%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 42 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818221550+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818221550+01'00') /Title (Debating the Cultural Revolution in China) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2942 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Debating the Cultural Revolution in China)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Western imaginations, the Chinese Cultural Revolution \(1966?76\) ? in which one of the world?s oldest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most elaborate cultures began destroying itself, in which a successful, disciplined political organisation tore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1179)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roderick MacFarquhar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Schoenhals)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674023321)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(688pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belknap Press of Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yu Hau)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780330452755)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(600pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picador)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Lovell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8189 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own heart out, and in which colleagues and classmates turned murderously on each other ? stands among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the landmarks of the recent Chinese past. In the late 1980s, when Chinese history and culture remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(esoteric to all but specialists, it was accounts of the Cultural Revolution ? told in English through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal narratives of those who endured it ? that drew general audiences in their millions to read about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. The success of Jung Chang?s )] TJ ET BT 220.316 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wild Swans)] TJ ET BT 276.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in particular turned the Cultural Revolution memoir into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a genre sensation, beloved of publishers and readers alike. By the late 1990s, )] TJ ET BT 405.944 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wild Swans)] TJ ET BT 462.284 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had been joined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a clutch of cygnets ? )] TJ ET BT 135.656 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(To the Edge of the Sky)] TJ ET BT 243.308 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 249.308 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vermilion Gate)] TJ ET BT 344.636 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? mostly family sagas, mostly written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, many of them focusing on the traumas of the Cultural Revolution. \(At the close of that decade, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was even rumoured that literary agents had defined ?Chinese pain? as a product, because a profit could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made from it.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In China, the Cultural Revolution ? the ?ten years of madness? ? is also regarded as one of the seminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragedies of the country?s 20th century. For obvious political reasons, however, there are limits to how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event can be commemorated. The Cultural Revolution, after all, was a civil war \(with disastrous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for China?s political, economic and cultural development\) unleashed by China?s pre-eminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader, Mao Zedong; a civil war that was made possible by Chinese communism?s culture of violence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that Mao?s feted successor, Deng Xiaoping ? a high-ranking leader in 1966 ? signally failed to prevent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([d1])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 554.979 m 54.008 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 57.008 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 71.000 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is hardly surprising that the regime does not want to encourage free-form, open-ended debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about its causes and consequences. In the interests of drawing a veil over such contention, the Party passed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own, final judgment on the Cultural Revolution and on Mao?s role in the early 1980s, declaring that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Helmsman had been 70 per cent right, and 30 per cent wrong, and that no further discussion was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required. Nonetheless, memory of the Cultural Revolution has inevitably resonated through Chinese cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life ? not least because so many writers were affected. Literary commemorations of the Cultural Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have long outnumbered those of the famine that followed the Great Leap Forward \(1958?62\). This is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because, although the latter was in absolute terms far more destructive of Chinese life \(claiming some 40 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million deaths, to the Cultural Revolution?s estimated 1.5 million\), those worst affected were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(predominantly illiterate\) farmers, while the Cultural Revolution particularly targeted intellectuals. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although substantial restrictions still exist on coverage of the Cultural Revolution in China?s public history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry \(especially in the mass media\), there is greater, if still incomplete, freedom for fictional explorations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past 20 years, China?s most critically acclaimed novelists ? writers such as Mo Yan, Yu Hua and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Su Tong, born between the 1950s and early 1960s ? have turned the historical novel into the pre-eminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre in serious contemporary fiction. For the most part, they have concentrated on recounting the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and particularly the landmark traumas of the Communist decades through which they themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived: Land Reform, the Great Leap Forward and, of course, the Cultural Revolution. In )] TJ ET BT 458.612 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brothers)] TJ ET BT 500.612 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bestselling Chinese novels of the early 21st century, Yu Hua created a two-volume blockbuster covering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China?s last four decades: a portrait of the country?s transformation from Maoist political thuggery to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money worship. The first volume is taken up by a startlingly brutal account of the Cultural Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The novel is set in Liu Town, an east-coast backwater near Shanghai, and tells the lives of two victims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mao?s China ? Baldy Li and his stepbrother Song Gang. Approaching their teens during the Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, the boys witness Song Gang?s father, Song Fanping, tortured then battered to death \(ostensibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for being the son of a landlord, in reality for a linguistic slip interpreted as slandering Mao\) only 14 months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after his marriage to Baldy Li?s mother, Li Lan; within another few years, she dies of kidney failure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sorrow. In )] TJ ET BT 86.336 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brothers)] TJ ET BT 128.336 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Cultural Revolution starts out as burlesque anarchy ? a chance for children to skip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school and enjoy heaping humiliation on ?class enemies?: ?[The boys] only knew that now Liu Town had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become as festive and rowdy as if every day were a holiday?. Soon enough, however, the ubiquitous mob )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence ? daily lynchings leave the town literally smeared with blood ? turns against the boys and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. The killing of the boys? father ? described in horrifying detail across four pages ? is the centrepiece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act of mindless cruelty. Six local Red Guards beat him steadily to death, shredding his flesh, ripping an ear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off, finally bayoneting him with a splintered wooden bat: ?As the spikes were yanked out blood gushed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his body as though it were a perforated wine skin?. Even after he has died, reinforcements arrive to take over )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 555.2935 54.0077 567.1735 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ihrconference.wordpress.com/category/book-reviews/#_msocom_1) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7922 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beating, trampling and pummelling, while the first group of killers breakfast ?with savage delight? on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?soy milk, buns and fritters?. Even in death, Song Fanping has to endure the humiliation of having his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kneecaps smashed so that he can be fitted into the only cheap coffin available.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the interests of achieving a faithful likeness of these extreme times, Yu Hua makes use of a style that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude in almost every respect: in its freakish protagonists and plot twists; in its fondness for repetitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expletives \(or, ideally, repeated expletives ? one paragraph alone is graced by eighteen conjugations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?f**k?\); in its fountains of body fluids \(snot, blood and saliva\). Modern China, its author has reasoned, ?is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so sick that a writer can?t pretend to be a doctor. Instead, the best one can do is admit that one is ill and try )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to describe the symptoms?. And the coarseness of the novel?s literary language seems technically well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matched with the grotesquerie of the violence being described: archival and anecdotal evidence tells us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yu Hua?s descriptions of hyperbolic sadism are historically accurate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The highly negative portrayals of the Cultural Revolution in Yu Hua?s )] TJ ET BT 376.316 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brothers)] TJ ET BT 418.316 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are indeed a sign of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer?s political bravery \(and proof of the greater creative freedom that Chinese novelists enjoy, relative to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peers working in film, television or newspapers\). In refusing to allow these events to go quietly forgotten, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in commemorating them in such scurrilous, brutish style, Yu Hua flagrantly contradicts the exhortation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Chinese Writers? Association \(the government?s official literary union\) that writers should ?make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive contributions? to sounding an ?elevated main note in literary creation?. And yet )] TJ ET BT 460.628 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brothers)] TJ ET BT 502.628 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminates the interpretative limits faced by Chinese authors describing the Cultural Revolution. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately pulls its punches when it comes to seeking the origins of these events. The horrific violence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Revolution is portrayed as an irrational explosion of mass thuggery, without any attempt to search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for deeper causes \(in, say, Communism?s institutionalisation of violence at all levels of government and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its caste-like system of class designations\). As a result, the book is often rich in superficial shock value ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its explicit descriptions of violence and sex ? but weak in its grasp of the political roots of Maoist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cataclysms. Moreover, there is scant introspective attention paid to perhaps the most interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological legacy of the Cultural Revolution: the way in which the great majority of victims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecutors have had to co-exist quietly with each other since the regime turned its back on class struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Mao and his revolution came to an end in 1976. Yu Hua?s sensationalist style seems almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately designed to forestall deeper thought about the causes and outcomes of these events. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militating against careful reflection on the Cultural Revolution, Yu Hua unwittingly furthers the regime?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project to stifle widespread debate about its sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative style of Roderick MacFarquhar?s and Michael Schoenhals? )] TJ ET BT 390.260 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mao?s Last Revolution)] TJ ET BT 501.596 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly form a greater contrast with the tone of hysterical violence that dominates )] TJ ET BT 424.940 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brothers)] TJ ET BT 466.940 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The former ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most authoritative, comprehensive single-volume account of the Cultural Revolution in English ? does not in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any sense shy away from the physical horror of these events, mind; it is littered with appalling spectacle. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read of an early victim of Mao?s purge hurling himself off a building; his suicide attempt failed but left him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crippled, after which his opponents hauled him to mass criticism meetings inside a cabbage basket. Red )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guards beat class enemies to death without understanding their alleged counter-revolutionary crimes. Cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up and down the country were ? as Yu Hua describes in microcosm ? spattered with blood: some 15,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were killed or wounded in Wuhan alone. MacFarquhar and Schoenhals describe how factions of students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murdered each other with sugar sickles intended for Cuba; funeral processions in which Red Guards held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aloft the severed body parts of the fallen; how some victims were not only killed but also eaten; how one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man with a bad class background bled to death in front of his family after having his ear cut off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But MacFarquhar and Schoenhals are constantly at pains to explain not only what happened, but also how it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have happened. There is a devastingly effective coolness to their writing, as they explain the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cultural Revolution: not only Mao?s central culpability, but also the complicity of his chief lieutenants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(none of whom tried to prevent Mao from launching his political witch-hunt, most of whom were purged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the course of the Cultural Revolution\). Jung Chang?s and Jon Halliday?s recent, best-selling biography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mao: The Unknown Story)] TJ ET BT 158.336 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, turned the Cultural Revolution into melodrama: the villains \(Mao, his wife Jiang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Qing and his Defence Minister, Lin Biao\) lined up on one side; their good-hearted victims \(Liu Shaoqi and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his wife, Deng Xiaoping\) on the other. MacFarquhar and Schoenhals paint a picture in which blame was far )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7666 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more troublingly widespread. Both Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were deeply implicated in the culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political violence that made the extremism of the Cultural Revolution possible; both mocked early victims of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the movement before it turned on them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Technically, the book is a tour-de-force, a heteroglossic survey of Cultural Revolutionaries at every level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese society, that makes use of both conventional archival material and sources from below: interviews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs, pamphlets, posters, diaries and denunciations, and other flea-market finds. \(Michael Schoenhals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been acclaimed elsewhere as the ?doyen of Chinese garbology? ? presumably for his skill in excavating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical gems from piles of apparently waste paper that have found their way to such markets.\) Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional archival sources on the Cultural Revolution, it should be remembered, are far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward to access in China today. Much evidence from these years is routinely shut off to foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers without special connections and permits. In MacFarquhar?s and Schoenhals? narrative, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices of external observers inject welcome tonal variety into the turgid political formulae of official PRC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communiqus. Although in the eye of the storm, British diplomats stationed in China during the Cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution still kept their upper lips almost miraculously stiff. One Foreign Office functionary evacuated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Beijing laconically observed that as he, his wife and young family fell under attack at the airport from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Red Guards, his ?tie was pulled into so tight a knot that it had later to be forced open with a tea spoon.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imprisoned within the British embassy in Beijing on the evening on which it would be sacked, its inhabitants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost burnt to death and its women sexually molested, the ambassador reported back to London that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staff ?dined together ? off a dinner of tinned sausages and peas, claret and biscuits and cheese, prepared by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ladies. After dinner I went to the first-floor ? to play bridge, while those of the staff who were not at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work watched Peter Sellers in a film entitled not inappropriately, ?The Wrong Arm of the Law?!?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacFarquhar?s and Schoehnals? dispassionate, clear-headed account is therefore more profoundly unsettling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the surface sensationalism generated by a novel like )] TJ ET BT 310.292 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brothers)] TJ ET BT 352.292 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. We gain a powerful sense of a tragedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfolding: of a fundamental failure by Mao and his subordinates to predict the consequences of their actions; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the hypocrisy of a revolutionary elite who ? themselves enveloped in privilege and learning ? wished to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deny these things to their countrymen. We are left with greatly enhanced understanding of a disaster ? still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficiently explained and discussed in China today ? driven by an over-concentration of power and by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of institutional accountability, both issues that remain political hazards in the contemporary People?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/apr/18/brothers-yu-hua-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 317.139 m 372.968 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.968 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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