%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728192723+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728192723+01'00') /Title (Queers, erotomaniacs and Victorians) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3069 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Queers, erotomaniacs and Victorians)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any historian analysing a historical novel is bound to appear a little pedantic, taking a spade to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proverbial souffl, but here goes. It would of course be foolish to start measuring )] TJ ET BT 425.948 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fingersmith)] TJ ET BT 484.616 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?real? historical sources, as it is not my job here to demand that it be ?more authentic?, more like the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1171)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Waters)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781860498831)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(560pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Gibson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780571209040)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faber & Faber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harry Cocks)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8366 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical accounts presented by Ian Gibson and the like, but to examine the reasons why certain stories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the past and not others have come to the fore. The main reason that the motifs of )] TJ ET BT 452.948 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fingersmith)] TJ ET BT 511.616 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar and enduring, I think, is that for all the fact-mongering of the professional historian, our view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian past owes far more to its literary heritage than to any learned footnote.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is shown by the fact that )] TJ ET BT 178.340 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fingersmith)] TJ ET BT 237.008 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was part of a wave of ?neo-Victorian? fiction which emerged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1990s, and includes Michel Faber?s )] TJ ET BT 226.988 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crimson Petal and the White)] TJ ET BT 387.320 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2002\), and Waters? other two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian novels )] TJ ET BT 116.672 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tipping the Velvet)] TJ ET BT 204.668 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\) and )] TJ ET BT 262.988 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Affinity)] TJ ET BT 298.328 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2002\), though she has since moved on to the 1940s \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Night Watch)] TJ ET BT 115.352 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 141.680 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Little Stranger)] TJ ET BT 233.024 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). These books are characterised by a kind of pastiche ? they do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try and hide their source material \(Dickens, Mayhew, the sensation novel, social investigation, academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary criticism\), but instead flaunt their fictiveness and wear it proudly as a badge of honour, a kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homage to Mrs Braddon et al. This attitude ? exemplified by the plausible but made-up slang that forms their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles ? is an attempt to inhabit rather than transcend one?s sources, to do Victorian fiction as faithfully as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible but to include the bits that couldn?t be said or depicted at the time, thereby adding a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibility. Done badly, as in the recent BBC adaptation of Faber?s novel, the result can seem like a set of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gothic clichs laid end to end: desperate middle class wife suffocated by domesticity ? check; evil bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paterfamilias keeping secret prostitute/pursuing double life ? check; mad woman in attic, or about to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined there ? check; mad doctors about to perform horrific procedures on said mad woman ? check; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexually repressed evangelical moral hypocrite ? check; doppelgangers; dark, bleak house in the country; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impersonation; purloined letters; fogs; check, check, check. The point is not to deny that these things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened or existed in the 19th century, but rather to inquire into why these particular tropes and stories, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not others, have proved so incredibly durable. Why do we need the Victorians to be the dreadful hypocrites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these novels imagine? Why do we demand that these things are the everlasting sign of ?the Victorian??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fingersmith)] TJ ET BT 92.684 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( starts in a thieves? den in the Borough in London. Sue Trinder, an orphan whose mother, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposes, had been hanged for murder, is a fingersmith ? a pickpocket. She lives in the house of Mrs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sucksby, a baby-farmer and the matriarchal ruler of her little gang. Sue is employed by the genteel conman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Rivers \(known as ?Gentleman?\) in a scheme to defraud an heiress, Maud Lilly, of her inheritance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She is to go to Maud?s suitably bleak house in the country as her ladies? maid, to gain her trust and act as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaperone while Rivers, who teaches Maud drawing, seduces and carries her off. Having married her, Rivers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says he will then incarcerate Maud in an asylum and steal her money, giving Sue her share. Maud is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary heiress, though. Her uncle, Christopher Lilly, is an obsessive collector of erotica, and employs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maud as his assistant. Every day, she reads books from his library so that he can compile an exhaustive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography of sexual acts and perversions. The conspiracy is complicated by the fact that Sue and Maud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slowly fall in love, but this does not stop Sue from fulfilling her part of the bargain with Gentleman. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of the story is told from Sue?s perspective, and we feel that we know this story with all its gothic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tropes, but the brilliance of )] TJ ET BT 166.664 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fingersmith)] TJ ET BT 225.332 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is that it sets out the themes of sensation fiction mainly as a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lulling the reader into a kind of false security. We know this story, and this protagonist, we think, just as Sue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is so sure of herself and certain about what is happening. We are so immersed in Sue?s point of view, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar with it, that the sudden demonstration that all is not what it seems is all the more effective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Sue and Gentleman arrive at the mad-house where Maud is to be entombed, it is the doppelganger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sue, and not Maud, who is taken away to be locked up. It turns out that the whole scheme has been dreamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up by Mrs Sucksby with Sue, not Maud, as the patsy. She has done this because it is Maud, and not Sue, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is her real daughter. Seventeen years previously, Mrs Sucksby had helped a lady called Marianne Lilly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to give birth to an illegitimate daughter. The dying Marianne despairs at the fate awaiting her daughter ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be reclaimed by her family and confined forever in the trappings of gentility. She does a deal with Mrs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sucksby ? they will swap babies. So Mrs Sucksby sends her own daughter, Maud, to live a life of enervating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury with the Lillys in the country, while Marianne?s daughter \(Sue\) remains in the Borough. In order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim the Lilly?s fortune, which will come to Sue in due course if her true identity is found out, Mrs Sucksby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has to reclaim her own daughter \(Maud\) and inveigle her into the plot, as well as sending Sue \(the real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heiress\) off to the madhouse. Sue is locked up, but escapes thanks to that stand-by of the sensation novel, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improbable coincidence. She returns to the Borough and confronts Mrs Sucksby, Maud and Gentleman. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a scuffle and Gentleman is fatally stabbed, it is not clear by whom ? Maud or Mrs Sucksby ? but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matriarch admits her guilt in order to save the daughter she has grown to love, is arrested and hanged. Sue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally learns the truth, but in an amazingly forgiving mood, returns to Maud \(who now occupies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crumbling house in the country\). They declare their love for each other, and commit themselves to a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living off the writing of the same pornography that Maud had spent her life reciting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I don?t want to suggest that Waters is a prisoner of the historians, still less that they are, like Mrs Sucksby, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hiding behind every narrative turn. However, it is interesting how academic history has contributed to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular vision of the Victorian. The love between Sue and Maud is a case in point. Although Waters is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes lazily typecast as a writer of ?lesbian romances?, her work relies on an unstated allegiance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular historical assumptions that belong to what Alan Sinfield called the ?queer moment? ? the idea that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1990s and since, the fixity of sexual identity and its history was suddenly in question. This turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the centrality of Michel Foucault to our idea of modern history, in particular his view that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confines of sexual identity ? the alleged solidity of homo and hetero ? were a relatively recent, 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention. Before that, the implication was, there had to have been a period ?before identity,? that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxically less constrained than the present. Putting the rightness or otherwise of Foucault to one side, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clear that the Victorian era plays this role ? the past as a place of paradoxical liberty ? in Waters? novels. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another noticeable influence is the historiography inspired by Lillian Faderman?s compendious history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesbianism since the Renaissance, )] TJ ET BT 198.992 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passing the Love of Men)] TJ ET BT 317.648 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.648 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.648 540.723 m 334.640 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 334.640 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She, and those who came after her like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharon Marcus, argued that because Victorian women were not thought to possess an active and independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality, the idea of lesbianism was in many ways inherently implausible \(although this idea has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critically scrutinised by Martha Vicinus in her 2004 book )] TJ ET BT 312.320 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Intimate Friends )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.648 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.648 497.955 m 412.640 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.640 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Following Foucault?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, Faderman suggested that this meant that in the homosocial world of the Victorian woman, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible for same-sex love to develop without it ever attracting the label of pathology \(or indeed any label\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maud and Sue?s love for each other follows this pattern, with the important difference that they are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaste, as Faderman?s account suggested they might have been. They are unaware of anything as crude as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual identity, however, and instead their love develops naturally from everyday proximity such as sharing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bed. ?It is only that we are put so long together, in such seclusion?, Maud says, barely deceiving herself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?We are obliged to be intimate? \(p. 252\). This liberty entails a form of self-creation, for if there is no pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to follow, it must be invented. This too is one of the tropes of queer history and theory, the principle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is to subvert notions of identity. Indeed the indeterminate nature of Sue and Maud?s attachment, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that there is no name for it, is registered in the novel by the insistent use of the word ?queer? in all its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guises to describe uncanny and unfamiliar states ? people move ?queerly?, ask ?queer questions?, have queer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings, while queer things happen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These queer assumptions threaten to do two things: firstly, they can make us anachronistically project a late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th?century habit of self-invention back into the past, and make those who seem to do it the object of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. Secondly, it can allow us to imagine characters like Sue and Maud as somehow outside history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse, inhabiting instead a world of almost pure self-creation. Sue?s initially self-confident narration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clever way with locks and wallets, as well as her disdain for Maud?s real servants stuck in a world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servility and hierarchy while she lives a life ?without masters? \(p. 38\) seems at first to be just such a story. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the inversions of the novel cleverly upset these comforting possibilities and potential excesses ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sue and Maud are not in command of their own stories. They are after all subject to history ? although by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the book they seem to be escaping from it once again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the twin protagonists of the novel are inventions in more ways than one, Maud?s uncle is consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if very loosely based on a real person ? the bibliographer of the erotic, Henry Spencer Ashbee, also known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pisanus Fraxi, whose life is chronicled in Ian Gibson?s biography. The contrast between Maud?s uncle ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure straight out of the gothic ? and the obsessive cataloguer Ashbee tells us a great deal about what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want from Victorian stories. Ashbee was the son of the manager of a Hounslow gunpowder factory who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a good marriage to the daughter of a wealthy merchant and joined the family firm. His extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travels on business in Europe and America allowed him to pursue his bibliomaniacial vocation: collecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, including quantities of erotica and pornography. This work resulted in the production of two massive )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.6477 541.0375 334.6397 552.9175 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.6477 498.2695 412.6397 510.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8250 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographies ? the )] TJ ET BT 131.672 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Index Librorum Prohibitorum)] TJ ET BT 275.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1877\), a record of erotica, and the more conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Centuria Librorum Absconditorum )] TJ ET BT 205.028 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1879\), the former worked up from a vast collection of rare and erotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts brought mainly on his business trips. Gibson also speculates that Ashbee?s talent for the exhaustive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes him a likely candidate for the authorship of the anonymous 11-volume pornographic bore-athon )] TJ ET BT 531.272 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(My )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secret Life)] TJ ET BT 85.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(c.1888?95\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibson presents Ashbee as the classic example of a Victorian double life. He kept up a respectable home in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloomsbury, while at the same time taking an office a few miles away in Gray?s Inn to store his books and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on his bibliography of the erotic. He may also have had an illegitimate daughter, a key beneficiary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his will. He socialised with other bibliophiles and book dealers, including the great experts in the literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of venery, Richard Monckton Milnes and Richard Burton, both of whom were members of the Cannibal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Club, an informal society devoted to consuming and curating the pornographic. For Gibson, Ashbee?s life is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prima facie evidence of the fact that he was hiding some sort of secret perversion, whether ?erotomania?, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love of flagellation, or excessive masturbation. Gibson therefore tries hard to present Ashbee?s travels as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erotic quests, noting his admiration of Spanish dancing girls or Indian ladies, as well as seeing his habit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marking crosses in his diary as a possible secret record of masturbation. In this respect, Gibson tries hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locate Ashbee as one of Steven Marcus? )] TJ ET BT 230.960 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Other Victorians)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.960 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.960 569.235 m 328.952 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.952 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a book which he uses as his principal guide to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the territory. Marcus argued, famously, that the pornographic was symptomatic of a society that increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought of sex as a distinct and separate domain of knowledge, and that the pornographic was therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful as a mirror image of official moral attitudes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maddeningly for Gibson and us, Ashbee?s diaries contain nothing about his personal motivations. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he comes across as peevish, irascible and obsessive. On his travels he is swindled by dull Americans, hates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabs, deplores the rudeness of the French \(characteristically failing, while in Rouen, to say anything about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Madame Bovary)] TJ ET BT 113.660 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and is the very picture of an anti-Catholic Tory. Back at home the bourgeois paterfamilias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienates his sensitive son, the arts and crafts pioneer and homosexual Charles, not least by severely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upbraiding him for wearing a straw boater and flannels to the office. For all Gibson?s efforts to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Ashbee was hiding some fascinating secret or revealing compulsion, he frequently comes across as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncultured and narrowly middle class, his fascination with erotica driven by little more than the mania of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collector ? the need to list and obtain every example of what he wanted. This characteristic is demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Ashbee?s later work ? an equally obsessive and laborious attempt to own every single illustration to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Don Quixote)] TJ ET BT 95.672 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is this attempt to catalogue everything that alone makes Ashbee a plausible author of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interminable )] TJ ET BT 97.676 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(My Secret Life)] TJ ET BT 167.660 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What makes Ashbee interesting is not whether he was the secret author of a pornographic masterwork, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply his rather mundane desire to compile and collect ? it is that which makes him a typically modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveyor of the sexual. For an obsessive like Ashbee, pornography was the ideal idiom. It is modern and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialised, boring and repetitive, a matter of enumeration, listing and ticking off all the required acts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body parts, positions and perversions. Even he conceded that his enterprise tended this way, and that much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what he read was ?dull and insipid?. In that respect Ashbee is a figure of transition from an older libertine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of erotic education ? a kind of literary )] TJ ET BT 254.960 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars erotica)] TJ ET BT 307.292 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which small groups of elite men gathered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrate their priapism and investigate the female body ? to a more modern one of scientific ambition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classification. It is therefore no coincidence that his work became the basis of later sexology and history, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he was consulted by the early sexologists like Iwan Bloch, since he shared their aim of encyclopaedic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compilation. Ashbee?s life is also a valuable corrective to the gothic imagery of )] TJ ET BT 419.948 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fingersmith)] TJ ET BT 478.616 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Unlike Mr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilly, and separate offices in Gray?s Inn notwithstanding, Ashbee did not shut himself away in a gothic pile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but lived in the world, and there is no way he could have collected such a volume of erotica while closeted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that fashion and without his extensive European links \(though in the novel Mr Lilly has some dubious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denizens of Holywell Street to help him with that\). As Lynda Nead and others have tried to show, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem with pornography in mid-Victorian Britain was not that it was hidden away, but that it was all too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public, and, thanks to the expansion of cheap print, all too available.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In that vein, one could point out, spade in hand, that many of the tropes given new life by the neo-Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel and its television versions are actually looking a bit worn out. I admit I said I would try and avoid this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 314.9597 569.5495 328.9517 581.4295 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of comparison, but it has to be done, if only to provide some perspective on the power of fiction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictate the vision of Victorianism. For instance, the idea that sane women were routinely incarcerated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylums for harmless moral infractions owes more to the sensation novel than the historical record, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derives its popularity from a few scare stories associated with the women?s movement that were later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed in books like Elaine Showalter?s )] TJ ET BT 244.664 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Malady)] TJ ET BT 341.312 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.312 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.312 738.051 m 358.304 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.304 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One of the most notorious of these cases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that of Edith Lanchester, who was confined by her family in 1895 for taking up with a railwayman, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore seems to fit the Victorian pattern, but who was in fact released four days later as the result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public outrage. While not disputing that it happened in isolated cases, historians like Andrew Scull have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned whether women \(sane or otherwise\) suffered from the ?great confinement? that Showalter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines any more than men did. Similarly, although women were thought prone to hysteria that might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to their reproductive system, and were threatened with hair-raising surgical treatments, these were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely if ever carried out, and, in any case, horrific medical procedures and ideas were hardly confined to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of women. It is therefore surprising that tropes like the looming mad-house and the sinister mad-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctor have died so hard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The continuing passion for the neo-Victorian, and for its familiar stories and characters, represents our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unending compulsion to find the secret heart of Victorianism. Their surreptitious ways and inexplicit desires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage the idea that our crinolined forebears are hiding something vital that will in the end be known, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in spite of their evasions, we can ?really know? what they are about. Just like the hidden library at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the old, dark house where Mr Lilly transcribes his bibliography, or the revelations of Mrs Sucksby, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we imagine that this secret is there, and that when we find it we will know all. But as Gibson shows, Ashbee, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like many other Victorians, is not really hiding anything in the depths of his psyche ? his only passion is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will to know, or to list. In spite of that there is still a steady demand for sensation, and for the imagined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainty that is ours alone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lillian Faderman, )] TJ ET BT 153.008 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Surpassing the Love of Men: Romantic Friendship and Love Between Women from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Renaissance to the Present)] TJ ET BT 211.328 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.652 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.652 389.667 m 346.640 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martha Vicinus)] TJ ET BT 139.004 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Intimate Friends: Women Who Loved Women 1778?1928)] TJ ET BT 421.628 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.944 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.944 375.411 m 550.604 375.411 l S BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 361.155 m 90.344 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Marcus, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Other Victorians: A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century England)] TJ ET BT 146.348 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1966\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.672 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.672 332.643 m 281.660 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elaine Showalter, )] TJ ET BT 152.336 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830-1980)] TJ ET BT 498.968 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 304.131 m 149.000 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2002/feb/02/fiction.sarahwaters)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 249.363 m 350.648 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.648 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orange Sorbet)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://orangesorbet.wordpress.com/2011/03/21/review-fingersmith/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 220.851 m 357.320 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 360.320 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Aint Livin')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 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