%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R 84 0 R ] /Count 9 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818125831+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818125831+01'00') /Title (The many faces of Thomas Cromwell) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3002 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The many faces of Thomas Cromwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When a late-medieval or Tudor historian is asked to compare and contrast a historical novel with a scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book that both take as their subject Thomas Cromwell, and the latter work has been written by the late G R )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elton, the inevitable disclaimer becomes compulsory unless that historian has spent several decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1168)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Elton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521098090)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1973)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(182pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilary Mantel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780007230181)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(672pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harper Collins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Horowitz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 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Tudor revolution in government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the present case, I must submit that I knew Sir Geoffrey during his last 15 years at Clare College, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge and I still retain a cache of our letters. I read his publications and the numerous reviews of them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and I on occasion disagreed with the perspicacious Regius Professor verbally in conversations and once in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print with regard to his view that Henry VIII?s principal minister, Thomas Cromwell, was the mastermind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the inchoate modern English state as first described in Elton?s )] TJ ET BT 370.976 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magnum)] TJ ET BT 415.304 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opus )] TJ ET BT 440.972 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a Tudor revolution.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 709.539 m 48.008 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That written wallop, relevant to this present assessment, occurred when I was asked to write an article on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book he co-wrote with the future Nobel laureate, Robert Fogel. I began by briefly summarizing each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s past work. I ended Elton?s by positing the query of whether it was Thomas Cromwell behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henrician revolution in government or G. R. Elton behind the Cromwellian revolution in history. Upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completing the piece, I asked both authors to read the final draft before submission in case of any factual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(errors and with the understanding that in effect the article itself was cast in stone. Although neither found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any glaring mistakes and thanked me for the endeavour, I must believe that Elton displayed a bent eye as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read my Cromwell quip. With this in mind, I have approached the present dual review from the narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conclusions offered by the respective authors, and not from what others have thought of them or written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about their books.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.344 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.344 554.979 m 134.336 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Cromwell is a good subject for fact and fiction. He was and remains somewhat of an enigma both as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a visionary for government efficiency and as an ambitious ?new man? rising from the obscurity of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacksmith?s son to perhaps the most powerful man in England save his king, Henry VIII. Moreover, much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like his mentor Cardinal Thomas Wolsey ? the son of an Ipswich butcher ? Cromwell?s descent was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacular and dramatic as his climb. For both men, historians have tried to untangle how much influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had over Henry VIII and whether they were the puppet-masters or the puppets in the monarch?s affairs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of state and of the heart. Regardless, the arcs that were their lives remained dependent on the whims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commands of a Tudor king.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel pursues segments of the lives of Wolsey and then Cromwell, beginning in 1527 amid the rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turmoil of the Great Matter \(Henry?s annulment of his marriage to Katherine of Aragon to make Anne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boleyn his queen and progenitor of a male heir\) and leading up to the execution of Sir Thomas More in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1535. Elton focuses on Cromwell and his legislative roots and actions during the 1530s within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment of Protestant evangelicalism, humanistic writings and verbal discourse. The authors necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue different genres and disciplines for their accounts. Mantel constructs lives, images and conversations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from what is known about her characters; Elton seeks to establish Cromwell as a thoughtful, purposeful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results-oriented minister based on interpretation of surviving documentation. It is therefore perhaps best to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss three topics where the paths of the authors intersect. The first centers on the personality of Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell. The second involves the religious and humanistic nature of Cromwell?s beliefs and their effect on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his actions and life. The third entails his accomplishments and acumen at survival as the chief minister of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII. However, the style, format and themes followed by the respective authors will be addressed first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand better where they are coming from and, if it might be suggested, where they intended to go.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elton decidedly positions himself as the master of the manuscripts, in this case contemporary documents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary records from the statutes and the journals of the House of Commons. He comes close to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chastising those historians pursuing the history of ideas ? he is not a fan ? believing that all is for naught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unless such ideas can be traced to actions beyond the mental exercise. Indeed, he has little time for More?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Utopia)] TJ ET BT 67.352 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( because no proposals were put forth to better the commonwealth, only ?remedies in the fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm of the unattainable?. Elton?s goal is to demonstrate the translation of ?aspiration into achievement? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how ?thought yielded results in deed?. This of course provides a theme and path for his discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Cromwell as the exemplar of a Tudor action hero of sorts, and he takes his readers on a legislative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journey portraying a practical minister?s transition into a proficient planner stoked by the reformist fervour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elton accomplishes this first by examining three members of Cromwell?s reformist )] TJ ET BT 436.976 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(group)] TJ ET BT 465.644 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Stephen )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 709.8535 48.0077 721.7335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.3437 555.2935 134.3357 567.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7487 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vaughan, Thomas Starkey, and Richard Morison ? although he takes pains to convince that none were part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an official body but rather a ?company of like-minded men? who were ?haphazardly brought together and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always on their own initiative?. This may seem to some as flying in the face of the adage that coincidences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take a lot of planning. Nonetheless, Elton insists they were not recruited by the minister but simply thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as he did, although they are labeled ?Cromwellians? by the author because they believe Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would reform England along humanistic, Protestant thinking. Then true to Elton?s mission, any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary rivals to the man behind reform and renewal are summarily dispatched. He quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalises Cromwell?s predecessor and mentor Wolsey as never doing anything, completely ?useless? to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of intellectuals and reformers, and the poster child for the old clerical order they deplored. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then finds time to stomp on Thomas More as missing the boat to becoming the Erasmian humanist reformer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in favour of concentrating on heresy and the maintenance of the church. This provides a segue to the actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the minister who got it right ? Thomas Cromwell ? and what he did during the parliamentary sessions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Henrician Reformation. Because the book is a compilation of Elton?s Wiles Lectures presented at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queen?s University, Belfast in 1972, they fall under thematic headings although Cromwell?s legislative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda is placed in somewhat chronological order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tone and style exhibited by Elton are those of a constitutional scholar in the know, lecturing other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians \(often by name\) on where they were misled ? or failed to lead at all ? while forcefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating Cromwell?s )] TJ ET BT 166.676 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modus operandi)] TJ ET BT 244.340 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( through the use of parliamentary documentation. The general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public might not grab on readily to the scholarly story being told, but Elton has a self-assured way with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words that is understandable and on occasion clever and humorous: Cromwell as the ?pragmatic prophet? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who receives letters in Latin ?with Greek bits in them?; propagandist preambles to parliamentary bills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied with ?standard commonwealth stuff?. Few would argue that Elton's lectures did not contribute to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearer understanding of how bills were initiated, their chances of passing based on origin \(Commons, Lords )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or support from the king\) and the nuances involved in the role of politics and religion, which from a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective were hopelessly intertwined. It remains not so much winning a legislative initiative, which will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be addressed later, but the intent and purpose that is at the heart of Elton?s narrative and thesis. The medium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell utilizes, with far-reaching effects for the development of the modern English state, is parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through which the laws of England are guided with his steady if not always successful hand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel proffers a Thomas Cromwell confident in his own thinking and actions regarding the law, a posture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed early on through the reactions of a young boy to his physically abusive father. This situation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced on the first page when as a 15-year-old Cromwell is almost throttled to death ? occurrences that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later shape his views towards legal reform to protect the helpless. Through intermittent flashbacks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguing dialogue with key players in the era of Henry VIII, the author constructs a self-made, self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated man unafraid to face the unknown: living and learning business in Northern Europe, fighting in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental wars. Both Mantel and her Cromwell are cynical about Roman Catholicism, which she views as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a corrupt business founded on practices not mentioned in the New Testament ? for this is the time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translations into the vernacular by the likes of Tyndale and Luther unmask the deceptions of the popes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their biblical foundation for authority and practice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So when in 1527 Wolsey?s trip to France includes granting throngs of people remission for their sins, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author throws out an observation by no one in particular: ?That?s a few thousand Frenchmen free to start all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over again?. Mantel also confides Cromwell?s knowledge that to obtain the right scriptural interpretations or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permissions from the pope for marriages or divorces, every ?opinion? must be paid for in cash. It is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disdain for the church and its reliance on cash payments from countries in need of capital ? such as England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? that fuels Cromwell?s search for reform and solvency for his king and country. However, to dispel the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irony of a future principal minister cutting his political teeth in the household of a cardinal, Mantel?s Wolsey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? a very rich character in the story and in many respects more interesting than Cromwell ? shares some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cynicism of the day against Rome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is Mantel?s dialogue between Cromwell and major characters and the development of their personas that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drives her story. Because of the abundance of personages, a glossary is provided for those unfamiliar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period. This is not a bad idea because in many respects the reader waits in anticipation for the next tte--)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8023 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tte between Cromwell and a variety of people besides important figures such as Anne Boleyn, Henry VIII, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the duke of Norfolk \(an avowed enemy turned self-interested ally\), Thomas More \(portrayed as more of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Torquemada-on-the-Thames when it comes to heretics than even Elton suggests\), Bishop Stephen Gardiner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Jane Seymour and Mary Boleyn \(targets of Cromwell?s affections and perhaps more\). Historians do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the luxury of making up dialog ? although mental attempts often occur once years are spent studying an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual ? and Mantel is wonderfully adept at coloring her characters with attributes well-known to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aficionados of Tudor history. Hence, when Anne Boleyn speaks the reader is already aware that when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell gives her a present of silver forks with rock crystal handles one Christmas he notes that ?he hopes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she will use them to eat with, not to stick in people?. To make the point stick further, so to speak, on another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion when thinking about Anne he confesses ?you wouldn?t trust her near a sharp knife?. It is largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through these conversations, and the musings of Cromwell, that the theme of a rapidly-ascending powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and shrewd minister amid court intrigue develops.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While such interplay between people helps advance the story of the rise of Cromwell, the stylistic use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronoun ?he? when referring to him is both confusing and momentum-halting. Indeed, on several occasions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was necessary to reread a few lines just to determine who was speaking. This uncertainty of voice is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compounded by an occasional shifting into first person singular or plural: Cromwell, after being referred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?he?, suddenly says ?I dry my eyes?; an abrupt shift from being ?he? to a new scene beginning ?October, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and we are going to Calais?; a conversation between Cromwell and Henry VIII includes the narrative ?He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watches Henry?s face. He is alive to anything that concerns honour?. Presumably it is Henry alive with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of honour. Presumably, if in fact the reader is aware of the king?s obsession with honour as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicated in such historical works as Lacey Baldwin Smith?s book on Henry VIII.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.956 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.956 497.955 m 446.948 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.948 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experimentation in writing style is the artist?s prerogative ? from Dorothy Parker?s ?stream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness? dialog with oneself to the frenzied episodes that comprise James Joyce?s )] TJ ET BT 462.608 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ulysses)] TJ ET BT 499.268 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? it serves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little purpose to push Cromwell away by becoming ?he? through most of the book just as the reader tries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get closer to him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel is intent on staying fairly true to what is known about Cromwell and his life, such as information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gleaned from Cavendish?s book on Thomas Wolsey.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.648 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.648 400.419 m 301.640 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.640 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She also hints at events or attributes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledgeable reader will enjoy but the neophyte might miss unknowingly. So when it is suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn has a ?deformity?, many readers may be unaware that she has been attributed to having, among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other things, six fingers on one hand ? an improbability given Henry?s superstitious nature that nonetheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has brought about much discussion, including an essay in a medical publication.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.988 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.988 343.395 m 432.980 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.980 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The king of England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trip to the Field of Cloth of Gold near Calais in June 1520 to meet with the king of France is mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several times but without the visually interesting story of Henry VIII being thrown to the ground in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrestling match by his regal cousin Francis I: fodder for further character development of a Tudor king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel portrays as paranoid, constantly hunting and bedding, and doubting of his abilities and his future. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those aware of these inside stories will gain a greater embellishment of the world of Thomas Cromwell and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how he acts and reacts within it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elton?s Cromwell is a far-horizon thinker and it is through the minister?s surviving papers that the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters a man jotting down ideas for future actions: improving the system of taxation \(clearly an age-old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem for king and commoner alike\); addressing the enclosure of pasture and farmland by sheep owners at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expense of farmers. While ignoring Wolsey and the possibility that many such reforms were first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed by the cardinal without follow-through or result ? a circumstance similar to many of Somerset?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-starters under Henry?s son, Edward VI ? Elton sees Cromwell as a visionary bent on converting ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into actions that succeed. Part of this image stems from an innate work ethic and drive, and Elton relates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Vaughan tells his friend Cromwell that he is overworking as the king?s minister. Moreover, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the idea that having what we would call a Type A personality and being a workaholic are forces for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s personal mission, Elton paints a portrait of an erudite analyst with an eidetic gift that allows him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to memorize Erasmus? Latin version of the New Testament ? no mean feat. He is also represented as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual equal to the Oxford man and humanist Thomas Starkey, for whom Cromwell obtains a position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a chaplain to Henry VIII. Indeed, Elton argues that Starkey?s writings are influenced by discussions with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.9557 498.2695 446.9477 510.1495 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.6477 400.7335 301.6397 412.6135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.9877 343.7095 432.9797 355.5895 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 7530 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell, more often at the minister?s house with other reformers at what is referred to as a ?learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salon?. Cromwell?s view of pursuing a middle way \()] TJ ET BT 287.648 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(via media)] TJ ET BT 334.640 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) is part and parcel of the like views held by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these men. The minister thus avoids the extremes and this possibly is a reason he was able to survive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the 1530s amid social and religious upheaval in England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most important aspect of Cromwell?s personality and political outlook is, according to Elton, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief and reliance in the efficacy of the law and its use to reform and transform England. Cromwell?s vision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a self-contained realm ? the phrase ?this realm of England is an Empire? illuminates the preamble to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1533 Act of Restraint of Appeals that removed papal authority from England ? becomes a focal point for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laws that encourage growth and stability internally and commerce with Europe. In spite of his often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandiose schemes, Elton notes that Cromwell is nonetheless a realist aware of the opposing forces to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change: the church, the nobility, the gentry and often the king himself. This is perhaps why Cromwell relies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on couching bills in rhetoric pointing to precedents and age-old practices: a means to demonstrate what has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always been, not what must now become.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curiously missing from Elton?s portraiture is a discussion of the Great Matter or even Cromwell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement with the monumental affair. This is perhaps because the core concerns of Elton?s Cromwell are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms through parliamentary action, rather than the larger issues of cause and effect during the break with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome. However, Cromwell could hardly ignore the fact that his mentor Wolsey fell from grace over his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to achieve the ?Divorce?. Nor could he fail to understand that much of the legislation he proposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealt with the severing of financial and religious relations with the vicar of Christ, once Henry VIII moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a wayward Roman defender of the faith threatening papal authority to an independent head of his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church and state. One can say that keeping all the money destined for the church or making the bible more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to the populace were reforms long overdue \(or more likely long in the making\). But it is difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ignore the trigger for this flurry of legislation in parliament: Henry?s desire to marry Anne Boleyn. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes away little to realize that Cromwell and his king could each have their cake and eat it too by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoning Rome ? one seeking to reform age-old or emerging iniquities, the other desperately in need of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestionable male heir.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel, of course, can paint broad strokes on a large canvas that is the Cromwell in her mind?s eye, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most enjoyable to view. She does an admirable job of bringing in contemporary stories and historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketches concerning Cromwell?s traits, including much that is in common with Elton. When Cromwell talks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a book of mathematics and its lesson of balance, Mantel is echoing the )] TJ ET BT 405.632 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(via media)] TJ ET BT 452.624 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( views often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed about the minister. She notes that when Cromwell writes ?this realm of England is an empire?, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does so almost in passing ? it is obvious to him and it is a means to an end. As Cromwell reflects on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament and drafting bills, he says ?like spells, they have to make things happen in the real world?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, because the minister realizes that it is difficult to implement ?new things in England?, he says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?there can be old things freshly presented, or new things that pretend to be old?. Mantel carries this English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoint to other characters: when Cromwell tells Katherine of Aragon and her daughter Mary Tudor that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry?s rule over the English church is based on ancient precedents, Mary replies such precedents were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?invented these last few months?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where her ability to use tone and colour to evoke personality resonate is in her depiction of Cromwell. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, he is a clever, ambitious man with a quick mind bordering on the cynical and the brazen. When a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(righteous Thomas More tries to bait him into heresy, Cromwell dodges and parries verbally with great effect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel uses his famous portrait by the court painter Hans Holbein \(also a character\) as a means to reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?hard Cromwellian stare ? the equivalent of a kick? that many fear once he becomes the king?s chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advisor. This goes hand-in-hand with a self-assuredness not often seen in a Tudor courtier. His first long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversation with Henry VIII reveals an almost flippant Cromwell, and although his stark honesty no doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings him into Henry?s trusted graces one wonders if he truly sparred with words in his meetings with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combustible king. Mantel, like Elton, recognizes Cromwell as the chief architect of many statutes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm. When Katherine of Aragon introduces him to her daughter, Mary, she says ?This is Master Cromwell. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who now writes all the laws?. Near the end of the book it becomes clear that ambition is part and parcel of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s persona. In thinking of his various properties he muses ?all this is small stuff. It?s nothing to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 7152 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he intends to have, or to what Henry will owe him?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell is also a vindictive man with a long memory and the patience to wait for the right time to bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down an enemy ? Mantel says he keeps a mental list of those who have crossed him. When his mentor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolsey is arrested by Henry Percy, the author writes of Cromwell: ?God need not trouble, he thinks: I shall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take it in hand?. On another occasion, when he hears rumors of Anne Boleyn having an affair with Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wyatt, Cromwell overlooks it but notes that he will ?bear it in mind? for the future. He also places people in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his debt, running the gamut from merchants and clerks to nobles and queens and the king himself. He pays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the installation of his nemesis, Stephen Gardiner, to become the bishop of Winchester, creating a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounting for the prelate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a sensitive side to Mantel?s Cromwell not usually considered by historians of the period. Cromwell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cries in talking about the loss of his wife and two daughters to the periodic sweating sickness that killed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of low and high birth with impartiality. He is compassionate for the poor, feeding vagrants at his gate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bringing a poor mother and her two children into his household ? but telling her she must learn to read. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He also has an affair with Johane, the sister of his dead wife, and he is portrayed as possessing strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings for the likes of Anne?s sister, Mary Boleyn and the king?s future wife, Jane Seymour ? two very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risky attractions considering they at various times are placed in Henry VIII?s bed during the story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell?s religious beliefs and humanistic opinions are of import to both authors and are seen as driving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces in his actions. Elton tells of a Cromwell who is patron to scholars and a ?man of the gospel?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformers wanted new laws, and Elton describes a process where experts in Cromwell?s employment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss reforms, draft them as laws and encourage their master to bring them to the king and council for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion to parliament. A slight glitch in this analysis is noted: Elton admits it is difficult to ascertain if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell was annotating a private petition to reform something he believed in, or whether he was merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helping a private interest. Although unemployment is identified as the main target for reform \(high rents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosures, loss of trade opportunities\), Elton sees four areas Cromwell pursues for his reformist program: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the church, removing special privileges and constitutional diversities such as in Wales and Ireland, overhaul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the central administration of state to make it less personal, and socio-economic problems. However, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these areas are targets for both commonwealth reformists and Protestant adherents, many of them had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed in varying degrees before ? Elton observes that impeding enclosures dated back to a statute in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VII?s reign and the subsequent 1517 Enclosure Commission spearheaded by Wolsey. The impression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given is that Cromwell hopes to succeed where others failed, and he could attempt to do so within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maelstrom of the retreat from Rome and a willingness for parliament to take bold actions for the king and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own self-interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel places Cromwell and his beliefs in a world where Christianity and pagan practices are balanced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hedge one?s bets. Henry VIII is a good Christian son who believes he rules by divine right and is in touch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Supreme Being. But he also keeps astrologers close at hand and listens to the rantings of a so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holy woman who predicts the future. Cromwell is religious in the sense that he compartmentalises what may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be divine from what may be politically useful. He can therefore seek religious reform, including getting rid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the non-biblical concept of Purgatory, yet at the same time pay for seven years? worth of masses for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deceased wife while his nieces pray with rosary beads. Where there is no compromise to him is the law. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell, Christ did not bestow lands and property on people ? that is done through earthly authority and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(none higher than parliament. Indeed, Cromwell believes that the king derives his power from the people and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the laws of parliament ? if Henry VIII did not at least recognise this in practice, Cromwell would not follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it comes to accomplishments and the art of survival, each author takes a different route with varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results. Elton seems to see the act of proposing legislative reforms as both an end unto itself and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement. Yet he is hard-pressed to show that Cromwell overall was successful during the Reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament up until his execution in 1540. It is clear that this was a very busy minister, but the success rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting reformist bills passed was not earth-shattering. The 1536 Enclosure Act he shepherds through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commons loses much of its teeth along the way. Cromwell?s attempt at a Poor Law, part of the reformist )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7759 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, is eventually watered down and fails. His efforts to limit sanctuary and benefit of clergy ? the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where men could easily claim the privilege to avoid common law prosecution ? were addressed by Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII in subsequent statutes without Cromwell?s imprint. When Cromwell attempts to restrain sanctuary in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1540 bill, it is defeated after his fall. Much of the legislation in the last years of the Reformation Parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved law enforcement, not law reform; those law reform bills that were initiated failed, including a bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prosecute rigged juries. In all of this, Elton makes clear that Cromwell can only do so much to push )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a bill, and fairly little if the king is against it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ironically, Elton undercuts his argument after outlining Cromwell?s legislative reform failures by noting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the last four parliaments after Cromwell?s fall, 12, 13, seven and 14 acts deemed commonwealth bills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually pass. Nevertheless, Elton entitles his last chapter ?The achievement?, although admitting that most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plans for the common weal through Cromwell?s endeavors ?came to little or nothing?. Some that succeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were for terms, lasting until the next parliament or the death of the king. One is left with the impression that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a hard-working minister, undeterred by defeat and opposition, doggedly pushes bill after bill through an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution without result. Thomas Cromwell perhaps believed in parliament more than it believed in Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell and his purpose. His survival through these turbulent times is not directly addressed by Elton, nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are much of the politics beyond parliamentary procedures. Nonetheless, it is clear that Cromwell had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust of the king during the uncertainty of continental responses to the Henrician Reformation and the demise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of three wives until both court intrigue and an unfortunate painting of Anne of Cleves cost the minister his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 53.012 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 53.012 526.467 m 67.004 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Time and again, Mantel portrays Cromwell as adept at manipulating Henry VIII. There are many examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout her story: instructing Henry that it is the king who is now head of the church )] TJ ET BT 459.644 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of)] TJ ET BT 468.980 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( England in place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Roman church )] TJ ET BT 137.996 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 147.332 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( England; ?teaching? the king to call the pope the bishop of Rome; interpreting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry?s dream in the middle of the night as a call to take charge of the realm; telling Henry that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries are corrupt and useless, and thus ripe for dissolution. It is, after all, the caprice of a ruler ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yesterday and today ? that determines the rise or fall of a minister. Cromwell is a master of his master, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore of survival amid court plotting, back-stabbing and the volatile nature of a king losing his youth, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health and his hold on a viable dynasty. Mantel has Cromwell play the game as well as anyone in the Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orbit. Moreover, because of his ability to accomplish what his monarch wants ? and here she only mentions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those laws that passed ? this unlikely minister through tenacity and ruthlessness was able to survive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thrive until, ironically, the Reformation was legislatively complete and England was, indeed, its own realm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mantel?s book as a whole sets itself up for a sequel, and those familiar with the period have a sense of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will happen to many of the characters presented, including Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour and Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell. A word should be mentioned about the title, )] TJ ET BT 302.336 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wolf Hall)] TJ ET BT 349.340 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, since it is more descriptive of what it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portends than what it has to do with the present book. The Seymours live at Wolf Hall, and it will be Jane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seymour who succeeds Anne Boleyn as Henry VIII?s next wife and the one who fulfils his quest for a male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heir. Apart from passing mentions, it is only discussed briefly on the last page and in fact the last sentence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell, whom we know is emotionally attached to Jane Seymour, intends to visit her and the Seymour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. The book ends thusly: ?Early September. Five days. Wolf Hall.? To the reader waiting to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the significance of the title, it is a long wait indeed and perhaps without any meaning for the entire story. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the author, in her notes published at the end of the novel, who admits as much: ?Wolf Hall, the Seymour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house in Wiltshire, is where we?re going at the end of the book. But, of course, I chose it primarily for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphorical resonance: who could resist it? The whole of Henry?s court is Wolf Hall.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might prove useful to begin with Elton?s book, if the reader desires to understand first what it was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupied most of Thomas Cromwell?s time, and only subsequently move to Mantel's depiction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and political world he dealt with on a daily basis during his rise to become the chief minister of Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII. It is sometimes difficult to comprehend a life solely through a fictionalised account, no matter how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well researched, without becoming grounded in how things worked, or why they did not. Both authors have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a great respect for their subject, and together they have taken a Tudor figure who is less known in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular mind and created a major component in one of the great events of English history: the Henrician )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 53.0117 526.7815 67.0037 538.6615 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 8390 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, with its cast of famous characters caught up in this uncertain time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. R. Elton, )] TJ ET BT 124.688 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tudor Revolution in Government: Administrative Changes in the Reign of Henry VIII)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1953\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 715.299 m 212.324 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a good summary of Elton?s thesis and a revision of his conclusions, see Ethan H. Shagan, ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tudor Revolution in Government)] TJ ET BT 244.004 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fifty years later: rethinking Geoffrey Elton?s vision of political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernization?, paper presented at The University of Chicago Nicholson Center for British Studies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference: Modernizing Politics? \(21?2 May 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.308 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.308 658.275 m 375.296 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey Baldwin Smith, )] TJ ET BT 174.680 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII: The Mask of Royalty)] TJ ET BT 332.972 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1971\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.296 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.296 644.019 m 468.284 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Cavendish, )] TJ ET BT 158.996 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life and Death of Cardinal Wolsey)] TJ ET BT 348.332 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Richard S. Sylvester, Early English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Text Society, 243 \(London, 1959\). Cavendish was a gentleman usher in Wolsey?s household.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.296 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.296 615.507 m 556.292 615.507 l S BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 601.251 m 78.008 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flix Mart-Ibez, M.D., ?The ?Anne Boleyn? syndrome?, )] TJ ET BT 354.620 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(MD Medical News Magazine)] TJ ET BT 494.936 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 18, 10 \(Oct )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1974\), 11?16. There are no contemporary descriptions of Anne?s deformities. The notion of having )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six fingers \(polydactylism\), a goiter and ?moles? occurred years after her execution and most likely by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Anglicans seeking to portray the attributes of a witch who enchanted Henry VIII into his divorce )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Katherine and the papacy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.636 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.636 529.971 m 269.624 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has always been my feeling that once Henry VIII viewed the unfortunate lady in person and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized the disparity between pictorial rendition and reality, it should have been the artist, Hans )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holbein, who went to the block and not Cromwell. After Cromwell?s demise, Henry lamented the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution of his minister and might have come to the same conclusion. Holbein died in 1543, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly from the plague.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.008 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.008 458.691 m 239.996 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/5207969/Wolf-Hall-by-Hilary-Mantel-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 403.923 m 547.280 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/apr/26/hilary-mantel-wolf-hall)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 361.155 m 372.320 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.320 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Financial Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/8a1bec94-465d-11de-803f-00144feabdc0.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 332.643 m 390.308 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 393.308 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/wolf-hall-by-hilary-mantel-1680694.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 304.131 m 545.960 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Los Angeles Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://articles.latimes.com/2009/oct/08/entertainment/et-book8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 261.363 m 334.676 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.676 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2009/05/cromwell-mantel-hall-henry)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 232.851 m 395.984 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 398.984 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 34.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2009/nov/05/how-it-must-have-been/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 204.339 m 419.984 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.984 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Yorker)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/books/2009/10/19/091019crbo_books_acocella)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 175.827 m 450.644 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 453.644 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 34.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(San Francisco Chronicle)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 147.315 m 232.328 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.328 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland on Sunday)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.scotsman.com/news/book_review_wolf_hall_1_1352279)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 118.803 m 365.996 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.996 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 34.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spectator)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/3614358/the-benefit-of-the-doubt.thtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 90.291 m 389.324 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 392.324 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street Journal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703746604574461110318457866.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 61.779 m 458.372 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.372 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 58.447 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 715.6135 212.3237 727.4935 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.3077 658.5895 375.2957 670.4695 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.2957 644.3335 468.2837 656.2135 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.2957 615.8215 556.2917 627.7015 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type 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