%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723165502+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723165502+01'00') /Title (Shell-shocked: trauma, the emotions and the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3186 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Shell-shocked: trauma, the emotions and the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I was 16 or 17 when I first read Pat Barker?s )] TJ ET BT 251.624 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 316.280 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( trilogy, and 26 when I completed my PhD on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shell shock in First World War Britain. It would be doing more than one of my university lecturers, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Richard Curtis and Ben Elton, a disservice to say that I ended up working on shell shock )] TJ ET BT 474.968 59.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(just)] TJ ET BT 492.308 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( because I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1173)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Bourke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861890351)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pat Barker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780140123081)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tracey Loughran)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8056 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liked )] TJ ET BT 61.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 125.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? but my career would almost certainly have developed along different lines had I not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read the book. There may not be many historians who would attribute this degree of influence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 98.672 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but it is nevertheless treated with great seriousness in histories of war trauma. All major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories of shell shock published since the mid 1990s have made reference \(favourable, critical, or simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful\) to Barker?s novel.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.664 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.664 738.051 m 192.656 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 192.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I?ll return to the possible reasons for historians? obsession with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 98.672 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the end of the review, but for now it should just be noted that it is really quite remarkable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imagine, for example, that for the past 20 years every historian of the reign of Charles II had felt duty-bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to comment on Rose Tremain?s )] TJ ET BT 189.668 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Restoration)] TJ ET BT 245.672 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\), as fine an example of historical fiction as )] TJ ET BT 487.292 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 551.948 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it seems unlikely. Even if we limit the field to recent historical fiction concerned with the First World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sebastian Faulks? )] TJ ET BT 123.344 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birdsong)] TJ ET BT 167.348 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\), published contemporaneously with the )] TJ ET BT 396.992 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 461.648 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( trilogy, has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caught on among historians to anything like the same extent, despite achieving significant critical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular success. The singular status of )] TJ ET BT 222.320 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 286.976 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides one way into understanding the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between history, historical fiction, and historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But not right away. This is because, much as I hate to admit it, historians aren?t actually all that important to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the success of Barker?s novel. When I was 16 I was not a historian, no matter what my history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teacher tried to tell her charges, and )] TJ ET BT 208.628 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 273.284 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( got under my skin not because I was given to musing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the boundaries between history and fiction, but because it was a good read. In fact, it wasn?t the ?real? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in the novel, which centres on the protest against the war made by poet Siegfried Sassoon and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent ?treatment? at Craiglockhart War Hospital, by the eminent neurologist-cum-anthropologist-cum-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologist W. H. R. Rivers, which appealed to me at all. I loved )] TJ ET BT 355.316 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 419.972 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( because I loved Billy Prior, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fictional character. Prior is a working-class officer from the north of England, intelligent, ambitious, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all, awkward. He is not immediately charming, or even that likeable at the first encounter, although he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soon wins the reader round. Prior is not cut from the same cloth as aristocratic Sassoon or middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilfred Owen. His England is not the England of rolling green hills and honey still for tea, but a place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowded streets, grey skies, and grim poverty. This alone makes him stand out in the pantheon of First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War popular characters, real and fictional \(there are accounts by and about working-class soldiers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences in the war, but you?re not likely to stumble across them at GCSE level, or at least, I never did\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prior?s working-class identity is one of the defining facets of his personality. The other is the fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguity which inheres within him. From the first, Prior confounds our expectations. We know nothing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him except that he is a second-lieutenant, and that his main symptom is mutism. He is described as ?a thin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fair-haired young man of twenty-two with high cheekbones, a short, blunt nose and a supercilious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression? \(p. 41\). This combination of attributes and attitudes conveys, somehow, an impression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toffishness. As he cannot speak, Prior?s side of this initial ?conversation? with psychologist Rivers is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted in writing, but it still takes on the aspect of a confrontation. He tells Rivers that there is nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physically wrong with him; he challenges Rivers? judgment that the test for analgesia of the throat does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hurt; when Rivers suggests that Prior writes in block capitals because it is less revealing, Prior passes the pad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to him and judges Rivers? own handwriting; he repeatedly insists that he cannot remember any of the events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which led to his breakdown; and finally, he turns his back to Rivers and refuses to respond to his questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any longer, writing simply ?NO MORE WORDS?. None of this is typical patient behaviour. In this initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounter, Prior is infuriating, passive-aggressive, and vulnerable. We know nothing about him beyond that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is a man of contradictions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next time Rivers meets with him, Prior?s voice has returned. We revise our first impression of Prior at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time as Rivers, and through his eyes and ears:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A Northern accent, not ungrammatical, but with the vowel sounds distinctly flattened, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faintest trace of sibilance. Hearing Prior?s voice for the first time had the curious effect of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making him )] TJ ET BT 124.688 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(look)] TJ ET BT 145.352 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( different. Thinner, more defensive. And, at the same time, a lot tougher. A )] TJ ET BT 64.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little, spitting, sharp-boned alley cat \(p. 49\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.6637 738.3655 192.6557 750.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7629 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prior?s background is working-class, but his ?genteel? mother has instilled in him a fierce ambition. Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war, he was a clerk in a shipping office, a white collar post which he found unrewarding, but which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless would have constituted a step up in the world; during the war, he rose up through the ranks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officer status. Yet he does not belong to the world he now inhabits; he is alive to the snobbery he encounters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and often scathing about the officer class. He is, according to his father, ?neither fish nor fowl? \(p. 57\). At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deepest level, though, Prior remains working-class. Rivers tells us that officers rarely suffer from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysterical symptoms such as mutism, whereas these are common among privates. The form of Prior?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakdown ? the symptom through which his psyche chose to manifest his pain ? fixes his class identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more firmly than his accent, the colour of his shirts, his nostalgia at the smell of steak frying, or any of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other myriad tiny markers of social class which litter the pages of )] TJ ET BT 351.296 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 415.952 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Class, Barker seems to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saying, exists beneath the skin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barker?s portrayal of the distribution of symptoms along lines of social class is an accurate reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivers, and of the histories of shell shock which draw heavily on his work. By making Prior mute, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepts Rivers? testimony that officers and ranking men suffer from different forms of shell shock, but she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not accept his account of the reasons for this difference. Rivers argued that war neurosis stemmed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a conflict between self-preservation and duty, and that different symptoms represented different means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to solve or repress this conflict. The hysterical symptom resolved this conflict by incapacitating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sufferer and thereby removing him from military service. This was, Rivers stated, a ?crude solution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict between instinct and duty?, which was unlikely to satisfy officers owing to their ?more complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and varied? mental life and the moral standards inculcated by public schools, particularly the repression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 55.664 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 55.664 485.955 m 69.656 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 69.656 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Historians have tended to let Rivers off the hook for these statements of class prejudice remarkably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily, but not so Prior:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Are you serious? You honestly believe that that )] TJ ET BT 300.644 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gaggle)] TJ ET BT 333.308 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of noodle-brained half-wits down there )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a complex mental life? Oh, )] TJ ET BT 216.320 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rivers)] TJ ET BT 246.980 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barker?s presentation of Rivers throughout the trilogy tends towards the hagiographical, but through Prior, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she also challenges his assumptions in a way which few historians have either dared or considered. I still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silently cheer whenever I read this passage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Prior, class infuses everything: it shapes his sense of who he is and who he isn?t, it determines who he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will love, and it is revealed through his accent and through his inability to speak when he breaks down. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hysteria is the visible symbol of pain, emotion written on the body, it is also, in Prior?s case, a revelation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his primal class identity. Barker understands that class is inescapable and inseparable from other aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, including bodily experience. This is a knowledge she shares with Joanna Bourke, whose )] TJ ET BT 482.948 270.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Male: men?s bodies, Britain and the Great War)] TJ ET BT 281.660 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published in 1996, a year after the final part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 98.672 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( trilogy. Bourke?s ambitious aim in this book is to explore ?the impact of the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the male body?, defining the body as ?the subject of both imagination and experience?. It is a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, which takes as its starting point the view that ?bodies lived, were imagined and died? within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially constructed ?frame? composed of ?signs and declarations of age, generation, class and ethnicity? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11\). Yet throughout the book, class looms much larger than these other aspects of identity, almost deserving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal billing with the body in the book?s title: the social is a vital, ever-present, acknowledged part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural here. Among other things, )] TJ ET BT 202.328 156.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 318.308 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( therefore offers a tantalising glimpse of one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which cultural history should have developed, and might still.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike )] TJ ET BT 69.680 115.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 134.336 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I have no strong sense of personal involvement with )] TJ ET BT 393.968 115.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 509.948 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. At an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early stage in my acquaintance with the book, I realised that ostentatiously reading it on a train is a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to ensure that no-one sits next to you, but that?s about it as far as anecdotes go. Somewhat shamefully, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had never read it cover-to-cover until I was asked to write this review, despite first dipping into it as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate and probably getting through more than half of it in disjointed segments over the intervening )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 55.6637 486.2695 69.6557 498.1495 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7438 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade-and-a-bit. This was a mistake on my part, as the book is definitely more than the sum of its parts. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes an important contribution to well-established historiographical debates on the effects of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War on British society, but it would also make an interesting and refreshing read for someone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfamiliar with these debates. Reading it as a whole, I realised the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 432.284 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has influenced subsequent writing on masculinity and British experiences of the First World War. Bourke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the importance of civilian experiences in shaping responses to the war, the extent to which men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained their civilian identities despite the temporary adoption of the warrior role, and their continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment to home throughout the war. She recognises that the war operated on different groups of men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways, and acknowledges its devastating effects for many, but nevertheless sews it into the fabric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern British history rather than treating it as a thing apart. In recent years, these themes have been picked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up and explored further by historians as different from Bourke and from each other as Peter Barham, Ilana )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bet-El, Jessica Meyer, and Michael Roper.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.972 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.972 638.259 m 253.964 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.964 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is some achievement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 149.996 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, then, an inspirational book in many ways. It is also sometimes a frustrating book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly as a result of its wide remit: men have men?s bodies and like gender, the body is everywhere. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always evident what makes this book a history of men?s bodies rather than simply of men and what they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt, thought, and did. The book is divided into five chapters: ?Mutilating?, which examines disability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war; ?Malingering?, which explores feigned illness in the civil and military spheres; ?Bonding?, which deals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with comradeship and with the effects of war on heterosexual relationships; ?Inspecting?, which investigates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military, governmental, and voluntary physical fitness campaigns; and ?Re-Membering?, which focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the corpse and the evocation of the dead in ceremonies and rites. All of these chapters deal with men?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies, but it is not always apparent that certain experiences are best studied via the body. ?Bonding?, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, can be achieved through bodily activities, but it is conventionally defined as an emotional or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological attachment: physicality is an accidental rather than an essential element of bonding, or at best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is an integral part only insofar as all actions of embodied creatures have a corporeal component. The body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more obviously at stake in discussions of malingering, but even here it was really the shirker?s will, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character, or personality which was perceived to be at fault, and which had to be acted upon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is undeniably ?baggy?, but this is an unavoidable consequence of its ambition. It is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine how a book on the effects of the First World War on men?s bodies would not end up straining at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seams of its defined subject matter. Ultimately, the focus on material experience is a strength rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness, as it means that Bourke never strays far from the lived realities of male existence. Cultural history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which operates purely on the level of representation and construction often feels curiously divorced from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what real people thought and felt, with little sense of the relation of the text to the texture of life, but this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never a danger here. The book is based on the correspondence, diaries and memoirs of ?ordinary? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servicemen, rather than the literary productions of more famous combatant authors: it does for the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the First World War what Barker did for its fiction when she invented Prior. These men do not flit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloodlessly between discursive subjectivities, or slot themselves into the masculine ideals or warrior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypes beloved of cultural historians. They live and die in earthy idioms which make us laugh, cry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wince or gasp with them. Take, for example, Cockney soldier John William Rowarth?s tales of his wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual education:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the platoon started to talk of their love conquests, and one of my mates Said to me, Casey have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you ever dipped your wick, what do you mean, I aint got no wick to dip, when the laughter had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsided, they put it more blunty had I ever made love to a girl, when I said no, oh you must be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a bloody virgin, and when we get to France we will soon remedy that, and one of the blokes said )] TJ ET BT 64.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if the French tarts are as tall as our Irish girls, Casey will have to lug a brick to stand on ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Rowarth did meet a girl before going abroad, she was shocked to discover that he was a virgin. He did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little to remedy the situation when he asked ?a Virgin, wats a virgin, the only Virgin I know of is the Blessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin Mary, since I have been in the Army, I have heard so many new words which frankly I don?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand. the Girl then said, lets change the subject? \(pp. 159?60\). This is rich stuff, which can tell us )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.9717 638.5735 253.9637 650.4535 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8658 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much about homosocial and heterosexual relations in the early 20th century: but most of all, hapless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowarth stands in stark contrast to the visions of impregnable masculine domination elaborated by the proto-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist Freikorps members analysed in Klaus Theweleit?s )] TJ ET BT 312.968 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Male Fantasies)] TJ ET BT 387.296 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which for a very long time was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only serious study of masculinity and the First World War. )] TJ ET BT 337.328 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 453.308 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is full of stories such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Rowarth?s, which convey the irreducible individuality of war experience but also, stitched together, form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a colourful patchwork social history of men at war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke writes history and Barker writes fiction, but both tell stories which were, when first published, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(odds with how most of us imagined the First World War. They are both also stories which are very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products of their time. )] TJ ET BT 143.672 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dismembering the Male)] TJ ET BT 259.652 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( still repays reading today ? very few historians dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar aspects of the war have matched its scope or achievement since ? but it is also rooted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical trends of the mid 1990s. Bourke partly inspired further historical research on masculinity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the body, and war, but her book is also a product of existing interest in these areas, and the alacrity with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which her lead was followed suggests a field ripe for harvesting. There?s nothing odd about this: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline of history works through the continual revision of old arguments and realization of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives, and sooner or later gender and the body will seem old hat. Yet although cultural history has its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics, no serious historian would now condemn Bourke for writing a history that is informed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplinary \(and interdisciplinary\) concerns of its time. Barker, on the other hand, has been seen as fair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(game, with historians happy to censure her for projecting the concerns of 1990s liberals and lefties onto her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime protagonists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.008 526.467 m 152.000 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.000 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is a case to be made that, at least in )] TJ ET BT 357.620 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 422.276 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this isn?t quite what she?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing: after all, she is writing about a soldier who protested against the war and a doctor who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed from an instinctive Conservative into a potential Labour candidate by the experience of war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This isn?t projection so much as selecting a story which chimed with more widespread concerns at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of writing the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These criticisms suggest a lack of sympathy for the aims of historical fiction, which are not the aims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Barker uses historical fiction in a now well-established way, drawing on the exoticism of the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and attempting to balance it with an appeal to the apparently universal aspects of the human psyche, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternately using this foreignness as a vehicle for greater understanding of the present. )] TJ ET BT 449.924 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 514.580 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary work about literary figures \(Sassoon, Owen, Graves\) from a war which has always been approached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by general readers through its poetry and fiction as much, if not more than, through its histories. It appeals to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who enjoy reading the poems, novels, and memoirs of the First World War, as well as to historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in the shaping and re-shaping of the memory of the war in literature and popular culture. It helps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of course, that the tale of Sassoon?s protest is a cracking story even without the intervention of the novelist; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was a staple of histories of shell shock before )] TJ ET BT 264.644 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 329.300 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published. For all its literariness, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 98.672 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is also a novel which asks questions which are both ethical and historical. As Barker dissects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and probes the ethical issues raised by Sassoon?s protest, the reader is forced to engage with a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very big questions around the ?justified? costs of war, the rights of the soldier to protest, and the purpose of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military psychiatry, These were all issues which were definitely on the liberal-left agenda in the late 1980s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1990s, but strangely enough also caused soul-searching among those involved in waging a world war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Long before Barker came along, Freud described military doctors as ?like machine guns? driving fugitives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to the front.\(5\) OK, )] TJ ET BT 156.320 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration )] TJ ET BT 223.976 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isn?t A. J. P. Taylor, but it?s not Georgette Heyer either.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most historians? comments on )] TJ ET BT 184.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 248.672 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are less critical than engaged, but they are fascinated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel for the same reason: it is the unusual proportion of fact to fiction in )] TJ ET BT 388.976 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 453.632 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which really gets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under my professional colleagues? skins. Siegfried Sassoon really did protest against the war in 1917, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after some string-pulling by his friend Robert Graves, he really was sent to Craiglockhart for treatment by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. H. R. Rivers. It needs none of what Hilary Mantel calls ?the novelist?s arithmetic? to manoeuvre a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange meeting with Owen: it happened, and we have Sassoon?s handwriting all over the drafts of ?Anthem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Doomed Youth? to prove it. Most of the less familiar characters in )] TJ ET BT 373.292 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 437.948 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are also real: the doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bryce, Brock, Head and Yealland all treated shell shock and published details of their work in wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical journals, while the histories of patients such as Burns and Anderson correspond to case studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivers? published writings. Of the major characters in the novel, only Billy Prior and Sarah Lumb are )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.0077 526.7815 151.9997 538.6615 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8316 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely fictional creations. The novel liberally quotes from historical ?documents?, including the )] TJ ET BT 503.288 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times )] TJ ET BT 534.956 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poetry of Owen and Sassoon. Barker not only portrays real people and events, she constructs a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which takes its place among several other factual, fictional, and semi-fictional versions of the same events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the protagonists, of varying length, depth and reliability: Sassoon?s fictionalized memoir )] TJ ET BT 478.652 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sherston?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Progress )] TJ ET BT 80.348 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1936\); his ?straight? autobiography )] TJ ET BT 257.660 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Siegfried?s Journey)] TJ ET BT 353.312 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1946\); Robert )] TJ ET BT 430.304 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Graves? Goodbye To All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That )] TJ ET BT 59.024 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1929\); Rivers? )] TJ ET BT 137.012 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict and Dream)] TJ ET BT 233.012 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1923\); and Owen?s letters. The author?s note at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novel also points readers to two histories which Barker drew on, Eric Leed?s )] TJ ET BT 405.944 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(No Man?s Land: combat and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(identity in World War I )] TJ ET BT 149.012 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1979\) and Elaine Showalter?s )] TJ ET BT 299.648 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Female Malady: women, madness and English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culture, 1830?1980)] TJ ET BT 128.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1985\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barker is not the only novelist to draw heavily on real events and historical texts, or to direct readers towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the histories she has used, but she is clearly wandering into the historian?s territory here. After all, what do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians do but construct an account of events based on historical documents and on the work of previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians? Although all but the most extreme postmodernist would agree that there is a clear difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between fiction and history, the lines are not as clearly drawn as it might first appear. Barker does not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell a story, she implicitly provides an analysis of events and judgments on issues such as the legitimacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war; she continually nudges the reader towards meaning. Historians might do this in different ways \(most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us accept that we?re not allowed to make things up, whereas this is part of the novelist?s job description\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they never simply write ?what happened?; they seek to explain it, and although these explanations are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly explicit, they too unconsciously nudge readers towards meaning in ways which are less overt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including imposing certain boundaries on their subject matter, such as the period covered, the type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources used, the selection of material, and the interpretations presented to the audience. When Bourke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chooses to use the use the unpublished diaries, letters, and memoirs of ordinary soldiers, she privileges a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular perspective on the war above others, and her choices are doubtless informed by a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standpoint which filters into her sense of what history should be and who it serves. This is not so different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Barker?s invention of Prior to tell a story she believes needs to be told, although one is a project of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention and the other a project of recovery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, though, the two types of project are not as rigidly separated as might first appear. Imaginative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction is a tool of the historian as well as the novelist: no document explains every dimension of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular event, and no document can be taken at face value. Historians circumvent these problems by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulting as wide a range of sources as possible, comparing these sources to determine the probable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliability or particular perspective of each, and acknowledging the constraints and potentialities of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different sources in their published works. By incorporating elements of the accounts of all protagonists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barker again does something that historians do, albeit on a lesser scale. It is this blending of fact and fiction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with no way for the uninitiated to separate truth from imagination, which provokes reaction from historians; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is also what appeals to readers. Having spent years researching shell shock, I can argue with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence that some aspects of Barker?s interpretation are not supported by the primary evidence: but I also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know that my meticulously researched scholarly articles on the construction of diagnostic categories in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime medical literature, worthy as they are in the context in which they were intended to be read, are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to inspire any 16-year-olds to spend years delving into trauma in the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to say that history does not kindle the imagination, or achieve great things. It is evident from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading Barker that academic histories have influenced her interpretative framework; I wonder how many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history undergraduates taking modules on the First World War have encountered Eric Leed or Elaine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Showalter on their reading lists years after reading )] TJ ET BT 279.296 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 343.952 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and found their arguments uncannily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar? It is rather that academic history tends to act on minds prepared in other ways, by family stories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(GCSE English Literature coursework, the History Channel, and books like )] TJ ET BT 395.312 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 459.968 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. I am not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting a linear progression from historical fiction to ?real? history, as though fiction is for children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact for adults, but that one of the purposes of historical fiction is to spark an interest in history among new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audiences. These readers will approach academic histories with fresh minds, and read different historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels with a deeper understanding of history; this is a cycle which can continue for life. Novelists like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barker feed academic history, and history in turn feeds back into historical fiction. They are not in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6503 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition with each other, but locked in a relationship which is often satisfying but which sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chafes. This is perhaps because, from my side of the fence, the restrictions on the historian seem tighter, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imagination of the novelist both awe-inspiring and envy-provoking. Historical novelists operate in the no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man?s land between history and fiction, where historians fear to tread. To walk with the dead unfettered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes seems a terrible kind of freedom; this may be why historians persistently return to )] TJ ET BT 477.632 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regeneration)] TJ ET BT 542.288 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as though it is an itch which can?t be scratched.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Young, )] TJ ET BT 117.344 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Harmony of Illusions: Inventing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)] TJ ET BT 449.000 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\), p. 68; P. Leese, )] TJ ET BT 175.004 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shell Shock: Traumatic Neurosis and the British Soldiers of the First World )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War)] TJ ET BT 84.680 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2002\), pp. 173?5; B. Shephard, )] TJ ET BT 309.332 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914?1994)] TJ ET BT 118.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\), p. xx and p. 109; P. Barham, )] TJ ET BT 342.668 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 519.668 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven, CT, 2004\), p. 388, fn 3; E. Jones and S. Wessely, )] TJ ET BT 340.652 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shell Shock to PTSD: Military Psychiatry )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from 1900 to the Gulf War)] TJ ET BT 191.684 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hove, East Sussex, 2005\), p. 60; F. Reid, )] TJ ET BT 399.344 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Broken Men: Shell Shock, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Treatment and Recovery in Britain 1914?1930)] TJ ET BT 288.332 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.656 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.656 572.739 m 423.644 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. H. R. Rivers, ?War-neurosis and military training?, )] TJ ET BT 330.308 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mental Hygiene)] TJ ET BT 407.288 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(October 1918\), 513?33, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(516?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 544.227 m 150.332 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Barham, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 297.680 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2004\); I. Bet-El, )] TJ ET BT 470.648 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conscripts: Lost )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legions of the Great War)] TJ ET BT 186.680 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 1999\); J. Meyer, )] TJ ET BT 314.000 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men of War: Masculinity and the First World War )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Britain)] TJ ET BT 110.360 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2009\); M. Roper, )] TJ ET BT 268.352 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Secret Battle: Emotional Survival in the Great War)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.988 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.988 487.203 m 214.976 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Shephard, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A War of Nerves: Soldiers and Psychiatrists, 1914?1994)] TJ ET BT 401.336 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\), p. xx; B. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bond, )] TJ ET BT 96.020 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Unquiet Western Front: Britain?s Role in Literature and History)] TJ ET BT 429.020 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2002\), p. 76.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 444.435 m 118.004 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Brunner, )] TJ ET BT 120.008 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freud and the Politics of Psychoanalysis)] TJ ET BT 317.000 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\), p. 121.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.648 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.648 430.179 m 485.636 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin Readers' Group)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://readers.penguin.co.uk/nf/Document/DocumentDisplay/0,,P000100000001,00.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 375.411 m 459.668 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.668 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 372.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 354.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 354.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1173)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 352.905 m 328.316 352.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 327.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7822)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7821)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.728 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://readers.penguin.co.uk/nf/Document/DocumentDisplay/0,,P000100000001,00.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.6557 573.0535 423.6437 584.9335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.3437 544.5415 150.3317 556.4215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.9877 487.5175 214.9757 499.3975 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 444.7495 118.0037 456.6295 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.6477 430.4935 485.6357 442.3735 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 375.7255 459.6677 387.6055 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://readers.penguin.co.uk/nf/Document/DocumentDisplay/0,,P000100000001,00.html) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 353.2195 328.3157 365.0995 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1173) >> endobj xref 0 52 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000003903 00000 n 0000004012 00000 n 0000004122 00000 n 0000004231 00000 n 0000007792 00000 n 0000007920 00000 n 0000008004 00000 n 0000008088 00000 n 0000016197 00000 n 0000016227 00000 n 0000016355 00000 n 0000016391 00000 n 0000016475 00000 n 0000024157 00000 n 0000024187 00000 n 0000024313 00000 n 0000024349 00000 n 0000024433 00000 n 0000031924 00000 n 0000031954 00000 n 0000032082 00000 n 0000032118 00000 n 0000032202 00000 n 0000040913 00000 n 0000040943 00000 n 0000041071 00000 n 0000041107 00000 n 0000041172 00000 n 0000049541 00000 n 0000049667 00000 n 0000056223 00000 n 0000056351 00000 n 0000056406 00000 n 0000056533 00000 n 0000056588 00000 n 0000056716 00000 n 0000056771 00000 n 0000056898 00000 n 0000056953 00000 n 0000057081 00000 n 0000057117 00000 n 0000057244 00000 n 0000057377 00000 n 0000057505 00000 n trailer << /Size 52 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 57601 %%EOF