1860s, Tribunal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members travelled to Ruatoki by horse and cart, crossing an 1866 land confiscation line surrounded by a ring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fire as near-naked men mounted a vociferous challenge, before a shotgun was symbolically fired at a flag )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ironically a very similar looking Australian one, since the local store had run out of New Zealand flags!\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later, at the Maungapohatu hearing where Binney appeared as an expert witness, the mood was more calm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and peaceful, but tinged with a feeling of great pain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quite why events that occurred more than a century earlier should arouse such strong feelings soon becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident as )] TJ ET BT 85.340 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encircled Lands )] TJ ET BT 167.336 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully plots the remarkable story of this district and its people. Tuhoe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other tribes for whom the Urewera was their home did not sign the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown nevertheless assumed sovereignty over the entire country, regardless of which groups of Maori had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or had not supposedly consented \(at least in its English translation\) to transfer sovereignty to Queen Victoria.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet nearly all of the Maori chiefs from other districts who assented to the Treaty affixed their marks or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signatures to a Maori-language version of the document which differed in key ways from its English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation. The ?kawanatanga? \(governorship\) they ceded to the Crown in its first article stood alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was arguably qualified by the rights of ?te tino rangatiratanga? \(full chiefly authority\) reserved to Maori )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the second article. Crown claims to unfettered sovereignty therefore existed in tension with Maori )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations that, at the very least, their rights to govern the internal affairs of their own tribes would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respected. Precisely whose version of the Treaty would prevail became a matter to be worked out on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground over subsequent decades as the Crown sought to extend its effective control over the whole of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new colony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first, however, things changed little in many areas. As James Belich suggests, ?a few London map-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers coloured the North Island British red?, but that did not alter the reality of ongoing Maori )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of their affairs over much of the interior.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.952 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.952 167.091 m 306.944 167.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.944 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Just how nominal British sovereignty was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice over much of the country may be seen from the fact that the first government visitor to the Urewera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(district arrived 22 years after the Treaty was signed, in 1862. Limited contacts with Europeans partly helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to build up a myth of a wild mountain people. As Binney clearly demonstrates, in the 1860s further layers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be added to that image. In the eyes of the colonisers, Tuhoe were not just primitive hill people but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellious, defiant, and untamed. The Urewera became ?New Zealand?s ?Heart of Darkness?? \(p. 30\), as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as a final bastion of Maori autonomy and independence. That independence would later be crushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even as the government promised to uphold and protect it.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.9277 669.3415 345.9197 681.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 292.9517 167.4055 306.9437 179.2855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7068 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repeated and brutal invasions of the Urewera district from the mid-1860s to early 1870s had their origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly in such stereotypes, reinforced by the fact that the area became a place of sanctuary for Maori from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere who were seeking to elude government forces and their tribal allies. Kereopa Te Rau ? deemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilty of the murder of Opotiki missionary Carl Vlkner in 1865 ? was one such man on the run. But it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the presence of Te Kooti and his followers that provided the main pretext for what Binney describes as ?war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cruel devastation, a war intended to kill by starvation? \(p. 152\). After spending several years detained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without trial on the remote Chatham Islands while the government prepared to confiscate their lands on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East Coast, Te Kooti and his followers escaped and made their way back to the mainland in 1868. Seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel peaceably inland, Te Kooti instead found himself hounded by government forces. He retaliated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November of that year, killing more than 50 people at the settlement of Matawhero, near Gisborne, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being granted shelter in the Urewera district the following year.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The people of Te Urewera would pay a terrible price for sheltering Te Kooti, as scorched-earth tactics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed against them saw their homes and crops destroyed by colonial forces. Worn out by wave after wave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bloody invasion, in 1871 Tuhoe chiefs reached a crucial agreement with the government, promising to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capture and hand over Te Kooti in return for a Crown undertaking to respect their internal autonomy. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way, although Te Kooti managed to escape, the ?rohe potae? or encircling boundary of the Urewera came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into existence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuhoe quickly moved to establish a new governing body for their district in the aftermath of the war known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Te Whitu Tekau \(the Seventy\). Even as that body declared its opposition to land sales, surveys, roads and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other tools of colonisation that threatened to undermine Urewera independence, Crown and private agents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began chipping away on the fringes. The confiscation of valuable lands in which the Urewera tribes claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests in the Bay of Plenty, and further south at Waikaremoana was felt deeply, and the focus of much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remainder of Binney?s book is on the steady erosion of the ?rohe potae? that the government had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised to protect in 1871.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As important as that agreement may have been to the Urewera tribes, for the Crown it was no more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporary expedient at a time of war. Opening up the district to the rule of English law and land sales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a prime objective, especially as rumours circulated as to the existence of gold and other valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minerals in the area. Setting aside the ring boundary was to be attempted in a number of different ways, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including land purchases on the Urewera perimeter conducted with rival tribes, or secretive advances paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needy individuals in the aftermath of the war that would later have to be repaid in land. For both Crown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private land buyers indebtedness became a key tool in prising open the district. Forced surveys for which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribes would nevertheless be required to cough up land in payment were one tactic used, while, as Binney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts in impressive if disturbing detail, outright fraud was also employed in some circumstances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the early 1890s the boundary had become not just smaller but also literally an encircling one, as all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands on the edge of the district had either been confiscated, purchased or at least been pushed through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native Land Court as a preliminary to sale. Colonisation became largely a matter of legal procedure rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than military might. The process of survey and title adjudication in which formerly communal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary titles were replaced by legal ones empowering individuals to sell their piece of the tribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrimony was one that many Tuhoe leaders had fought tirelessly to exclude from their district. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relentless nature of government efforts to unlock the region to European settlement left the people of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urewera deeply vulnerable to rifts and infighting prompted by land disputes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A series of disputed surveys in the early 1890s that threatened to spill over into open warfare served as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalyst for a new agreement with the Crown. The Native Land Court \(whose role was to translate customary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title into individual ownership\) would not be imposed on the Urewera tribes? remaining lands provided they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed to an alternative process of title investigation. At the same time, the internal autonomy of the tribes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be protected so long as the ultimate authority of the Crown was recognised. This 1896 agreement thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave the de facto ?home rule? of the Urewera tribes legal standing. Given the long-standing insistence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local politicians and leaders on a unitary form of government, on the face of it, in New Zealand terms this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7110 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a hugely significant concession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the ominous, if cynical, warnings of Opposition MPs as the Urewera District Native Reserve Act passed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Parliament ultimately proved correct. Although Premier Richard Seddon spoke of finally honouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quarter-century-old compact, his opponents predicted that the new measure would ultimately be no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ?the thin end of the wedge? \(p. 401\). The Urewera leaders may have thought they were getting legally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctioned self-government, but they were really just opening themselves up to a new form of entrapment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Urewera Commission that began investigating land ownership in the area in the late 1890s soon proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more similar to the Native Land Court than anyone might originally have envisaged or feared. Repeated crop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures, famine and disease wreaked havoc on tiny communities, as many as one-fifth of the total population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of around 1600 dying in one year alone \(1898\). It was in these desperate times that a great new Tuhoe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophet emerged. Rua Kenana claimed to be the successor that Te Kooti had much earlier prophesied. He set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about building a thriving community at Maungapohatu. But Rua needed money to develop the area, and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing to sell a limited amount of land to the government in order to get the capital he needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapters of the book Binney documents how Crown officials expertly played Rua off against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more traditional tribal leaders, with the ultimate goal of overturning Tuhoe autonomy and opposition to land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealings. Urewera leaders had wanted the 1896 Act to include an outright ban on land sales. Instead, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserved the right of purchasing solely to the Crown, with any purchases to be negotiated with the General )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee that was to be established under the legislation. Officials instead dragged their feet on convening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the committee, while throughout manipulating tribal divisions engendered by the government?s own actions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A series of legislative amendments after 1896 incrementally undermined Urewera self-government. Then, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly the most cynical measure of all, in 1910 the government simply starting buying land interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly from individuals, in direct contravention of its own laws. With Rua no longer playing ball, in 1916 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police raided his settlement at Maungapohatu on trumped up charges of sly-grogging \(illicitly selling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol\), arresting the prophet and killing his son Toko. The result was that, by 1921 when Binney ends her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, Urewera autonomy was all but finished, and more that half of the district had been purchased by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown. Legislation passed the following year repealed the 1896 Act, doing away with any last legal vestiges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of self-government and providing the basis for a further round of wholesale land purchasing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reverberations of history repeating itself is one theme that emerges clearly from Binney?s book. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter she writes, among other things, of the 2007 incident in which heavily armed police raided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urewera settlement of Ruatoki, arresting several local Maori on terrorism charges that were just days later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed by the Solicitor General as having no legal foundation. It is yet another reminder of the grim and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depressing history of Urewera and Crown contacts that Binney has so expertly steered the reader through.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet above all her book is a call to restore to the Urewera tribes the autonomy that was provided for in 1840, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised them in 1871 and legislated for in 1896. Given that the settlers did not come as predicted after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1921, with much of the district instead being declared a national park \(being too mountainous to farm\), that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains entirely feasible. Indeed, the government was just days away from signing an agreement in 2010 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that would have restored the Urewera National Park to tribal ownership, only for a nervous Prime Minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pull the plug on the deal. When it really came down to it, a feared backlash from disgruntled Pakeha )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters was deemed a worse political outcome than a few angry Tuhoe protesters. Binney?s book emerged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle of this period of heightened public attention and has done much in its own right to legitimate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goal of restoring Urewera to its rightful custodians in the minds of many Pakeha. Confronted with a history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as gripping and compelling as that which Binney outlines in )] TJ ET BT 325.340 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encircled Lands)] TJ ET BT 404.336 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, few readers would deny that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full restoration would be the only possible just outcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are points on which one might legitimately be critical of this book. While Binney is meticulous, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, in contextualising and explaining the motivations behind Tuhoe leaders? actions, other individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tribes sometimes appear in a more one-dimensional light. Yet such failings are minor by comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the considerable achievements on show. And if the Urewera is one day handed back to the Tuhoe )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 4202 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people and their kin that would be a fitting epilogue to this majestic work of history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raewyn Dalziel, ?Judith Binney, 1940?2011 \(Obituary\)?, )] TJ ET BT 343.640 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand Journal of History)] TJ ET BT 498.980 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45 \(2011\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(113?16; Vincent O?Malley, ?Unsettling New Zealand history: the revisionism of Sinclair and Ward?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Texts and Contexts: Reflections in Pacific Islands Historiography)] TJ ET BT 379.676 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Doug Munro and Brij V. Lal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Honolulu, 2006\), pp. 154?65.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.672 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.672 686.787 m 263.660 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A bibliography of Binney?s works to 2004 may be found in )] TJ ET BT 353.660 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand Journal of History)] TJ ET BT 509.000 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 38 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2004\), 299?305.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.336 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.336 658.275 m 200.324 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Belich, )] TJ ET BT 133.676 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Zealand Wars and the Victorian Interpretation of Racial Conflict )] TJ ET BT 495.356 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Auckland, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1986\), p. 302.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 629.763 m 185.000 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 604.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worker's Party \(New Zealand\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://workersparty.org.nz/2010/09/15/book-review-encircled-lands-te-urewera-1820-%E2%80%93-1921-by-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 574.995 m 561.224 574.995 l S BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judith-binney-bridget-williams-books-2009/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 560.739 m 246.008 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 249.008 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scoop News)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/CU0909/S00244.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 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