%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140421055137+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140421055137+01'00') /Title (The dark side of Victorian London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2523 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The dark side of Victorian London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1169)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Faber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780857860019)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(838pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canongate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drew D. Gray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847252425)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaye Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7893 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I am what you would call a Fallen Woman, but I assure you I did not fall ? I was pushed? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Faber, p. 336\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meet Sugar, a 19-year-old prostitute and protagonist of Michel Faber?s novel, )] TJ ET BT 411.620 731.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crimson Petal and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(White)] TJ ET BT 62.012 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Forced into prostitution at the tender age of 13, Sugar plies her trade at Mrs Castaway?s, a brothel in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the St Giles area of London. Set in 1875, the fictional Sugar exists in a world that has not yet witnessed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutality and depravity of Jack the Ripper ? the focal point of )] TJ ET BT 330.632 689.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London?s Shadows )] TJ ET BT 426.644 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Drew Gray ? the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book of this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray begins )] TJ ET BT 95.336 648.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London?s Shadows)] TJ ET BT 188.348 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by stating that he is neither a Ripperologist nor does he intend to contribute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this already vast body of work. Instead, Gray)] TJ ET BT 265.640 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses the Ripper murders as a focal point for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation, arguing that this spate of brutal murders refocused public attention, primarily within the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle class, to the social problems of poverty and vice that existed on the streets of London?s East End.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defining this area of London is not an easy task; contemporary social commentators and modern historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Paul Begg and Alan Palmer )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.336 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.336 564.003 m 205.328 564.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 205.328 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, disagree over its exact geographical boundaries. Gray overcomes this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty by arguing that we should focus less on these details and more on the ever-changing and evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social construction of the East End. From industrialisation to EastEnders, Gray argues that the East End, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack the Ripper, has evolved into a semi-mythological entity, coloured by images of the ?plucky cockney?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhyming slang and the music hall. For the middle classes, it was here in the East End ? amid the hotchpotch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cultures and races, the smog and the slaughterhouse ? that crime, poverty and sexual deviance, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incest and prostitution, festered and flourished.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Working-class neighbourhoods were the subject of numerous articles, investigations and exposs \(Gray, p.1\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from as early as the 1830s. In )] TJ ET BT 178.652 439.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London?s Shadows, )] TJ ET BT 277.664 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray relies heavily on such reports, like )] TJ ET BT 472.292 439.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bitter Cry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Outcast London )] TJ ET BT 114.020 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Rev. Andrew Mearns \(1883\) and )] TJ ET BT 307.976 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(East London )] TJ ET BT 371.984 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Charles Booth \(1889\), but warns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against taking these sources at face value. Instead, Gray argues that these reports should be seen as evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a cultural, social and economic chasm that existed between the middle and working classes, characterised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by ignorance and notions of superiority. This also manifested itself in the social construction of the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class as a ?different race? \(Gray p. 125\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If)] TJ ET BT 42.008 341.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( London?s Shadows )] TJ ET BT 141.020 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposes these problems then it is Michel Faber?s novel, )] TJ ET BT 411.656 341.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal, )] TJ ET BT 487.328 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings them to life. Rightly considered as a ?Dickensian novel for our times? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.968 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.968 326.163 m 419.960 326.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 419.960 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Faber?s descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian London are about as vivid as they come. St Giles, for instance, is described as a place at the ?very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottom? where ?prosperity is an exotic dream? \(Faber, p. 8\), where hansom cabs are looted by children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Faber, p. 10\) and the ground is covered in human and animal excrement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the residents of St Giles can only dream of escape, there are some men, like William Rackham, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just can?t keep away. Heir to the great Rackham Perfumeries, William reads about Sugar in the pamphlet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(More Sprees in London)] TJ ET BT 147.008 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an extensive guide to the capital?s ladies of the night. Described as an ?eager )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotee of every known pleasure? and ?a fit companion for any True gentlemen? \(Faber, pp. 83?4\), Sugar, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems, is worth navigating the filthy streets of St Giles for.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as the )] TJ ET BT 86.348 175.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(More Sprees )] TJ ET BT 150.332 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pamphlet drives the plot in )] TJ ET BT 281.996 175.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal)] TJ ET BT 351.668 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the media also played a role in fuelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class anxieties about poverty and vice in the real East End. The last quarter of the 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed the emergence of sensationalism ? a new style of journalism \(Gray, p. 95\). Under intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition to attract readers, editors needed to find new ways of presenting stories that would keep the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public hooked. Crime reporting, in particular, was one way that newspapers could achieve this aim. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focusing less on information and more on entertainment, this ?new journalism? became a powerful force in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society \(Gray, p. 115\). Using Stanley Cohen?s theory on moral panics and the garrotting scandal of 1862, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray convincingly demonstrates the power of the late Victorian press. From a few cases of wildly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated street robbery came soaring arrest rates and changes in penal policy \(the Security Against )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.3357 564.3175 205.3277 576.1975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.9677 326.4775 419.9597 338.3575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7759 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Violence Act of 1863\) \(p. 114\). Could Cohen?s theory be applied to the Whitechapel murders? Gray thinks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not and urges us to remember that the Ripper was so brutal, media exaggeration was unnecessary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, despite the public outrage and significant police investigation, the murders never resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additions or changes to criminal legislation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there were many journalists in Victorian London that were not just interested in boosting sales figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through sensationalist reporting. Away from the authoritative, patriarchal and often judgemental tone of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers like )] TJ ET BT 113.996 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 163.664 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Gray draws our attention to William Stead, editor of the Pall Mall Gazette, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that the influence of the press could be harnessed and used for the greater good. The ?Maiden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tribute of modern Babylon?, for example, was Stead?s attempt to uncover child trafficking in the capital and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force parliament to raise the age of consent for girls from 13 to 16. In 1885, with the help of a former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(madam, Rebecca Jarrett, Stead procured a young girl, the 13 year-old Eliza Armstrong. Although Stead?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intention was to show that he could easily buy a child for the ?purposes of sexual exploitation? \(Gray, p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(155\), the breaking of the story resulted in scandal, public outrage and Stead?s imprisonment in Holloway for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three months. It did, however, contribute to the passing of the Criminal Law Amendment Act and a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures to protect young women and girls from exploitation. Gray places the Maiden campaign in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of an ongoing class war, characterized by the gulf between the middle and working classes. Like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of working women by the CDA \(Contagious Diseases Act\), Stead?s campaign began from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewpoint that women were the passive victims of lustful males instead of ?a consequence of a deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequal capitalist society?. As a researcher interested in female sexuality in this era I would like to have seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more on the trafficking of young women both in and out of the capital, but coverage of the ?Maiden tribute? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a welcome addition nonetheless.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal )] TJ ET BT 106.688 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not shy away from the issue of trafficking and under-age sex either. Prior to his first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting with Sugar, William heads to the ?good, cheap brothels of Drury Lane? to meet Claire and Alice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twins recommended by )] TJ ET BT 166.664 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(More Sprees)] TJ ET BT 227.648 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. After arriving in London ?as innocents? and promised help with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing lodgings and employment, the girls were robbed and installed in a brothel \(Faber, p. 70\). Faber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents the encounter with no holds barred but dispels the myth of young women as sexually passive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims when the twins refuse to succumb to William?s unconventional requests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In agreement with Judith Walkowitz?s landmark study into Victorian prostitution, both Gray and Faber view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex workers as ?independent and assertive? women. Rather than portraying prostitutes as the victims of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male seducers, the authors see them as victims of circumstance. Caroline, the first character that we meet in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal)] TJ ET BT 103.688 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, turned to prostitution as a means of paying for her dying son?s medical care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Faber, p. 15\). Similarly, Jack the Ripper?s victims generally fell into prostitution as a result of ?failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriages, lost children?, or the inability to find paid work in a more respectable profession \(Faber, pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(164?5\). Attempting to reconstruct the experiences of these women and understand city life through their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes is a highlight of both books, especially considering the scarcity of primary source evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That prostitutes were frequently targeted by Christian reformers, missionaries and do-gooders has been well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.672 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.672 233.859 m 109.664 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.664 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The middle-class need to ?raise up, rescue and reform? these fallen women led hundreds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals, particularly women, to enter the slums, roll up their sleeves and attack this Great Social Evil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Gray, p. 62\). Reformers weren?t always sure how best to tackle the issue and Gray deals with this dilemma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in chapter five. He identifies individualism and collectivism as the two competing reform ideologies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later Victorian era, espoused by the likes of Beatrice Webb and Helen Bosanquet. He makes no attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell the story of this ?intellectual war? in any great detail. Rather, Gray places this ideological battle in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the country?s journey towards the welfare state. His comparison between this Victorian reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma and the modern preoccupation with ?benefit scroungers?, notably within the tabloid press, is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting point. Returning to prostitution, the one criticism of this section is that Gray could have focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more on specific prostitution reforms, outside of the Contagious Diseases Acts which have been extensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The devout widow, Emmeline Fox, is )] TJ ET BT 218.012 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal?s )] TJ ET BT 301.352 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirited reformer. Working daily with the Rescue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society, Fox views reform as a crusade to cleanse the streets and save the souls of the fallen women of St )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.6717 234.1735 109.6637 246.0535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7419 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles. Armed with her Bible, Fox is driven by apocalyptic fears where the souls of St Giles become the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property of the devil. Technological progress, like the factory or the Underground, has moral consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is responsible for tempting people away from God. But Fox and her mission are rarely taken seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by others of her class. Even Henry Rackham, her confidant, is more interested in forming a romantic liaison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in her work at the society. Despite her efforts, Fox encompasses the ignorant attitude described by Gray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? that judges and condemns the behaviour and culture observed in St Giles rather than attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merging the themes of gender, sex and religion, it is with the character of Agnes Rackham that I became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most intrigued when reading )] TJ ET BT 174.668 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal)] TJ ET BT 244.340 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In complete contrast to other female characters in the novel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contemporary domestic ideologies, Agnes is the mad woman locked away in her bedroom and hidden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from public view. While the omniscient narrator informs us that Agnes? mental health problems are caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a brain tumour the size of ?quail?s egg? \(p. 218\), Dr Curlew has identified her troublesome womb as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culprit. Though Agnes has no idea about the internal workings of her body, she is still expected to perform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a wife through intercourse and bearing a child. Ironically, it is these acts that have caused much of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological damage. For Dr Curlew, Agnes is, for the most part, a lost cause. Along with leeches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laudanum and internal examinations, his advice to William is to pack Agnes off to the asylum ? lest her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(madness infect the rest of the household.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faber should be applauded for bringing Victorian constructions of female sexuality, reproduction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental illness into the wider public arena through his characterisation of Agnes. While she retreats deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and deeper into her imaginary world \(where she is cared for by nuns from the Convent of Health\), Faber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws the reader?s attention to the patriarchal ideas and practices, from rape to the ?wandering womb?, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have controlled and determined the fate of her life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Returning to )] TJ ET BT 97.352 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London?s Shadows, )] TJ ET BT 196.364 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray tackles the Victorian construction of the so-called criminal class in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 7. Standing below the respectable working class and existing entirely from crime, this underclass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first emerged in the writings of Henry Mayhew. This idea was further developed by the prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologist, Henry Maudsley, who argued that ?heredity and environment? were factors in determining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deviant behaviour rather than an individual choice. This belief was also echoed on the Continent where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cesare Lombroso began developing a criminal classification based on physical features. This biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory of crime affected the way that contemporaries viewed and dealt with the criminal, from the old days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reform, through education and religion, to a new era of taking photographs and measurements to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine the specific attributes that made him behave in this way \(p. 200\). But what sort of crimes did this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class commit?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To answer this question, Gray has compiled criminal statistics from London?s Central Criminal Court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1850 and 1899. The historian?s work in compiling this type of data is made far easier with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Internet?s greatest resource on the history of crime, the )] TJ ET BT 301.280 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Bailey Proceedings Online)] TJ ET BT 451.592 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. From his analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theft, including burglary and simple larceny, was the most commonly committed crime at 49 per cent. Gray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings this section of the book to life by recounting tales from the proceedings that give some idea of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunistic nature of these crimes. \(Faber also echoes this sentiment of opportunism in his description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hansom cab looting in )] TJ ET BT 161.012 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal)] TJ ET BT 230.684 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). As ideas about criminals changed and the keeping of records and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics increased, it was much easier for the authorities to identify and label habitual offenders. Running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel to these developments came debates about the nature and purpose of prison, most notably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of a more regimented system, led by Edmund Du Cane. Despite these changes, Gray believes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that internal management issues and ever-increasing costs prevented the Victorians from successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with recidivism. Furthermore, the concept of a criminal class prevented them from ever truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the motivations of offenders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter eight Gray deals specifically with the police hunt for Jack the Ripper. Although the failure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police to catch the killer has attracted criticism, both in the past and more recently, Gray takes a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathetic view of the Victorian police. With limited resources and criminal detection techniques still in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their infancy, it is hardly surprising that they were unable to bring Jack to justice. Added to this were a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7136 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of hoaxes, false leads and other crimes to attend to.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like the Ripper?s victims, there is no happy ending for the women in the )] TJ ET BT 387.644 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal)] TJ ET BT 457.316 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Without revealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too much, Sugar may escape St Giles but she finds that life is no more pleasurable as William?s mistress or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as governess to his daughter, Sophie. Extremely well-researched, clearly informed by current historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and described in almost painstaking detail, this tragic story keeps the reader hooked to the very last page. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Combined with the recent BBC television adaptation, )] TJ ET BT 294.008 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crimson Petal )] TJ ET BT 366.680 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be applauded for bringing to life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and into public focus the harsh realities of this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray is not the first historian to investigate the darker side of Victorian London but his book is well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched and accessible, making it a welcome addition to this existing historiography. Both Gray and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faber highlight the tremendous social cost of industry that contemporaries recognised but could not remedy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though the streets of London may be cleaner and the slums replaced by modern redevelopments, the then-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-now approach of )] TJ ET BT 138.980 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London?s Shadows )] TJ ET BT 234.992 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a stark reminder that poverty, deprivation and inequality are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as problematic today as they were in the 1880s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 535.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Paul Begg, )] TJ ET BT 140.012 535.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack the Ripper: The Definitive History,)] TJ ET BT 332.648 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2004\) and Alan Palmer, )] TJ ET BT 497.624 535.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The East )] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(End: Four Centuries of London Life, )] TJ ET BT 243.692 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Jersey, NJ, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.660 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.660 520.227 m 413.648 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathyrn Hughes, ?Whores, Porn and Lunatics?, )] TJ ET BT 296.300 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 363.968 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28 September, 2002 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/28/fiction)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 491.715 m 321.680 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.680 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 338.672 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 8 August 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.076 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.076 491.715 m 529.064 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Paul McHugh, )] TJ ET BT 223.988 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prostitution and Victorian Social Reform, )] TJ ET BT 428.000 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1980\), Judith R. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walkowitz, )] TJ ET BT 122.672 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prostitution and Victorian Society: Women, Class and the State, )] TJ ET BT 434.336 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge 1980\) and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paula Bartley, )] TJ ET BT 135.008 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prostitution: Prevention and Reform in England, 1860?1914, )] TJ ET BT 433.340 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.664 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.664 448.947 m 551.660 448.947 l S BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 434.691 m 78.008 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 409.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/28/fiction)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 379.923 m 291.680 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.680 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Common Reader)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://acommonreader.org/crimson-petal-and-the-white-faber/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 351.411 m 330.944 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.944 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reader I Read It)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.readerireadit.com/2011/03/the-crimson-petal-and-the-white/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 322.899 m 380.624 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 383.624 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungry Reader)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://thehungryreader.wordpress.com/2011/06/30/book-review-the-crimson-petal-and-the-white-by-michel-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 294.387 m 555.248 294.387 l S BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faber/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 280.131 m 62.000 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 65.000 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 276.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 259.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 259.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1169)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 257.625 m 328.316 257.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7814)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7813)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/28/fiction)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://acommonreader.org/crimson-petal-and-the-white-faber/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.648 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.readerireadit.com/2011/03/the-crimson-petal-and-the-white/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.363 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://thehungryreader.wordpress.com/2011/06/30/book-review-the-crimson-petal-and-the-white-by-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(michel-faber/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.6597 520.5415 413.6477 532.4215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 492.0295 321.6797 503.9095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/sep/28/fiction) 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