%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 40 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728190901+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728190901+01'00') /Title (Moscow as city and metaphor) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3187 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Moscow as city and metaphor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penelope Fitzgerald?s historical novel )] TJ ET BT 219.992 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginning of Spring)] TJ ET BT 337.664 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, set in Moscow in 1913 but written at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(height of )] TJ ET BT 80.012 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perestroika)] TJ ET BT 134.672 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, conveys an ambivalence familiar to those of us who spent time there during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gorbachev years. Much in the Moscow she describes is grimy and discouraging: the oppressive bureaucracy; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1178)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penelope Fitzgerald)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780006543701)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flamingo)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurie Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780875803807)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(302pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Illinois University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dekalb, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Martin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8095 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ugly, derelict buildings; and, for much of the year, the gray, wet, depressing weather. But the book also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives an idea of the light that shone through the cracks in Russia?s shell: the Chekhovian charm of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ramshackle wooden houses and overgrown gardens; the churches with their golden onion domes, exuding a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majestic sense of history and enduring, timeless faith; and the people themselves, approaching life with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humor and an almost mystical intensity of feeling that seemed to prevent the everyday from becoming banal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the late 1980s as in 1913, the country was on the verge of epochal changes, and to be there meant to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness to history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginning of Spring)] TJ ET BT 151.688 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( expresses the )] TJ ET BT 221.336 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zeitgeist)] TJ ET BT 262.676 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the Gorbachev years, but it also incorporates much older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images and stereotypes. It could hardly be otherwise. Penelope Fitzgerald \(1916?2000\) was a distinguished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and talented novelist ? her fiction was awarded both the Booker Prize and the American National Book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Critics fiction prize ? but she was evidently no Russia hand; at least, )] TJ ET BT 364.652 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginning of Spring)] TJ ET BT 482.324 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is her only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work set in that country. Much of the novel is about the Russians? sheer cultural otherness. Like many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful, well-meaning Westerners trying to understand the Russians, Fitzgerald represents them as people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are exceptionally soulful, passionate, and melancholy. This is a stereotype that first appeared in Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature in the 19th century, and it has since become a fixture both in Russia and in the West.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How the stereotype used by Fitzgerald originated becomes clearer if one reads Laurie Manchester?s )] TJ ET BT 516.548 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fathers, Secular Sons)] TJ ET BT 139.676 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a study of the role of secularized )] TJ ET BT 305.300 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 352.628 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(sons of Orthodox clergymen?from )] TJ ET BT 528.260 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pop)] TJ ET BT 546.260 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?priest?\) in the formation of the Russian intelligentsia. Russia?s high culture was long dominated by nobles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who looked down on their lower-born compatriots because they lacked European culture. When commoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more educated in the mid-19)] TJ ET BT 211.640 506.261 Td /F1 10.7 Tf [(th)] TJ ET BT 219.938 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( century, and more resentful of the nobility?s snobbery and arrogance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they asserted their own moral superiority over the nobles by treating lack of cosmopolitanism as a badge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national authenticity. Manchester?s book argues that no one did more than the )] TJ ET BT 412.292 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi )] TJ ET BT 462.620 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? many of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired great influence as writers, educators, scientists, journalists, or political activists ? to promote the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that ?real? Russians should aspire to a pattern of thought and behavior rooted in the mystical spirituality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Russian Orthodoxy, not in supposedly universal notions of rationality and enlightenment modeled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Europeans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?Russian? traits espoused by Manchester?s popovichi are pervasive in )] TJ ET BT 395.276 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginning of Spring)] TJ ET BT 512.948 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they appear all the more exotic because Fitzgerald shows us Russia through the eyes of a semi-outsider, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russified Englishman. The central character in )] TJ ET BT 262.304 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginning of Spring)] TJ ET BT 379.976 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Frank Reid, is a husband, father of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three young children, and owner of a modest printing business in Moscow. The business was founded by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents, Britons who settled in Moscow, and Reid himself is at home in both cultures. When the story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins, his English wife Nellie has just unaccountably walked out on him and gone home to Britain, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reid is left trying to sort through the implications ? where she has gone, whether she will come back, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what it all means for him, their children, and his own relationship with Russia. This is the novel?s central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plot line, which reaches a surprising dnouement at the end that I won?t give away.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Reid attends to his affairs, we meet a variety of other characters. This is where Fitzgerald beings the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian stereotypes to life: there is the eccentric Anglo-Russian businessman Selwyn Crane, who writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian poetry about birch trees, wears a Russian peasant blouse, and tries to live by the utopian Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precepts of Tolstoy; there is Kuriatin, the moody, theatrical merchant; Tvyordov, Reid?s employee, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compositor and erstwhile labor organizer, who approaches his craft with almost religious reverence; Lisa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enigmatic peasant housemaid, whose sexual allure derives from her preternatural calm and serenity; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volodya, the pistol-wielding student who is either a revolutionary, a jealous lover, or both; and assorted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drunken coachmen, bribe-taking police officers, and officious station masters. Restless seekers all, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resemble Russia itself, that ?magnificent and ramshackle country? \(p. 177\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The novel?s characters are a study in contradiction and opacity: rebellious yet submissive, lecherous yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascetic, corrupt but also profoundly moral. Moscow itself shares these traits. Fitzgerald was ill served by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whoever advised her on language matters, because she keeps mangling the Russian words that are supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to provide local color, but judging from my own research on tsarist Moscow, her sense of the city is spot-on. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The city?s sights, sounds, and smells are described in such pungent detail that Moscow must count as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7277 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quasi-character. Fitzgerald does a beautiful job of evoking the city in passages like this one:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Dear, slovenly, mother Moscow, bemused with the bells of its four times forty churches, indifferently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheltering factories, whore-houses and golden domes, impeded by Greeks and Persians and bewildered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villagers and seminarists straying on to the tramlines, centred on its holy citadel, but reaching outwards with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a frowsty leap across the boulevards to the circle of workers? dormitories and railheads, where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries still prayed, and at last to a circle of pig-sties, cabbage-patches, earth roads, earth closets, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moscow sank back, seemingly with relief, into a village? \(pp. 35-36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Running through the whole book is the theme of ?the beginning of spring?. Perhaps Fitzgerald was thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ilya Ehrenburg?s 1954 novel)] TJ ET BT 185.984 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Thaw)] TJ ET BT 236.660 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which provided an entire generation of Soviet readers with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphor for the return of freedom and hope after Stalin?s death. In Fitzgerald?s novel, the season is late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March, when the snow and ice begin to melt. It is not a pretty time of year, but winter?s grip loosens at last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and life comes into its own again. Fitzgerald describes how the double panes are removed from the windows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and once more the sounds of the street penetrate the interior of people?s homes. A nervous anticipation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty takes hold. Nellie has abandoned her family, but we don?t know why. Reid loves Moscow yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers moving to England; he is attached to his business but has doubts about its long-term viability, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he understands neither Nellie?s sudden urge to leave nor his own unexpected feelings for Lisa. Selwyn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crane is spiritually torn between two conflicting sexual impulses ? free love and chastity ? and is about to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pour out his heart to the world in his first book of poetry; the approach of summer also means another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restless season of wandering the Russian countryside in peasant birch-bark sandals. In the wider world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanwhile, it is 1913, and we all know what lies in store.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Fitzgerald anthropomorphizes the city and uses human characters to embody the mood of a fateful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical moment, she is making use of time-honored literary devices. What makes these devices believable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the reader is the appeal to well-established images of Russians as soulful, brooding, oblivious to external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order, and uncompromising in their quest for deeper spiritual experience. But this was no timeless Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national stereotype; rather, it was invented in the mid 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until the early 19th century, Westerners as well as upper-class Russians viewed the Russian Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily as a quasi-colonial civilizing project that aimed to bring an amorphous mass of backward peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lands into the ambit of European enlightenment. The issue on which debates about Russian society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned was whether the empire?s multiethnic population was becoming enlightened, not whether there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single, identifiable Russian ethnicity and what its essential national character might be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of this shifted in the second quarter of the 19th century. Educated Russians ? writers, painters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalists, historians, musicians ? began exploring what they thought were the unique features of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian nation. It is at this moment in time that the clich on which Fitzgerald relies came into being: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s exterior is harsher and more forbidding than that of Western countries because its inner core is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warmer and more spiritual. Like all national stereotypes, these claims were based on observations of reality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they were above all a protest by dissenting intellectuals against the imperial regime. The regime wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its subjects to be obedient and rational; instead, they were now exalted as rebels and dreamers. Russia?s flat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monotonous landscapes, criticized earlier as oppressive and dreary, were found to contain a mystical beauty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the filth and poverty of peasant villages was recast as a sign of spiritual greatness. The West ? and, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association, the tsarist regime ? was nothing but pretty appearances; ?Russia?, by contrast, was spiritual truth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurie Manchester?s )] TJ ET BT 137.312 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holy Fathers, Secular Sons)] TJ ET BT 269.300 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( helps us understand how this conception of Russianness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arose. It has long been known that the rise of 19th?century Russian nationalism had roots both cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(German Romanticism, Slavophilism, liberalism\) and sociological \(the disillusionment of noble intellectuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the growth of a non-noble educated class\). Manchester draws our attention to a social group whose role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has traditionally not received adequate attention ? the clergy, or rather, their sons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that scholars studying the sociology of Russian intellectual history have focused so much more on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobles than on the clergy is, come to think about it, surprising, because clergy and )] TJ ET BT 431.300 56.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 478.628 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( formed a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8386 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial reservoir from which educated laypeople ? including many who were technically noble ? were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruited. The government needed more officials than the nobility could supply, while the clergy had more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated sons than could be placed in Orthodox parishes, so there was a steady flow of )] TJ ET BT 454.928 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 502.256 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy and into the state service \(where many were ennobled\) and other literate professions. Much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia?s educated population therefore had roots in the clerical milieu.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurie Manchester shows, based on a study of a hundreds of )] TJ ET BT 327.284 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovich)] TJ ET BT 371.276 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( memoirs, that )] TJ ET BT 443.276 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 490.604 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( all through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century shared a similar outlook on life. This outlook sharply differentiated them from the group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they viewed as their chief rival and with whom they were locked in a relationship of profound mutual dislike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disdain ? the nobility. Both considered themselves the natural leaders and moral enlighteners of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation. The )] TJ ET BT 91.676 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 139.004 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, born among the common people and raised to serve in local parishes, prided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves on being ?real? Russians, unlike the Europeanized nobility. Nobles were torn between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European and a Russian self, and some felt like foreigners among the Russian people or harbored guilt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings toward the peasantry; )] TJ ET BT 181.316 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 228.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( considered themselves part of the Russian populace and hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced none of these tensions. Nobles aspired to a lifestyle of politeness and refinement; )] TJ ET BT 486.932 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took pride in having grown up in poverty and living an ascetic life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One source of the )] TJ ET BT 121.988 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 169.316 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s powerful sense of corporate identity, Manchester argues, was their clerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upbringing. Orthodox parish clergy were almost always sons of clergymen and married to daughters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergymen, so they were a caste-like group, isolated from other classes and imbued with a sense of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saintly mission in a society whose elites were corrupted by sin and estranged from Russia?s sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions. The nobles, they felt, were haughty, spoiled by material luxury, and estranged from Russia by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their cultural cosmopolitanism. The merchants were alienated from their nation by the greed that inhered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their occupation. Only the clergy, they felt, aspired to a life of godliness, service to the people, and devotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Russia?s true national essence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This sense of the clergy?s special calling was reinforced by the experience of quasi-martyrdom at the bursa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the schools of the Orthodox Church were colloquially known. The bursa system resembled secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary schools in aiming to provide a sophisticated humanistic education, but otherwise it was like no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other school system in Russia. Attendance was compulsory, and unlike most schools, it was for one social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate only: it was staffed by clergymen and designed exclusively for sons of the clergy, so depending on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of ambition and talent, a young man could go from primary all the way to post-secondary schooling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without ever coming into contact with lay teachers, administrators, or classmates. Lay schools, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those for the nobility, placed great emphasis on neatness, order, and polished manners. By contrast, the bursa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was notorious for its filthy and decrepit buildings, the squalid living conditions of its students, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coarseness with which obedience to authority was enforced; the sadistic violence of corporal punishments at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bursa was legendary even in lay society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester argues that across generations, the experience of the bursa united )] TJ ET BT 407.912 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 455.240 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( entering lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professions with each other and with their peers who remained in the clergy, and isolated them from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other elements of society. The bursa formed memories that no other class shared. Leaving home for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bursa was universally remembered as a traumatic break with the innocence of childhood. Gazing back across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that fateful divide, )] TJ ET BT 125.336 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 172.664 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remembered their earlier family life with an intensity of affection that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced the bonds of loyalty uniting them with the clergy. They recalled their fathers as bearers of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saintly, quintessentially Russian masculinity, and their families as models of love and harmony. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was affection for particular teachers and comrades at the bursa, the bursa itself was recalled as a place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of suffering. Other classes, especially the nobles, might pity or despise the )] TJ ET BT 393.632 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 440.960 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as people degraded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an abusive education ? as late as the 1930s, dictionaries still defined )] TJ ET BT 363.632 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(seminarskii)] TJ ET BT 418.964 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the adjective derived from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?seminary?\) as meaning ?coarse, ill-bred? ? but )] TJ ET BT 265.280 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 312.608 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( themselves regarded the horror of the bursa as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial by fire that made them into saintly martyrs and thus uniquely qualified as moral leaders of the nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester argues that the )] TJ ET BT 165.980 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 213.308 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were the principal source of the distinctive, at times paradoxical ethos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that educated contemporaries as well as historians have generally attributed to the 19th?century Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligentsia. Both groups hated both the nobility and capitalism. They condemned leisure, privilege, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8188 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth, and embraced a life that was demonstratively austere and anti-materialistic. They felt a deep bond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the peasantry but expected to be acknowledged as its leaders. They were unsparing in their social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political criticism, but their sense of embodying the nation?s indivisible essence made them uncomfortable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with dissent and disagreement. All of these were attitudes common both to the intelligentsia and to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 81.344 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and they underlie the outlook of Selwyn Crane and the radical student Volodya in Fitzgerald?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginning of Spring)] TJ ET BT 151.688 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, just as the notion of an all-pervading, mystical Russian essence shapes Fitzgerald?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of Moscow itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holy Fathers, Secular Sons)] TJ ET BT 166.004 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( places this transformation of )] TJ ET BT 308.984 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 356.312 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into intelligentsia in a dual explanatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework. First, Manchester argues ? persuasively, I find ? that much in the )] TJ ET BT 406.604 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovich)] TJ ET BT 450.596 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( mentality represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an adaptation of the clergy?s Orthodox religiosity. They carried on, in secularized form, the clergy?s belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it alone represented both moral integrity and true Russianness, and that the peasantry was not corrupted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by sin as the nobles and merchants were. Secularizing the notion of individual salvation and of a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messianic redemption of humanity, they refused to separate the political from the personal, instead insisting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the struggle for change in the sociopolitical order be accompanied by tireless efforts at moral and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual self-improvement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aside from the secularization of religious sensibilities, the other concept that Manchester uses to frame her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis is the notion of ?modern selfhood?. Modern selves, she argues, are people who think critically and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that they can control their own lives and surroundings; variations of this definition are repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book \(e.g. pp. 5, 115, 135, 153, 214\). The argument that the )] TJ ET BT 397.316 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 444.644 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were pioneers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of modern selfhood in Russia is plausible and makes intuitive sense, but it does seem a bit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conjectural. The )] TJ ET BT 114.992 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 162.320 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( made autonomous career choices, but might not their clerical ancestors have done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same had the social order permitted it? Some )] TJ ET BT 270.980 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 318.308 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( wrote memoirs and kept diaries in which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed a sense of their own selves ? but most did not do these things, and might their ancestors not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done so if their culture had encouraged this particular form of self-expression? A systematic exploration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the older sense of self might have shed light on these questions, but the book does not attempt it, and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the available sources may not allow it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I argued earlier that Manchester?s book could be read as a study of the origin of the national stereotypes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlie Fitzgerald?s novel. On one crucial point, however, the two diverge. Fitzgerald?s characters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by a spiritual quest, but they are eccentric, nave, passive people, and in Moscow in March 1913, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drift helplessly into the maelstrom of the 20th century. By contrast, the )] TJ ET BT 377.324 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popovichi)] TJ ET BT 424.652 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had a sense of destiny that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made them vigorous participants in modern Russian history ? the sorts of people who helped build the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet order after 1917, and whose descendants helped bring it down in Fitzgerald?s own time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/book-of-a-lifetime-the-beginning-of-spring-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 262.371 m 557.600 262.371 l S BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-penelope-fitzgerald-6270427.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 248.115 m 214.316 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.316 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ 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