%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R 65 0 R 101 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417145242+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417145242+01'00') /Title (A People of One Book: the Bible and the Victorians) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4478 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A People of One Book: the Bible and the Victorians)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Larsen?s purpose in writing )] TJ ET BT 215.000 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People of One Book)] TJ ET BT 321.644 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to demonstrate the extent to which the Bible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated Victorian thought and culture. He claims that this has yet to be fully grasped, and endeavours to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove his thesis by offering a detailed examination of how Scripture was central to the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergent groupings in Victorian England. In order to achieve this objective, Professor Larsen has adopted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies approach to the subject, examining the lives and intellectual histories of representative figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from different religious and irreligious traditions. Throughout his book the author seeks to undermine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic assumption that what the Victorians wrote about the Bible represented the most uninteresting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of their works. Hence the perceived failure of modern scholars to adequately evaluate the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotion to Scripture is a recurring theme in this volume. Even in an age as secularised as our own, the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Biblicism or ostensible veneration for Scripture should not be viewed as superfluous. After all, can one be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected to fully understand modern American politics if devotion to Biblicism is not taken into account? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, some of the people analysed in this study still retain considerable influence today. In 2009 it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found that there were more writings in print by Charles Haddon Spurgeon, a Calvinistic Baptist pastor, than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by any other living or dead English-speaking author \(p. 274\). Thus to assume that the thesis of this book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unimportant is, to say the least, nave. It is important, however, to keep in mind that Victorian Biblicism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not limited to evangelicals or orthodox Protestants. On the contrary, one of Professor Larsen?s central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns is to demonstrate that Biblicism was germane to other forms of belief that were prevalent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Larsen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199570096)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(326pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Ritchie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8109 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian England. Indeed, it is even argued that comprehending such Biblicism is requisite to understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious scepticism. For instance, despite being an agnostic, T. H. Huxley regarded the Bible as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirable book and insisted that Scripture reading be required in state schools. Even in the case of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorians who were openly antagonistic to the Bible, Scripture was still important to their lives. Secularists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and atheists often regarded Scripture as being of chief importance in terms of their own loss of faith. Thus it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears logical for the author to conclude that ?even a desire to write a hostile or iconoclastic work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible is itself a tribute to the centrality of ?the book? for the Victorians? \(p. 297\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the author admits that selecting a particular individual as being representative of a wider group is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both problematic and contestable, he nevertheless does attempt to provide adequate justification for focusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the person selected in each case. Furthermore, it is also significant that Professor Larsen undertakes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid an over-reliance upon men, arguing that traditional religious history has been at fault here for having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an inordinate preoccupation with one gender. In an attempt to substantiate his thesis, Professor Larsen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the usage of the Bible among Anglo-Catholics, Roman Catholics, atheists, Methodist and Holiness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, Liberal Anglicans, Unitarians, Quakers, agnostics, evangelical Anglicans, and orthodox Dissenters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is perhaps to be regretted that other groups, such as Jews and the Plymouth Brethren, have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left out. This has been justified on the basis that Professor Larsen?s desire to write a two-volume work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject was rejected by the publisher as ?a commercial non-starter? \(p. 277\). However, it should be kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in mind that these groupings are briefly discussed in the conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the case of the Anglo-Catholics or Tractarians who comprised the Oxford Movement, it makes perfect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that E. B. Pusey be chosen as the figure to represent that group. After all, this group was often referred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to as the Puseyites, and other figures, such as John Keble, were happy to apply that epithet to themselves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Due to various misconceptions that have arisen concerning the Oxford Movement in general, and Pusey in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, this chapter is especially valuable for its attempt ?to recover a picture of the Tractarian leader as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible man who lived an exegetical life? \(p. 41\). Of course, this should not really be surprising as Pusey was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regius professor of Hebrew at Oxford.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.300 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.300 428.931 m 235.292 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.292 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless, the author is at pains to point out that Pusey did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, as he was sometimes misrepresented as doing by his detractors, reject the authority of the Bible. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pusey differed from evangelicals in believing that the authoritative interpretation of Scripture should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guided by the collective consensus of the patristic fathers. This did not, however, imply that he regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Bible study as unimportant. Quite the opposite is true, as the author highlights Pusey?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable commitment to Biblical scholarship and devotional Scripture reading. Indeed, few realise that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblical commentaries were actually Pusey?s life?s work. Professor Larsen also helpfully corrects the straw-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man assumption that Tractarians were so preoccupied with the sacraments that they were not interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblical preaching.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.336 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.336 314.883 m 139.328 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.328 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( An appreciation of Pusey?s exegetical labours, which included regularly preaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expository sermons for an hour-and-a-half on a Sunday morning, fundamentally undermines such ill-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed suppositions. Indeed, Pusey is a figure which even conservative evangelicals should be interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in understanding due to his opposition to the attacks on Scripture emanating from 19th-century German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism. For this illuminating discussion of a much maligned and misunderstood figure, Professor Larsen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves the highest praise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on Roman Catholics is similar to the preceding one on Pusey in that the author attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portray the chosen figure Nicholas Wiseman, the first Archbishop of Westminster, as ?a Bible man through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and through? \(p. 65\). No doubt this will appear strange to some readers, as Wiseman is remembered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily for his role in the infamous Papal Aggression of 1850 when Pope Pius IX restored a regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical hierarchy in England.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.972 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.972 160.323 m 217.964 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.964 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Protestants feared that the result of such aggression would be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denigration of the place of the Bible in English life, yet Wiseman was both a Biblical scholar and exegetical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preacher. He was so keen to convince English Protestants that Roman Catholics had a sound view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scripture that he deployed arguments that unsettled some of his co-religionists. For example, in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiseman?s defence of the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, Professor Larsen highlights the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he adopted the historio-grammatical approach to Biblical hermeneutics, something that is normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with Protestant exegesis. He also called for a new Roman Catholic translation of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible, not from the Latin Vulgate, but from the original Hebrew and Greek. It could even be argued that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.2997 429.2455 235.2917 441.1255 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.3357 315.1975 139.3277 327.0775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.9717 160.6375 217.9637 172.5175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8556 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiseman?s doctrine of Scripture outstrips that of some late 19th-century and many modern evangelicals, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he affirmed a belief in Biblical inerrancy. Such was the extent of Wiseman?s conservatism on the doctrine of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scripture that he even defended the originality of 1 John 5:7 as found in the Authorised Version, a position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is adopted by very few conservative Protestants today. Indeed, far from seeking to undermine Biblical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, Professor Larsen claims that Wiseman believed the perceived subjectivism of Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to Scripture, relying on the interpretation of the individual rather than that of the infallible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, had actually led to German Liberalism and contempt for the Bible among British secularists. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion of the present reviewer, these sections on Pusey and Wiseman are so important, in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correcting popular misconceptions, that they are easily the most significant chapters in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on atheists, which focuses on Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant, is important for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating how those in the Victorian era who embraced an explicitly anti-Biblical worldview still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to reveal a Biblicist influence in their life and writings. Professor Larsen suggests that Bradlaugh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(implicitly\) had a high view of the importance of Scripture, since he believed that that the exposure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightest discrepancy in the Bible was enough to demolish the Christian religion. Such an assumption seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to demonstrate how important the Bible was to both the Christian churches and broader culture in Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. However, Professor Larsen points out a glaring inconsistency in Bradlaugh?s 1870 work, )] TJ ET BT 511.280 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bible: What It Is)] TJ ET BT 113.672 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when he flags up Bradlaugh?s dismissal of the historicity of Scripture. On the one hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradlaugh argued that the Bible is not historically reliable; yet, on the other hand, he assumed that Scripture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was historically accurate when it contained accounts of certain actions that he regarded as morally suspect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradlaugh also held a remarkably conservative opinion in thinking that the epistle to the Hebrews was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written by the apostle Paul, a view which many evangelicals strenuously reject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.956 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.956 497.955 m 428.948 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 428.948 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, both Besant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Bradlaugh probably had more in common with their evangelical contemporaries than they imagined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they recoiled from its sexual frankness. Although no evangelical would have concurred with Besant?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion that the Bible was ?a dangerous and despicable book? \(p. 79\), nevertheless, Professor Larsen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovers a number of cases were evangelicals shared concerns about the public reading of certain Biblical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives. For instance, the Quaker Elizabeth Fry recommended that the account of Sodom and Gomorrah in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genesis 19 should not be read aloud. This and the observation that ?Spurgeon had the sense not to defy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian propriety by expounding on the more unseemly scriptural narratives? \(p. 260\) raises interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions concerning the extent to which Victorian culture was governed by the Bible, or to what degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian culture shaped the way Christians viewed Scripture. Despite the reasonableness of viewing them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a people of one book, this nervousness demonstrates that religious thought in Victorian England was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by factors other than Biblical morality or devotion to Scripture as literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the remaining chapters, a number of significant themes emerge. The first is an exposure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erroneous notion that Biblicism should be equated with theological orthodoxy. By carefully distinguishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between radical and conservative Unitarians, Professor Larsen?s research reveals that English Unitarians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were largely Biblicist prior to the 1880s, despite their theological heterodoxy. Notwithstanding Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carpenter?s outbursts against evangelicals, the Bible was central to her life and was considered the standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by which all doctrinal opinions should be judged. In similar vein, the author rejects the idea that Broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church or Liberal Anglicans were not interested in Scripture. Evidence of this can be seen in Florence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nightingale?s slavish devotion to Bible reading and distribution ? even though she rejected the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scripture was supernatural revelation. Another interesting point is the relationship between Biblicism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creeds. For Unitarians such as Lant Carpenter the Bible was to be read without the influence of the church?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creeds, and dogmas such as the Trinity were to be rejected as unbiblical. Although there were vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological differences between Carpenter and Spurgeon, the latter gave expression to similar hyper-biblicist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiments. For example, his assertion that he could respect and have fellowship with anyone who agreed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with him on Biblical authority, even if they differed over the doctrines taught in it, is very similar to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of some heterodox non-subscribers in the 19th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.636 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.636 115.299 m 343.628 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.628 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, it must be remembered that non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscription was a position advocated by many orthodox Dissenters since the 18th century, so Spurgeon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views were not overly peculiar.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.976 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.976 86.787 m 198.968 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 198.968 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Another important point which the author emphasises is that a defence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practice of female preaching was not inextricably linked to a rejection of Biblical authority.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.928 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.928 72.531 m 504.920 72.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.920 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Booth and Elizabeth Fry defended the practice on Biblicist grounds. Moreover, the Anglican )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.9557 498.2695 428.9477 510.1495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.6357 115.6135 343.6277 127.4935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.9757 87.1015 198.9677 98.9815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.9277 72.8455 504.9197 84.7255 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R 63 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 9275 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Josephine Butler, another proponent of women?s preaching, was a zealous opponent of theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernism, and is quoted as accusing German higher critics of tearing the Bible ?to pieces like dogs? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(245\). Thus it is a mistake to assume that defenders of female preaching always adopted Liberal views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblical authority. Even a rejection of the doctrine of eternal punishment was not necessarily a sign of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblicism, as Butler also rejected this dogma while remaining staunchly Biblicist to the end of her life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is currently a hotly debated topic among evangelicals )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.648 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.648 723.795 m 364.640 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 364.640 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it should be recognised that in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century at least some evangelicals questioned the doctrine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.296 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.296 709.539 m 329.288 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The critiques of the works of other scholars in this book are generally necessary and constructive in nature. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jo Manton?s apparent failure to analyse Mary Carpenter?s )] TJ ET BT 317.276 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morning and Evening Meditations)] TJ ET BT 482.936 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is highlighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a telling example of how the religious thought of such individuals has been widely ignored. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larsen also helpfully debunks the myth that John Henry Newman referred to Josephine Butler as one who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reads Scripture like a child and interprets it like an angel? \(p. 240\). This comment was not made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cardinal Newman, but by his brother Francis. However, the most important corrective which Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larsen offers is to the notion that Spurgeon was an obscurantist ?young fogey? due to his rejection of higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism \(p. 271\). P. S. Kruppa?s claim that Spurgeon was almost entirely negative towards contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblical commentaries is refuted by the author?s having consulted his )] TJ ET BT 371.312 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commenting and Commentaries)] TJ ET BT 526.640 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Spurgeon commends exegetical works by figures who did not share his own theological outlook. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These included divines such as Pusey, B. F. Westcott, J. B. Lightfoot, and even the German higher critic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heinrich Ewald.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.664 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.664 526.467 m 132.656 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 132.656 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are, however, a few places were the author?s criticisms of others borders on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being ultra-critical. For example, on page 241 he criticises another scholar simply for misspelling the word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shunem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite recognising the need for this study, the reviewer has a number of concerns regarding the book. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to adopt a case studies approach leads to the volume, at times, having a less than holistic feel about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. Though this is not an entirely bad thing, perhaps adopting a thematic approach would have been better. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater problem, however, is that of whether or not the individuals chosen are really representative of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respective religious communities. In the case of Pusey and Tractarianism and Spurgeon and orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissent, the author?s selection appears to be cogent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.300 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.300 400.419 m 304.292 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 304.292 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nonetheless, it must be asked whether or not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence Nightingale is really representative of Liberal Anglican opinion, especially as her rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional Christian doctrines was apparently extreme in comparison with other Broad Church Anglicans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision to use Josephine Butler as the figure to represent evangelical Anglicanism appears strange, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially as she neither identified herself as an Anglican or an evangelical \(though she belonged to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England and embraced vital religion\). Also, Elizabeth Fry is deemed to be an evangelical even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though she likewise avoided employing the term as a self-descriptor. Such examples serve to partially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantiate D. G. Hart?s contention that ?the evangelical movement ? is so oppressive that it can claim even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who do not want to belong to it?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.012 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.012 286.371 m 241.004 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 241.004 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author also appears to be unduly surprised by some of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings. There is nothing particularly astonishing about Mary Carpenter having a friendship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison. Although it is true that Garrison was not regarded by many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as theologically sound, nevertheless, he was held in high esteem by some theological conservatives. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Covenanter minister, the Revd J. R. W. Sloane, argued that Garrison was ?moral, upright [?] and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessed of a character without reproach? and who read the Scriptures at his antislavery meetings ?from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depths of his soul, with a power I have yet to hear equalled?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.292 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.292 200.835 m 345.284 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.284 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the Revd Isaac Nelson, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox Belfast Presbyterian abolitionist, said that ?I believe Garrison to be one of the most heroic, self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denying men whom I have ever read; a lover of Jesus Christ, of prayer, and of all good men?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.252 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.252 172.323 m 502.244 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 502.244 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures could respect Garrison for his antislavery sentiments, it is not at all surprising that a Unitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to disown him. The references to Pusey?s reliance upon Bernard of Clairvaux are not overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable, as even John Calvin was a great admirer of the medieval divine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.264 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.264 129.555 m 421.256 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.256 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nonetheless, Pusey?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission of Calvin and Martin Luther from among those whom he considered to be the ?more thoughtful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers of all times? \(p. 13\) tells us a lot about the Oxford Movement. Despite these minor reservations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Larsen?s work significantly illuminates the subject of Victorian interaction with Scripture and is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very good resource. Having been based on a large amount of primary research, from both manuscript and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed sources, it should be useful to all scholars interested in pursuing further enquiries into the individuals )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.6477 724.1095 364.6397 735.9895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.2957 709.8535 329.2877 721.7335 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.6637 526.7815 132.6557 538.6615 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.2997 400.7335 304.2917 412.6135 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.0117 286.6855 241.0037 298.5655 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.2917 201.1495 345.2837 213.0295 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.2517 172.6375 502.2437 184.5175 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.2637 129.8695 421.2557 141.7495 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R 99 0 R ] /Contents 66 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Length 10667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. G. Cobb, ?Pusey, Edward Bouverie\(1800?1882\)?,From the )] TJ ET BT 369.980 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biography )] TJ ET BT 117.680 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(website <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.108 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/22910>)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.108 715.299 m 395.528 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 398.528 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 412.520 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed5 December 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 701.043 m 118.004 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Puseyites? belief in baptismal regeneration, Eucharistic presence, sacramental priesthood, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotion to the medieval church probably did leave him vulnerable to such misconceptions, however. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. S. J. Brown, )] TJ ET BT 144.020 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The National Churches of England, Ireland, and Scotland 1801?1846)] TJ ET BT 479.360 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2001\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 282?3. Gerald Parsons, ?Emotion and piety: revivalism and ritualism in Victorian Christianity? in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion in Victorian Britain: Volume I Traditions)] TJ ET BT 306.032 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. Gerald Parsons \(Manchester and New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\), p. 229.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 615.507 m 185.000 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. John Wolffe, )] TJ ET BT 147.668 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Protestant Crusade in Great Britain 1829?1860 )] TJ ET BT 402.680 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1991\), pp. 1?2, 243.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 118.004 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. A. Carson and D. J. Moo, )] TJ ET BT 204.668 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Introduction to the New Testament)] TJ ET BT 387.668 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd edn, Leicester, 2005\), p. 602.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 558.483 m 118.004 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. R. G. Crawford, ?The second subscription controversy and the personalities of the non-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribers? in )] TJ ET BT 138.668 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Challenge and Conflict: Essays in Irish Presbyterian History and Doctrine)] TJ ET BT 498.992 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Haire )] TJ ET BT 110.336 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET BT 134.336 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Antrim, 1981\), p. 98.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.996 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.996 515.715 m 296.984 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. E. Richey, ?From Puritanism to Unitarianism in England: a study in candour? in )] TJ ET BT 466.340 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Academy of Religion)] TJ ET BT 213.656 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41, 3 \(Sep. 1973\), 375.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.648 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.648 487.203 m 383.636 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was not unique to the Victorians, as John Wesley had defended the practice in the previous )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Cf. Wesley to Mrs Crosby, London, 2 Dec. 1777 in )] TJ ET BT 361.316 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Letters of the Rev. John Wesley, A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(M. Sometime Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford)] TJ ET BT 295.340 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John Telford \(8 vols, London, 1931\), vi, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(290?1. Wesley to Sarah Mallet, Canterbury, 15 Dec. 1789 in )] TJ ET BT 360.968 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters)] TJ ET BT 394.304 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. viii, 190. R. P. Heitzenrater, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wesley and the People Called Methodists)] TJ ET BT 263.660 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Nashville, 1995\), p. 193. David Hempton, however, argues )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that female preaching among Methodists was exceptional. See David Hempton, )] TJ ET BT 452.288 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Methodism: Empire )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Spirit)] TJ ET BT 120.692 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, and London, 2005\), pp. 140?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.984 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.984 387.411 m 413.972 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. L. Edwards and John Stott, )] TJ ET BT 211.676 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essentials: A Liberal-Evangelical Dialogue)] TJ ET BT 422.000 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988\), pp. 321?2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 358.899 m 118.004 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. )] TJ ET BT 82.016 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life and Correspondence of John Foster: with notices of Mr Foster as a Preacher and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Companion by John Sheppard, Author of ?Thoughts on devotion?, etc., etc.)] TJ ET BT 426.332 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. E. Ryland)] TJ ET BT 511.328 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2 vols, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, 1846\), ii, p. 266.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.000 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.000 316.131 m 253.988 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In relation to Pusey?s commentary on the prophecy of Daniel, Spurgeon says, ?To Dr. Pusey?s work )] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Daniel all subsequent writers must be deeply indebted?. C. H. Spurgeon, )] TJ ET BT 433.640 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commenting and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentaries: Two Lectures Addressed to the Students of the Pastor?s College, Metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tabernacle, together with a Catalogue of Biblical Commentaries and Expositions )] TJ ET BT 459.692 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1876\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(129.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 244.851 m 145.004 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although an argument could be made that Spurgeon was not fully representative of Baptists, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author provides reasonable justification for his choice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.968 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.968 216.339 m 380.960 216.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 203.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. G. Hart, )] TJ ET BT 120.668 203.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deconstructing Evangelicalism: Conservative Protestantism in the age of Billy Graham)] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Grand Rapids, MI, 2004\), p. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.996 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.996 187.827 m 281.984 187.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 174.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. R. W. Sloane, )] TJ ET BT 144.680 174.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life and Work of J. R. W. Sloane, D.D. Professor of Theology in the Reformed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian Seminary at Allegheny City, Penn, 1868?1886 and Pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Church New York, 1856?1868)] TJ ET BT 210.020 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. M. Sloane \(New York, 1888\), p. 84.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.316 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.316 145.059 m 484.304 145.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 132.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isaac Nelson, )] TJ ET BT 131.660 132.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical Alliance. Letter from the Rev. Isaac Nelson, of Belfast, Member of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alliance, to the ?Belfast Newsletter? in Reply to a Correspondent)] TJ ET BT 378.680 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \([Manchester], 1846\), p. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.644 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.644 116.547 m 550.640 116.547 l S BT 64.016 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 102.291 m 84.008 102.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 89.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Barbee, ?Covenantal spirituality: Bernadine themes in Calvin?s covenant theology?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 75.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Theological Journal)] TJ ET BT 224.012 75.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 73 \(2011\), 133?55.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.332 75.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.332 73.779 m 381.320 73.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 48.917 Td /F3 12.0 Tf 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