%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721104638+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721104638+01'00') /Title (Flyers and their traumas: the RAF in the Second World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3007 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Flyers and their traumas: the RAF in the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One would naturally expect the two books under review, one a history published by an academic press and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other a novel, to be very different treatments of their chosen theme. Yet it is the similarities between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them that consistently strike the reader. They are both concerned with airmen serving in the Royal Air Force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1172)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pat Barker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780140123081)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Bourke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861890351)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Grant)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9325 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Second World War, but focus on the place of those airmen within British culture and society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than telling stories about fighting the war, they explain the consequences of fighting on the men that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did it, how those men understood their wartime experiences, and how they interacted with others. Probing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual and collective experiences, both )] TJ ET BT 242.648 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 292.640 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 312.968 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 335.960 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate what it was like to live through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war which had codes of approved behaviour that are almost as familiar now as they were then. The codes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised bravery, self-sacrifice and commitment to building a better and more equal Britain and are part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a history of the war that is well established in the popular mindset. Both books show how the lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(airmen operated within these codes but also contradicted them, and as such are part of wider trends in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing of history and historical fiction about the war. Moreover, both are books that stay with the reader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving this one at least hugely impressed with two books which, taken together, seem to penetrate to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the issue of the impact of war on those who fought it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At no point since 1945 could it be said that the Second World War was neglected within British culture. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in recent years, there has been an upsurge of interest in the war, at least if we go by the number of books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written on it. Tales of the blitz, evacuation and rationing dominate popular understanding of the war, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tales of El Alamein and Operation Market Garden, of bravery and derring-do from the fighting fronts, seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have declined in importance. Whether it?s through television programmes, published diaries, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ubiquitous designs influenced by the ?Keep Calm and Carry On? poster, stories of the wartime home front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exert ever more allure. In particular, it is the experience of ordinary people in those extraordinary, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar, times that seems to captivate contemporary British culture. This trend has been marked in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary fiction, and the war is also an increasingly popular backdrop to crime fiction.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.608 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.608 512.211 m 455.600 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 455.600 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Numerous high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profile novels have been set against the background war in the last few years. Several have received, or been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nominated for, major prizes, sold very well or have been subject to enormous critical response ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes all three. These include Sarah Water?s )] TJ ET BT 275.960 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Night Watch )] TJ ET BT 360.296 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2006\), Peter Ho Davies? )] TJ ET BT 485.264 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Girl )] TJ ET BT 57.020 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2007\), Rosie Alison?s )] TJ ET BT 170.348 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Very Thought of You )] TJ ET BT 294.020 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2009\), and Gerald Woodward?s )] TJ ET BT 454.304 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nourishment )] TJ ET BT 519.308 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2010\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as )] TJ ET BT 83.672 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day)] TJ ET BT 103.664 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by A. L. Kennedy \(2007\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This trend has also been seen in academic history. Military history has declined in popularity relative to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of the social and cultural histories of the war. The political history of the war has been hotly debated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many years, and has turned recently away from the seemingly endless discussions of why Labour won the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 General Election, to focus instead on how political ideas were understood within society and culture. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the experience of the war by individuals and within popular culture that has really grabbed the attention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. Numerous histories have been published recently about the British experience of war. Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis? )] TJ ET BT 77.672 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 127.664 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been joined by )] TJ ET BT 220.316 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nine Wartime Lives: Mass-Observation and the Making of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Self )] TJ ET BT 96.008 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by James Hinton \(2010\) and )] TJ ET BT 234.992 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s Children: the Evacuee Experience in Wartime Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by John Welshman \(2010\) as books seeking to provide a deeper analysis of apparently well-worn stories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These works, whether fiction or history, all compose narratives that alter the reader?s perceptions of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime story that is deeply entrenched in the British mindset. )] TJ ET BT 335.660 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 358.652 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 378.980 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 428.972 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore share a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point in an awareness that the popular memory of the war hides as much as it reveals, and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard story of the ?people?s war? creates opportunities to tell stories \(and histories\) that derive much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their power and relevance from the gaps between their narratives and the established memory of the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The novels mentioned above all feature characters that contradict aspects of the spirit of the ?people?s war?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether as conscientious objectors, participants on the black market, or as people contravening other moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or sexual codes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.996 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.996 174.579 m 124.988 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 124.988 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Likewise, historians have long been interested in probing the popular memory of the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially how it became established, why it has endured, and perhaps most of all, the extent to which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corresponded to the reality of lived experience during the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What has emerged is a broad historiographical consensus which stresses that much of the traditional version )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war is indeed broadly true ? people )] TJ ET BT 236.300 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did )] TJ ET BT 254.636 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pull together in the face of the blitz, and they )] TJ ET BT 473.600 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 488.936 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( want a ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain? after the war. What historians emphasise now, however, is that these social attitudes were by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means as universally, or indeed as deeply, held as wartime commentators and propagandists liked to say. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his classic book, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Myth of the Blitz )] TJ ET BT 219.680 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1992\))] TJ ET BT 251.672 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 254.672 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Angus Calder argued the obsession with unity, sacrifice and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?taking it? was vitally important in shaping subsequent behaviour, as people began living up to the ?myth?. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.6077 512.5255 455.5997 524.4055 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.9957 174.8935 124.9877 186.7735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8338 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sonya Rose?s )] TJ ET BT 104.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Which People?s War? National Identity and Citizenship in Wartime Britain )] TJ ET BT 470.684 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2003\))] TJ ET BT 505.676 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended this analysis to suggest that these famous narratives of wartime unity amounted to a ?hegemonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse? which dominated British culture, becoming the basis by which all wartime behaviour was judged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Rose describes it, this discourse created elevated ideals of behaviour, and those deemed to have failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live up to the image of the ?good citizen? were denigrated within popular culture. In this way, ?good? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour was reinforced and ?bad? behaviour policed. Of course, there were fine gradations of approval, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an individual?s behaviour could be ?problematical? in one sphere but conform to the utmost in other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, many women might be criticised for their sexual morality, but still played a full and active role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the war as conscripted industrial workers; middle-class people might be alienated by the talk of social-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levelling, but could still define themselves through their war work and their role of dutiful ? albeit reluctant ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers in the system of ?fair-shares? rationing. Other work has reinforced that of Calder and Rose, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is awareness that within wartime society and culture many modes of behaviour apparently contradicted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradict the ?people?s war? narrative, but such behaviour does not mean that the established narratives lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any of their cultural power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both )] TJ ET BT 60.356 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 110.348 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 130.676 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 153.668 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue these trends, focusing on iconic figures of the war and showing the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all is not as it seemed. Martin Francis? )] TJ ET BT 243.332 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer)] TJ ET BT 290.324 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be seen as a companion piece to Rose?s book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at an area neglected by Rose and indeed the majority of authors. His interest is centred on the airmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the RAF, how their war was understood within British culture, and how their lives were represented. A. L. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy?s award-winning )] TJ ET BT 165.980 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 188.972 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also about airmen, or rather one particular member of a bomber crew ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sgt. Alfie Day, a rear-gunner on a Lancaster bomber. Although the two books are concerned with active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servicemen, their treatment of their subject matter places them firmly in the mainstream of academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and recent fiction which focuses on the home front. Francis? book shows how these men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were constructed as glamorous flyers and heroes, and the reality of how they often struggled as lovers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands and fathers. )] TJ ET BT 140.660 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 163.652 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is about all manner of similar struggles experienced by a man coming to terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his war. As much as their relationship with other examples of their genre, the books have a great deal in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common with each other. They illustrate the complexities in the lives of these airmen, their fears, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation between the way they were expected to behave and their own experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Read together, these two books illuminate each other. )] TJ ET BT 294.644 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer)] TJ ET BT 341.636 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s well-judged discussion of airmen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family lives, love lives, relationships with other crew, and problematic post-war experiences is matched by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explorations of these issues in )] TJ ET BT 181.004 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day)] TJ ET BT 200.996 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whilst the latter?s narrative of the troubled Alfie gains resonance from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that his problems can be related, in kind if not degree, to the wartime experience of thousands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other men. )] TJ ET BT 88.340 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 111.332 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a harrowing book. The protagonist is a man living a life which, like the world around him, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears ?dilapidated?. The book opens in 1949, with Alfie aged just 25. He is a working-class autodidact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in a book-shop owned by a conscientious objector called Ivor. Or rather, he did work there, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he walked out to become an extra in a film set in a prisoner-of-war camp, recreating the life behind the wire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he experienced after his bomber was shot down in 1943. Much of his time seems to be spent consciously not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembering the war, burying deeply the painful memories. It is while he is back in the camp, however, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the memories he has tried so hard to forget come flooding back. This process of conscious forgetting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow remembering is central to the book. At the beginning, he tells himself ?if you couldn?t keep control and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stay wary, you might think anything, which was exactly the one freedom you?d avoid. You could dodge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain thoughts, corkscrew off and get yourself out of their way, but they?d still hunt you?. If the memories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are to be avoided like incoming flak at this stage, it is only by allowing himself to remember the worst of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them that he is able to overcome the trauma of the war and reconcile himself to his post-war life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remembering his return from the POW camp after the war, he recalls ?the trick cyclist ? Wanting to steal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was left of you and pretending you shouldn?t object?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this way, Day?s memories make the man, and the way these memories are narrated is central to the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of it is told in flashback as the memories return. They are memories of the war years and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of his crew. His family life is told through his memory of returning to Staffordshire in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniform. Alfie has joined the RAF to speed his escape from his violent father, but bitterly laments his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability to protect his mother. Apparently hit by falling masonry, Day is convinced his father is responsible )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7855 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for her death. He returned to exact vengeance, eventually attacking his drunken father and watching as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fell into a river and drowned. Compared to what follows, remembering this ?murder? is relatively safe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory for Day. Close friends die, his POW camp friend Ringer after a forced march from the approaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russians, and his fellow crew-member Puckrose of wounds after being hit by flak over Europe. But even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these are not the memories he resists the most. Rather, it is the denouement of the two most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships of his life which he tries to forget. Firstly, the crash that led to the death of his crew and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own capture; and secondly, the moment when his lover Joyce, already waiting for a husband captured at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Singapore, sent a dreaded ?Dear John? letter, breaking his heart.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is these wartime relationships during the war that have turned Day?s existence upside down. Volunteering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as bomber crew was a continuation of his desire to escape. The role of tail-gunner?s position also came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally: ?you?re the one they?re most likely to kill ? that?s why it?s been what you wanted, from the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first time you heard? \(p. 11\). But in his crew, and then with Joyce, he finds what he has never had ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warm embrace of a quasi-family and romantic love. The memories of Joyce and the crew, especially Captain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Sandy? Gibbs and Puckrose form the emotional heart of the book. Day finds comradeship, respect, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep-seated attachment. Their aim as a crew is to stay alive. Routine and superstition become central. Every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pub is renamed ?The Duck?s Head?, they urinate on the Lancaster bomber?s rear wheel before take-off, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they run to the plane half-way through their adopted song, as having left something unfinished means they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will return. Alfie Day cherishes Joyce no less than his crew, in part because she allows him to feel he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belongs, and is loved and needed. When this belonging is taken away by her rejection letter, received in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camp, Day becomes even more closed off. More than the crash or his imprisonment, even more than being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tortured after his capture, it is the brutal severing of the ties with both Joyce and the crew that traumatises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. The final, cathartic, act of remembering comes when he allows himself to return to the crash and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joyce?s rejection. Helped even more by returning to England in an old Lancaster \(he puts himself in his old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turret seat for the journey\), Alfie reaches an accommodation with life. Committing to the bookshop and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living with Ivor, he finally seeks out Joyce, who although tied to a house-bound and resentful husband, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it clear she still loves Alfie and wants him in her life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 57.008 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a remarkable book that details experiences far from those typically portrayed in narratives of the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not only Day?s experiences but his attitudes to the war set him apart from the standard ?people?s war? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative. In the novel, the crew have a complex relationship with their allotted task of bombing Germany. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bitter comments about ?murdering? women and children are made, and the contrast between Day and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pacifist Ivor ? who suffered burns while saving civilian lives during the blitz ? is clear. Ivor thinks Alfie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought a dirty war, and it appears that Day agrees with him. No-one in )] TJ ET BT 373.952 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 396.944 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is particularly proud of what they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do, perhaps save the character called ?The Bastard? by crewmates. This epithet tells its own story. The novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displays a deep ambivalence about the role of Bomber Command in the war which is shared by many within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary British culture. Moral distaste for the enormous numbers of civilians killed in the attacks, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the doubtful efficacy of the raids in shortening the length of the war has led some to declare that they should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be classed as war crimes. Certainly, Alfie Day?s attitude to the bombing war sits better with current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities than some of the more frankly celebratory wartime accounts of the raids.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 160.028 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 183.020 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is anachronistic. Ambiguity towards the bomber offensive was marked during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war, especially from some church leaders, and this ambiguity has sharpened into a reluctance to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bombing offensive within popular culture. The destruction of Hamburg does not quite sit with the ?make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do and mend? version of the war. Ever since Bomber Command was denied its own campaign medal, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception that bomber crews were snubbed has continued. A campaign for a dedicated memorial to Bomber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Command to be erected in London has attempted to reverse the ?neglect? of the airmen and to highlight their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifices. The politics of memorialisation are complex, but as )] TJ ET BT 335.636 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 358.628 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows, we can lament the enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casualties suffered by Bomber Command \(of the 125,000 men who flew operational missions, more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55,000 lost their lives; around 10,000 more were captured by the enemy\) without ?celebrating? the campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Francis? )] TJ ET BT 113.336 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer:)] TJ ET BT 167.324 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Culture and the Royal Air Force, 1939?45)] TJ ET BT 407.324 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is less concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of the bombing campaign, save for stressing that the flyers did not like to think about the consequences )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7758 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their actions. Francis is more concerned with discussing the ?airman? as a type and as such does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly distinguish between the lauded pilots of Fighter Command and the far more numerous men who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made up the bomber crews. That said, the same issues confronted by Alfie Day in Kennedy?s novel are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, sometimes supported by memorable evidence. For example, on the superstitions of airmen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis tells of a flyer who noted that his crew went down while he was away even though ?Barker went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also. But apparently even that didn?t save them? \(p. 125\). Barker was a teddy bear taken by the crew for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good luck.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 84.008 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins with a survey of the role of the airman in British culture. Francis examines how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroism of the airman was combined with a reputation for risk-taking and hard living. Airmen were also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to the propaganda, more democratic and less ?stuffy? than other services, more concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability and bravery than background. These factors combined to make the young flyers a potent symbol in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime: simultaneously brave, dashing and egalitarian they fitted in perfectly with the cultural currents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war. With their well-cut and ?stylish? uniforms, airmen seemed to have enormous sexual appeal. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast majority, stationed in Britain, were well-placed to take advantage of this, especially those ? mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighter pilots ? who were within easy reach of London night life. Many flyers perished in road accidents as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they raced about the country, and apparently they were keen on filling their cars with the high-octane fuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended for their aeroplanes. The flyer?s allure far surpassed his fellows in the Royal Navy or Army, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that relatively few airmen were stationed outside Britain until the last year of the war meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these military men, though living on base, were able to play a far greater role in the domestic life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation than other combatants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After this opening survey, the rest of )] TJ ET BT 213.320 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 263.312 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details the ways in which the reality of the airmen?s lives did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not match up to the version circulating in popular culture. It is not a book that spends a great deal of time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting on its methodological or theoretical approach, but it sits squarely with other recent cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of wartime in its catholic approach to source material. Melding contemporary discussions, airmen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs, and imaginative literature from the war and just after, Francis provides a range of evidence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives a wonderful richness to the book. Through it, he reconstructs the complex world flyers inhabited, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensures they are understood not only as servicemen but as lovers and family men \(although, curiously, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really as sons\). We see a Royal Air Force riddled with class differences, and airmen struggling to overcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their fears. Most importantly, however, we see how their supposedly masculine world was always leavened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the presence of women: either serving on base, as wives living nearby, or as girlfriends. Some men used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity as an escape from the pressures of war, whilst for others the pressures of war ruined their home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life. In the end, rather than glamour and bravery, the image emerges of a world filled with sex, snobbery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear, and often fuelled by Benzedrine. These are stories that do not fit the standard narrative of the wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RAF, and which are only partially paralleled in )] TJ ET BT 263.648 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day)] TJ ET BT 283.640 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but which illustrate the lived experience of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(airmen and those who knew them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer)] TJ ET BT 81.008 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( brilliantly recreates the world of these airmen, the way the nation viewed them, and how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed themselves. The final chapters, on fear, ?damaged? airmen and their return to civilian life are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly interesting and show how airmen coped emotionally with their experiences and how the majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of airmen adapted to postwar life. Some were damaged emotionally by the war, men like the fictional Alfie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Day, while others came to prominence through criminal activities, like the very real double-murderer Neville )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heath. Most men, though, managed to readjust to ordinary civilian life despite the difficulties faced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming to terms with aspects of the war experience: the violence, grief and the separation from home life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some sought out adventure elsewhere, and there was an increase in belief in spiritualism, but in general they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled down in civilian jobs and were re-integrated into normal British life. Overall, it is a wonderful book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that details the ambiguities of these flyers? lives, providing new depths to our understanding of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime experiences. As a book which concerns those on active service, it is a fascinating contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of military masculinity, which still never loses sight of the importance of its relevance to the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two books are highlights of the recent trend in writing about the Second World War. Using the war as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backdrop to explore emotions and notions of belonging and masculinity, both )] TJ ET BT 409.328 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 459.320 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 479.648 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day)] TJ ET BT 499.640 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanguard of new approaches to the war which are changing our understanding of it. The story of Alfie Day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives Kennedy?s novel an emotional power that an academic histories struggle to achieve, but )] TJ ET BT 488.936 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer)] TJ ET BT 535.928 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an excellent example of a history which attempts to reconstruct the subjectivities of individuals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.964 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.964 766.563 m 507.956 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.956 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In his use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both memoirs and fiction, Francis discusses the flyer both as an individual and a culturally-constructed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type. It is an approach that reveals much about what it was like to live through the war, and serves to narrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gap between fiction and history. Both books are texts that reflect prevailing intellectual concerns. Each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no more or less than the other is a product of the shifting attitudes towards what it is important to know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about war. For both historian and novelist, the war is an emotionally traumatic setting in which individuals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives are dominated by a complex mixture of death, fear, comradeship and sex. As such, for all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between novel and academic history, they both reveal stories that convey a sense of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both books tell us remarkable things about the war, and both illustrate the direction studies of the myth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the Second World War are heading within British culture. The traditional war stories are so well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established that historians and novelists are keen to subvert the narratives we are all familiar with. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis, this takes the form of examining the Air Force in greater depth than before, and consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building on the work of historians who have examined cultural constructions of the home front and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences before him. For Kennedy, this is expressed in a likeable character who fights a war very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from that praised in traditional depictions, with very different consequences. Both books force the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to think about the war in different ways and both do so in ways that leave the reader feeling deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Novelists have always revelled in uncertainties. Historians, however, have traditionally liked things a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more clear-cut. Francis is unafraid to declare that there must be a lack of firm conclusions in a book such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his, that experiences were always varied, and generalisations are difficult if not impossible. It means that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave )] TJ ET BT 62.336 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer )] TJ ET BT 112.328 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding that some flyers revelled in the excitement, the danger, and the killing, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others were sickened by the same things. We also understand that they could also end the war and disappear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into civilian life, some adapting perfectly well, others struggling. History struggles to tell the story of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Alfie Day, a deeply-damaged but employed and law-abiding man. In the record of returning veterans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfie Day?s postwar life would be seen as a successful return to civilian life. Francis? sources do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncover real-life stories that might be similar to the post-war experiences of either Alfie Day of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters portrayed in immediately post-war novels, and Francis? rejection of psychoanalytical approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means there is little discussion of the disturbed unless they come to the attention of the authorities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.984 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.984 343.395 m 520.976 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 520.976 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, A. L. Kennedy does not need to concern herself with the methodology of the history of emotions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She can strike out and investigate the emotions that a man like Alfie Day might have had, creating a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which although not ?historical? in the strict sense does achieve a genuine sense of realism. It is remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that after reading both books, )] TJ ET BT 177.992 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Day )] TJ ET BT 200.984 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feels like an in-depth study of an individual that seems very familiar from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading )] TJ ET BT 73.004 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Flyer)] TJ ET BT 119.996 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. To read both books gives the reader not only a deeper awareness of the war, but also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed excitement about the possibilities of both genres of writing to convey the emotional and subjective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean O?Brien, ?Dambusters ? and other novel themes?, )] TJ ET BT 333.956 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 463.952 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16 March 2011.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 163.827 m 118.004 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this the echo the novelists of the period. See Kristen A. Miller, )] TJ ET BT 380.648 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Literature of the Blitz: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fighting the People?s War )] TJ ET BT 196.676 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.336 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.336 135.315 m 350.324 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an academic work which conveys both real emotional power and a superlative examination of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodologies involved with researching emotional subjectivities, see Michael Roper, )] TJ ET BT 481.640 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Secret )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Battle: Emotional Survival in the Great War )] TJ ET BT 280.340 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.312 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.312 92.547 m 431.300 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the problem of historicising unseen and undiagnosed psychological damage after the war, see the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays in )] TJ ET BT 110.012 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life After Death: Approaches to a Cultural and Social History of Europe During the 1940s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and 1950s)] TJ ET BT 113.684 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. 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