%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 42 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140923025915+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140923025915+01'00') /Title (Nuns \(not\) on the run) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3125 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nuns \(not\) on the run)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The challenge in writing a comparative review of Kate Lowe?s fine study of early modern Italian convents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nuns? Chronicles and Convent )] TJ ET BT 187.352 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Culture with Sarah Dunant?s gripping novel )] TJ ET BT 402.668 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacred Hearts)] TJ ET BT 471.656 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to find ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making sense of the experience of reading both beyond stating the obvious. They are both about the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1177)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate J. P. Lowe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521621915)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(83.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(454pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Dunant)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781400063826)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(432pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Bowden)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7594 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of women in a particular time \(early modern\) and in one country \(Italy\). They are both well worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading for entirely different reasons, but I think few people \(apart from this reviewer\) are likely actively to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoy reading both: most readers will, I suspect, choose to read one or the other. Having made a brief survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of online discussions of historical fiction, it is clear that there is a huge readership for historical fiction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some well-crafted reviews of historical novels of all periods. At the same time it seems to me that there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of misapprehension among the contributors to these sites about the ways that historians work and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write, with repeated emphasis on their opinion that historians research to ascertain the facts which they then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write up in narratives. Probably with the recent increasing interest among historians in commenting on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical fiction there will be similar misunderstandings coming from the other direction. We all need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware of the debates if we are to appreciate how each contributes to our understanding of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the case of this pair of books, Sarah Dunant?s novel relies heavily on Lowe?s research: her heroine, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apothecary \(who saves the newly arrived Serafina from a life of incarceration\) is closely modelled on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family circumstances of the Chronicler from S Cosimato in Rome. Both their fathers had medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualifications. Perhaps coincidence, but it is part of the novelist?s skill to turn such trifles into significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements in their story telling. The plot and indeed many of the relationships in the convent are governed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunant?s acceptance of Lowe?s argument that in Italian convents of the period a majority of entrants were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed there against their will and negotiating a way out was virtually impossible. Given the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convents in early modern Italian cities, this suggests that a large proportion of aristocratic women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarcerated for life. Much of the subtlety of characterisation of the fictional members of Santa Caterina is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on acceptance of this argument and the ways that individuals came to terms \(or failed to do so\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with forced professions. Dunant?s novel effectively recreates the atmosphere of an enclosed space, governed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by extraordinarily complex rules and with the added tension created by office holders working out their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies for achieving grace. However, I think it is important to point out that the detailed research to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support this argument does not form part of Lowe?s study. Certainly young women and even a few small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children were placed in the convents for a variety of reasons and remained there for long periods of time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with little choice about staying or leaving. Further research is needed to identify individual life experience in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the convents to support more definite conclusions about the numbers involved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have to confess that I am not a reader of historical fiction by choice, but in this case I found myself drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the life of Serafina with her beautiful voice and her travails in the Ferraran convent, where her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession was forced on her because she had fallen in love with her music teacher and the family wished to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate them and focus on her younger sister?s marriage instead. Serafina finds it impossible to accept her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosure and the story reveals how she gains support from a few nuns in the community in her struggle. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunant creates a very real sense of the claustrophobic atmosphere of the restricted space, occupied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women governed by regulations affecting every part of their life, many of whom had not chosen to be there. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is it significant that there has been a change in the cover design? For some editions there is a rear view of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cloaked figure moving towards a dark doorway: there is now an attractive young woman with a low\(ish\) cut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dress, eyes modestly cast down. This version gives no clues about the convent setting of the novel. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does now advertise discussion points: my edition did not so I cannot comment on their value for teaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes. Their target audience was more likely to be readers in book groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Dunant brilliantly conjures up the atmosphere in a single convent for a small group of members. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has absorbed the detail provided by Lowe?s meticulous study to take the reader with her behind the walls. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast with the novel, Lowe is working on a much larger canvas to present an overview of three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant urban convents in the period as revealed in the chronicles written in the 16th century. Because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her own detailed knowledge of the sources and the period, Lowe is able to move confidently across three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different sources and convents. Such movements present challenges to the reader especially as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural context which clarifies some of the early material appears later in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What are we to make of the central themes of these books: that of forced professions and the negative impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of male-instituted reforms? As someone who has spent a number of years studying the experience of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious life in the early modern period, it is the denial of free will and choice to a substantial proportion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of convents, who are in reality the inmates of a locked institution, which is shocking. Lowe argues )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7329 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too that Tridentine reforms were almost wholly negative in their impact on the convents. At S Cosimato for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance ?life after Trent was merely a more severe version of an already very restricted lifestyle?? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nuns lost their opportunity to take decisions for themselves? and their independence was repressed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.264 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.264 766.563 m 529.256 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However if we look at the English convents with which I am more familiar, their foundations were made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Trent and neither they nor we as historians are in a position to compare life before and after. They had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to accommodate the rules established by Trent and attract candidates in difficult circumstances and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created cultural and religious centres of some importance. In the English convents in exile, care was taken to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure that women entered convents of their own free will and evidence has survived from many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convents showing that candidates could, and in fact did, leave if they changed their mind about joining. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted patronage, constructed and decorated buildings in much the same way as their Italian counterparts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the earlier period described by Lowe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 16th century saw significant changes for women religious, largely as a result of Tridentine decrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which imposed enclosure and which are seen \(as I have already suggested\) by Lowe as negative in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on women. In fact as she shows, the reforms at Le Vergini in Venice pre-dated Trent in ending an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual version of the religious life which permitted considerable freedom to the Canonesses who lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there. Perhaps it is the contrast between the latitude experienced there before 1519 to the forced professions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described elsewhere in the study and in the novel which makes the incarcerations so notable. Reactions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosure did vary elsewhere. For instance, some writers in the new English convents founded in exile on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent from 1598 even embraced enclosure, commenting how they welcomed separation from the secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world and the opportunities it provided to focus on their religious life without distractions. Perhaps it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different for them having experienced religious persecution and having to make a personal commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go overseas to join a convent. It was also not so hard as it was in Italy for them to leave if they were unsuited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the religious life. Such differences of female experience serve to demonstrate the importance of working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively as historians to take into account variations of circumstances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was good to read the bold conclusion by Kate Lowe emphasising the cultural significance of the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convents that formed her study and in particular their contribution to history writing. While, as she argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their works were little known outside the convents at the time, ?convent histories enter the mainstream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical debate?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.328 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.328 386.163 m 135.320 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.320 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Equally the success of Sarah Dunant?s book and her wide readership introduces a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of readers to thinking and talking about a hitherto closed world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lowe, pp. 393, 394.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.340 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.340 306.387 m 214.328 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET 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