%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416142559+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416142559+01'00') /Title (Das SS-Helferinnenkorps: Ausbildung, Einsatz und Entnazifizierung der weiblichen Angehrigen der Waffen-SS 1942-1949) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4044 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Das SS-Helferinnenkorps: Ausbildung, Einsatz und )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Entnazifizierung der weiblichen Angehrigen der Waffen-SS 1942-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.553 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1949)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The SS-Helferinnenkorps, the women who volunteered to support the SS, and who formed a female Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite, have to date been the subject of minimal research. Until now, very little was known about these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, where they came from, why they volunteered, how they were trained, where they worked, and what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became of them after the war. Until now, because Jutta Mhlenberg seeks to redress this balance and answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those questions in her 576-page tome on the subject. This hefty volume extensively covers everything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone would ever want to know about the SS-Helferinnenkorps ? and more. Mhlenberg takes the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a journey from recruitment to training to employment to de-Nazification, and uses an array of detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples to bring the facts to life and to give an identity to these women who have scarcely appeared on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radar of Holocaust literature. Mhlenberg?s biographical and statistical study reconstructs the SS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helferinnenkorps, using numerous sources from a variety of archives. She builds upon the \(limited\) existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research to reveal why so many women wanted to become SS-Helferinnen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The initial inspiration for Mhlenberg?s research was a photograph album given to the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust Memorial Museum in 2007.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.340 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.340 60.345 m 234.332 60.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 234.332 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The album had belonged to Karl Hcker, the adjutant to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1183)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 December, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jutta Mhlenberg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9783868542394)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.07)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(576pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamburger Edition)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamburg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Century)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.3397 60.6595 234.3317 72.5395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7282 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp. Some of the photographs in the album showed members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the SS-Helferinnenkorps during their free time, in the vicinity of the concentration and death camp. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs, showing the women, laughing, and in their uniform, demonstrate firstly that women were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in the National Socialist systematic extermination policies than has often been assumed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondly, displays the disconcerting juxtaposition between those extermination policies in action, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefree leisure time of those involved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite Mhlenberg?s extensive research, it is still not known exactly how many women served the Nazis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war, although she gives approximate figures; the Wehrmacht \(German Armed Forces, made up of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Army, Air Force and Navy\) was supported by one female helper to around every 20 soldiers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of these worked in the communications service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a thorough review of the other literature that touches upon this topic, Mhlenberg notes that none of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the research looks into the motivations of these women, what they knew of the crimes and acts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extermination committed by the Nazis, or whether the women supported these acts, although, as she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges, Franka Maubach?s recent book does touch on some of these themes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.928 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.928 585.747 m 450.920 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 450.920 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mhlenberg tackles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these and many more questions, looking at why the SS formed an SS-Helferinnenkorps, the tasks and goals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the women were given, where they worked, how they were connected to the SS system, and what happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to them after the war. A mammoth task, but one which is necessary, given how little is currently known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about these women and the role they played. Mhlenberg concludes her review of the historiography noting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is surprising that a monograph on the SS-Helferinnenkorps has not yet been completed, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are extensive archives readily available. Neatly and succinctly, she demonstrates the vital contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her book will make to the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mhlenberg goes on to present her primary sources, which come from 15 archives, and the published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources which she uses. The documents of the former Berlin Documentation Center \(now housed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bundesarchiv in Berlin\), including Nazi party membership cards and personnel files, are key to her research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as are the application forms of those who applied to become SS-Helferinnen, which Mhlenberg assesses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail. These forms form the basis of her statistical analysis of the SS-Helferinnen in a later chapter, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute to her knowledge of their motivations for volunteering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not actually known who first had the idea of a school to train the women who would become SS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helferinnen, but Himmler always wanted to have schools to instruct women, and had previously mooted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of Frauenhochschulen fr Weisheit und Kultur [Women?s high school for wisdom and culture]. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plans for the founding of the SS-Helferinnen school began in early 1942, on the personal initiative of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chief of Telecommunications, Ernst Sachs. The ever-increasing territorial expansion of the Third Reich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in a need for personnel in the communication service, and so the Weibliches Nachrichtenkorps des )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SS [female communication corps of the SS] was established. These women would replace men, who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then be free to fight at the front. It was hoped these women would become a new female trained elite. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same strict racial criteria placed on those who wished to be the wife of an SS-man was applied to those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to become SS-Helferinnen; for that reason, the wives, sisters and daughters of SS-men were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to apply.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Weibliches Nachrichtenkorps was established in July 1918, and the women were trained to operate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radios, telegraphs and telephones so that they could replace men in the communication corps. It was inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by, according to Ursula von Gersdorff, an English project, which used female motorcyclists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.272 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.272 164.835 m 491.264 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 491.264 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In 1943, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weibliches Nachrichtenkorps, which had been established under Himmler, changed its name to the SS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helferinnenkorps. According to Mhlenberg, a Finnish female voluntary organisation was the model for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SS-Helferinnenkorps. ?Lotta Svrd? had been established in 1921 to relieve men who could then go to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front and fight. The women helped protect their homeland and strengthened the will of the people and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing and able to replace men in any position. This inspired the \(third\) Commandant of the SS-Helferinnen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school, Karl Mutschler, who expanded the remit of the SS-Helferinnen to extend beyond communications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks. It is possible that both Gersdorff and Mhlenberg are correct, but perhaps greater clarity is needed.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.9277 586.0615 450.9197 597.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.2717 165.1495 491.2637 177.0295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7006 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Applicants to the SS-Helferinnen school had to be aged between 17?30 \(although this was later extended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35\) and at least 1.65 m tall \(later this was reduced to 1.58 m\). They had to be recommended by either an SS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man, a Bund Deutsche Mdel leader \(female equivalent of the Hitler Youth\), or by a leader in the NS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frauenschaft, the National Socialist Women?s Organisation. The applicants? reasons for applying varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from professional to familial to personal to political. Mhlenberg gives examples to support each of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different motivations. A rather interesting example is that of Anneliese D., who volunteered as a birthday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present to her father. As an SS man himself, it was his wish that his two daughters became involved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SS as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The selection procedure involved the completion of a detailed application form which required 15 different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents, an extensive written examination, a racial examination and a medical examination. The written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exam took place at the local SS Office, and tested spelling, dictation, general knowledge and ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge. If the applicants passed these initial tests, they would receive a call-up. Sometimes it would take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months between applying and being called up, either due to bureaucracy, or occasionally as a consequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of personal situations, for instance with bosses refusing to release their employees. The quickest call-up time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was half a day after submitting an application; the longest was 749 days!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mhlenberg analyses the applications in detail ? based on the available evidence ? to determine where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicants came from and what their backgrounds were. The average age of applicants was 20 years old. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youngest applicant was 16 years old, the oldest 42 ? and her application was received favourably, probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because she was Princess Ingeborg Alix, and was recommended for the position by her brother-in-law Prince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Josias of Waldeck and Pyrmont, who was held in high esteem by the SS. Princess Alix went on to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SS-Helferinnen leader. Of the applicants for whom Mhlenberg had data, 55 per cent had never lived away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from home before. Only 14 per cent had a high school education, 25 per cent had a middle school education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 61 per cent had completed eight years of elementary school. However, this was higher than the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(average for women at the time: in 1936, while 91 per cent of girls had completed elementary school, only 3 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent completed middle school and only 6 per cent had completed high school. 42 per cent of fathers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicants were members of the Nazi party, 7 per cent were in the SS, and 5 per cent in the SA. Mhlenberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes her statistical analysis by stating that the applicants were a heterogeneous group who had a higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affinity for National Socialism than their peers, and that they saw the possibility of social ascent through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming a SS-Helferin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The school itself consisted of a combination of existing and new buildings. The new buildings were built by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration camp prisoners from nearby Natzweiler-Strutthof, which was officially opened in May 1941. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the initial building work was finished, the prisoners continued to maintain the premises. The SS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helferinnen knew about the concentration camp and the prisoners, as they saw them daily. Some even saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them being beaten. Five SS-Helferinnen worked in the concentration camp as radio operators once they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completed their training, and in total 190 SS-Helferinnen had tasks which, at one time or another, took them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a concentration, extermination or satellite camp)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic training course which all girls undertook lasted eight weeks. Each morning the girls would rise at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.30am \(although on Sundays they were allowed a lie-in until 8am\) and they would begin their day with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport, dormitory cleaning and raising the flag. Only then, at 7.30am, would they receive their breakfast and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would classes begin. On one of the last days of their training the women would take an oath committing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to the service, and then they would begin specialised training, which lasted between six and 24 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeks. Parallel to the specialised classes, which could be radio operations or telephone operations \(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example\), collective classes in singing, sport, mother schooling \(which involved cooking, sewing, gardening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pet care\), first aid, literature and ideology took place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mhlenberg astutely uses the SS-Helferinnen as a window to look at how women in Germany were required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to act. The SS-Helferinnen were expected to behave impeccably and were, for example, forbidden from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smoking. This was driven by Himmler?s belief that all women who smoked were ideologically unreliable. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the girls did not maintain the good reputation expected of them, it was grounds for dismissal. From a sample )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7115 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 2,765 women who received a call-up, 22 per cent were dismissed; 65 per cent of these were dismissed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during their basic training, 9 per cent during specialised training, and 26 per cent from the positions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service. There were many specific reasons for their dismissal which Mhlenberg details; some were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed because of ideological differences, others due to personal reasons \(sometimes girls requested their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own dismissal\), women left when they discovered that they were pregnant and some were dismissed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health reasons. As Mhlenberg gives reason after reason for their dismissal, and each reason is illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an example or two, there is a danger that this becomes rather list-like. To combat this, Mhlenberg?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples are frequently interesting and prevent this section from becoming a dull read. For example, six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls were thrown out basic training because of the theft of items including soap, cigarettes, gloves and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handkerchief, from their comrades. Other girls were dismissed when it was discovered that they were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of a gonorrhoea infection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From February 1943 the first SS-Helferinnen were sent out from the school, to positions all over the Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reich and occupied Europe, to begin their service. In addition to replacing men, the long-term aim for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SS-Helferinnen was for them to replace all female civilian employees in the service of the Reichsfhrer; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the SS-Helferinnen had been trained in ideology, they were deemed more suitable and reliable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mhlenberg presents a list of the various departments the women went to: almost every main office of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reichsfhrer SS. Some SS-Helferinnen were sent to the administrative offices of concentration camps. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of the working areas of the SS-Helferinnen was the communication corps; three-quarters of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assignments were carried out as radio, telephone, or telex operators. As the Allies closed in, the SS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helferinnen found themselves in precarious positions. When the school was evacuated, many SS-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helferinnen had to leave their belongings behind; those women who were in the local hospital at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were themselves left behind. Other SS-Helferinnen found themselves stuck in what became Allied territory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and these women were interned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mhlenberg is very careful not to generalise and tar all the SS-Helferinnen with the same brush. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all these women were a part of the bureaucratic staff, and were ?Mittterinnen, Zuschauerinnen und zum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Teil ? auch Zeuginnen von Gewaltttigkeiten? [accomplices, spectators and sometimes even witnesses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence] \(p. 416\), she notes that each woman still had individual responsibility over what she did, saw and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knew, and it would be very difficult to identify the individual responsibilities of each SS-Helferin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mhlenberg focuses on de-Nazification in the American sector, although the British zone is also discussed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A detailed report was drawn up by the Americans about the school, indicating how the women of the school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be dealt with; they were to be automatically detained. Although many were arrested and held in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison camps, it is not possible to give exact figures. Mhlenberg states that, for example, 700 women \(out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a total of 9000 people\) were interned in one particular British Civil Internment camp in December 1945, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is unknown how many of these were SS-Helferinnen. In later years, the SS-Helferinnen had to go through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the de-Nazification process. Within each tribunal it was disputed whether these women were members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal SS organization. As a consequence, there were many different and conflicting decisions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual proceedings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite her acknowledgement of the varying degrees of individual responsibility, Mhlenberg concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the guilt of the former SS-Helferinnen lies in their voluntary participation in the bureaucratic apparatus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the SS. She then gives short biographies of the leaders of the SS-Helferinnen, the commandants of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school, and those SS-Helferinnen in Auschwitz. There follows a selection of primary documentation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the )] TJ ET BT 100.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dienstordnung fr SS-Helferinnen)] TJ ET BT 265.340 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [service regulations for SS-female helpers] and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vorlufige Einsatzordnung fr SS-Helferinnen)] TJ ET BT 257.684 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [Initial Operational Orders for SS-Helpers]. Many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents follow, allowing an insight into the sources Mhlenberg had at her disposal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is the definitive guide to SS-Helferinnen. Mhlenberg has provided an admirable study which will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve as a foundation for further research into, and comparisons with, other groups of women who supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nazis. While Mhlenberg?s extensive use of sources, both primary and secondary, detailed examples and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical analysis make this a hefty book, it also makes it a thoroughly worthwhile read.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 3104 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The photograph album can be viewed online here: <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/ssalbum/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 729.555 m 336.044 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.044 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 353.036 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 5 December 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.080 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.080 729.555 m 558.068 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franka Maubach, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Stellung Haltung: Kriegserfahrungen und Lebensgeschichten von )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wehrmachthelferinnen)] TJ ET BT 173.996 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gttingen, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.988 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.988 701.043 m 319.976 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ursula von Gersdorff, )] TJ ET BT 172.652 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frauen im Kriegsdienst )] TJ ET BT 289.652 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stuttgart, 1969\) p. 31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.984 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.984 686.787 m 452.972 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is also available as eBook for 20,- EUR, ISBN 978-3-86854-500-5 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 621.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.his-online.de/verlag/programm/detailseite/publikationen/das-s...)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 620.019 m 398.996 620.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.996 621.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 415.988 621.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 604.687 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 586.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 586.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1183)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 585.513 m 328.316 585.513 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 560.536 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7839)] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/ssalbum/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.his-online.de/verlag/programm/detailseite/publikationen/das-ss-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helferinnenkorps.html?sms_his_publikationen[backPID]=1170&sms_his_publikationen[medium]=1&cHash=c01b7add45938bcb24dd43438121c7be)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 729.8695 336.0437 741.7495 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/ssalbum/) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.0797 729.8695 558.0677 741.7495 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.9877 701.3575 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