%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071338+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071338+01'00') /Title (Sex Before the Sexual Revolution: Intimate Life in England 1918-1963) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4148 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sex Before the Sexual Revolution: Intimate Life in England 1918-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1963)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This readable and accessible book has secured an impact beyond the academic world, becoming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET BT 80.684 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book of the week in March 2011 and drawing positive reviews in both the academic and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic press. )] TJ ET BT 112.988 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex Before the Sexual Revolution)] TJ ET BT 272.288 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( uses oral history to explore sex and love among married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couples in the two generations before the oral contraceptive pill became available in Britain. It democratises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discourse about sexual behaviour, challenging previous accounts which have rested too much on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of contemporary experts who claimed that they brought sexual liberation to a sexually repressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. By letting unknown voices be heard, Szreter and Fisher, in the best traditions of oral history, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only counter the universalising tendency of a dominant narrative, but also correct the narrative itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They acknowledge that their own evidence confirms the existence of a tradition stressing restraint, duty, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an absence of communication about sex, a culture which often left women dissatisfied and fearful of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pregnancy. However, Szreter and Fisher?s findings qualify this familiar picture significantly. The authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want us to abandon the Whiggish view of a simple modernisation of sexual behaviour from patriarchal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressed attitudes to egalitarian, open ones. Instead, they argue that a gradual dispelling of ignorance about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex during the 20th century did not undermine the link between a woman?s respectability and her claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1182)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Szreter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Fisher)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521760041)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(466pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Atkinson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7542 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual innocence. Privacy remained a key value for couples. A further important revision which Szreter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher propose is to stop viewing sexual pleasure and reticence as irreconcilable opposites. Their witnesses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told them that patterns of behaviour involving abstinence and restraint strengthened the bond between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couples: half of them said that ?sex should be an expression of caring love in the marriage, not of sensual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualist self-indulgence? \(p. 386\). While some regarded aspects of sex as ?dirty?, exactly this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupation with hygiene let other couples enjoy a sense of the cleanliness and purity of each other?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies. All in all, the culture of restraint and privacy could be a source of fulfilment as well as of frustration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument which Szreter and Fisher construct on the basis of their oral history evidence is a sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, and merits a more detailed summary. Their discussion of their findings begins, logically, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge about sex. Their witnesses confirmed, of course, the euphemistic and restricted public culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to sex. This, and the way ?your parents didn?t tell you anything? \(p. 75\), meant that children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young adults found out for themselves. They did so in a strongly gendered way. Witnesses of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds said that female innocence was valued, and should be ended only by encounter with a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband. Boys and young men, on the other hand, were expected to be curious. There was an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of complying with expectations here, about which Fisher has previously written.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.964 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.964 583.491 m 474.956 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 474.956 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female role was to be innocent of sexual activity, but this was consistent with \(reticent\) knowledge, more so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in middle-class witnesses; the male role was to be knowledgeable, but male witnesses, similarly, stressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they combined this with virginity before marriage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In practice, different kinds of intimacy before marriage had to be negotiated. Szreter and Fisher find a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergence between a middle-class tendency to more communication about sexual matters, and a working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class one towards less, in which female ignorance could play a part. While this meant that premarital sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more common among their working-class witnesses, Szreter and Fisher are wise to avoid viewing its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidence as the most important element of a couple?s behaviour. It was this more complex context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication which affected premarital relationships most.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part two of the book Szreter and Fisher?s attention turns to the meanings of love in courtship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage. Part of this debate involves people?s responses to public discourse, in literature for example, about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?romantic? or ?pragmatic? marriages. Was marriage a search for sexual fulfilment or for stability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectability? Many saw courtship as a time for enjoyment before the serious hard work of life, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic life, began. Gracie Fields? mockery of the sentimental idea, illustrated in a song like )] TJ ET BT 487.952 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Walter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Walter, Lead Me to the Altar)] TJ ET BT 172.676 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1928\) struck a chord. This did not make the typical marriage reported by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Szreter and Fisher?s witnesses a bleak one, though they uncover the kinds of marital unhappiness one would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expect. Instead, marriages shaped by social and economic pressure, or parental expectations, could lead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep emotional bonds. This theme is developed further in a later chapter on attitudes to the body, in which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges that physical attractiveness was constructed mostly in terms of cleanliness and health, rather than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an eroticised body image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five features a significant comparison between the witnesses? descriptions of married life and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much-used model of the ?companionate marriage? characterised by intimacy and equality. Szreter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fisher?s paraphrase of this model as ?caring and sharing? is not a completely happy one, since their analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what people were actually doing quickly illustrates how these two categories blend until meaningful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction becomes difficult. There is however, a very valuable discussion of witnesses? real life models of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, none of which aspired directly to be ?companionate?. The amount of class similarity is interesting: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither class showed an interest in strict equality, both wanted each partner to make a ?fair? contribution by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilling roles that were strongly gendered. There was much negotiation and not a little conflict, and no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, contrary to what some contemporary literature claimed, that this was better managed by the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. It appears that middle-class wives received less domestic help from husbands than working-class ones, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as paid outside help was a more likely option.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the authors, whose hinterland is principally in the study of fertility and family limitation, part three is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core of the book, since it deals with the sexual behaviour of married couples. Szreter has elsewhere drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the importance for fertility of the way sex is constructed by couples: behaviour which the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.9637 583.8055 474.9557 595.6855 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7755 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographer and population historian interpret as oriented towards fertility control was sometimes more a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of particular ways of thinking about sex.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.980 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.980 780.819 m 281.972 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.972 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Chapter six, on birth control, sex and abstinence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides confirmation of the recent consensus on couples? choices in this area. The use of abstinence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrawal as birth control methods was persistent over time, but there were both class and geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences. Working-class couples in the northern location, Blackburn, were more likely to use withdrawal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas the acceptance of condoms was much greater in working-class Hertfordshire. In both locations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class couples were more likely to use barrier methods of contraception than working-class couples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting cultures which had more space for discussion about sexual preferences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For working-class couples, the practice of withdrawal was often seen as part of regarding sex as spontaneous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and natural rather than a subject for detached discussion. The sex experts of the family planning movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counselled against the use of withdrawal as a technique, it being much less reliable than barrier methods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as Szreter and Fisher know, part of the culture of naturalness and spontaneity was that many working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class couples were not aiming at a target family size but at family limitation in a more general sense. I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen evidence of this in the testimony of the pioneering Shipley midwife and family planning advisor Nellie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whiteley, who recalled of the 1920s that ?it wasn?t that they didn?t want any children, they wanted children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they only wanted one or two, maybe three, but they didn?t want great big families?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.956 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.956 569.235 m 467.948 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abstinence was practised to avoid pregnancy for a variety of reasons, this time, interestingly, with no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked class difference in frequency. Scholars including Hera Cook and Wally Seccombe have commented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on how abstinence was liable to produce marital tension. Their understanding was that while women had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main incentives to limit family size, reliance on abstinence gave men most of the control. It needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalled, however, that most couples preferred the husband to take the lead, so this was not automatically a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of disagreement. It seems to have been the middle-class couples in which abstinence was more often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the result of disagreement about who should take this responsibility. While Szreter and Fisher have certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found evidence of tension about abstinence, they also heard testimony that abstinence indicated ?the strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the loving relationship, in which both partners were sensitive to each other?s feelings and desires? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(235\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters eight and nine report how the oral history witnesses thought about their sexual relationships with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their partners, and how they reflected on the differences between the pre-1960s period and today in the light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their understandings of present-day sexual mores. It is here that the strength of their beliefs about sex as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something spontaneous and ?natural? is most clearly seen. Couples? emphasis on privacy, the respect paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female innocence, and a reluctance to discuss sex meant that many had no clear picture of what made up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?normal? sexual behaviour for a married couple. They invented it for themselves. Some had happier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences than others, and different experiences left witnesses with contrasting views of the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual revolution since the 1960s. Some couples did experience the frustrations and miseries which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experts assumed they would, and were more likely to say: ?I would?ve been more adventurous if I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young now? \(p. 377\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Others found great pleasure within a culture of privacy and described their experiences as natural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholesome. Some of these, when they came to think about modern Britain, moved beyond well-worn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative discourses about promiscuity. There was sympathy for modern women who, in the witnesses? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, were under greater pressure for unwelcome sex \(p. 364\). Some said too that the availability of so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information and imagery about sex removed some of the mystery and excitement, a view consistent with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques that claim sex, like so much else, is in this way turned into a commodity. Harry Cocks, in a recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review, cautions against letting this recovery of positive assessments about pre-1960s cultures turn into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nostalgic critique of the liberated present, without suggesting Szreter and Fisher have done this.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.956 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.956 134.067 m 506.948 134.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 506.948 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I agree: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in treating their sources with a proper respect, with all their varied viewpoints, they have not tried to replace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one simple paradigm with another but to do something more interesting and nuanced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result is a well-balanced one, but I was inclined to think that in one area Szreter and Fisher underplayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the criticism which their witnesses voiced for past attitudes. While they often acknowledge the difficulty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many had in talking about sex, their own evidence seems to me to suggest that embarrassment was a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.9797 781.1335 281.9717 793.0135 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 453.9557 569.5495 467.9477 581.4295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.9557 134.3815 506.9477 146.2615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8195 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stronger factor in this than they acknowledge \(pp. 348; 368?9, 373?4\). The broad seam of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarrassment in 20th-century British comedy, for example, suggests that embarrassment was an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence restraining many people from putting ideas into words. Perhaps Szreter and Fisher?s positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language about couples and privacy gives insufficient emphasis to this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not all historians are equally enthusiastic about oral history. In )] TJ ET BT 338.984 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex Before the Sexual Revolution)] TJ ET BT 498.284 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( we see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fine example of what it can achieve. There would be no other way of unlocking the sort of evidence which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bears on the big questions of family formation, gender roles and the formation of identities which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined here. 50 people were interviewed in Blackburn, 38 in Hertfordshire, all born between 1901 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1931 and all of whom had been married. The authors made a check that their experiences of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation were not untypical of wider populations. Critics of oral history have a tendency to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representativeness in a way which is not employed when narrative evidence from official or elite sources is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being examined: Szreter and Fisher are statistically informed scholars who are well aware of the limits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what can be claimed for their materials. What is offered here is a rich seam of testimony from a group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people whose characteristics are carefully tabulated. An attempt to match the characteristics of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population in detail, next to impossible in any case, is superfluous. Szreter and Fisher also confine statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of their material to simple frequency analysis, since the sample is too small to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correlations, for example. The heart of this work is not in the numbers but in the sensitive interpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they offer for the words they have captured.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The position of this book in the specialist historiography will be secure for some time to come. Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press have done the wider reading public a service in making this accessible account available in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paperback. Those who study and teach 20th-century British history will find it the obvious starting point for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking about married sexual life, combining as it does a compelling argument with a wealth of reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the secondary literature. )] TJ ET BT 152.648 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sex and the Sexual Revolution)] TJ ET BT 297.956 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is also that unusual thing, a history book which earns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the respect of the profession and appeals to the intelligent reader beyond academia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Fisher, '''She was quite satisfied with the arrangements I made": gender and birth control in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, 1920-1950', )] TJ ET BT 163.508 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 245.504 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 169 \(2000\), 161-93; )] TJ ET BT 350.828 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birth Control, Sex and Marriage in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain, 1918?1960 )] TJ ET BT 161.024 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.672 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.672 349.155 m 290.660 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Szreter, ?Theories and heuristics: how best to approach the study of historic fertility declines??, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Social Research)] TJ ET BT 193.340 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 36, 2 \(2011\), 65?98 \(here at pp. 81?3\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.296 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.296 320.643 m 435.284 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Atkinson, ?Cultural causes of the nineteenth-century fertility decline: a study of three Yorkshire )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns?, <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.780 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eprints.hud.ac.uk/10290/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.780 292.131 m 258.452 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.452 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 275.444 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 16 November 2011], pp. 34-35.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.828 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.828 292.131 m 539.816 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harry Cocks, ??Oh, it was different then?. Marriage, sexuality and the body before the sixties?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century British History)] TJ ET BT 227.696 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22, 1 \(2011\), 114?19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.016 263.619 m 391.004 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/mar/12/sexual-revolution-england-szreter-fisher-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 182.595 m 492.932 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 495.932 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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