%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 34 0 R 51 0 R 61 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930063246+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930063246+01'00') /Title (Visualizing China: China 1850-1950) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 6474 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Visualizing China: China 1850-1950)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is perhaps less true today than it was a decade ago that ?an enormous number of early photographs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China lie largely ignored or unknown?, as Regine Thiriez, one of the pioneers of the field who has spent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many years collecting and studying scattered and often very small albums, wrote in 1999.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.288 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.288 343.209 m 478.280 343.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.280 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( During the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two decades the so-called ?pictorial turn? in the humanities \(a term coined by W. J. T. Mitchell\) has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased historians? awareness of the wealth and value of visual sources, including historical photographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering a wide range of motives and issues, from the highly public and political to the most intimate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday aspects of life. In China in particular the interest in the latter has found expression in the highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful magazine )] TJ ET BT 135.320 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lao zhaopian)] TJ ET BT 200.996 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?Old photographs?\) launched in 1996, and also in an anarchically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing supply of historical photographs posted on the internet on all kinds of websites and blogs. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased interest, together with new technological possibilities, has boosted the search for long-neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image archives and the development of repositories and databases to make them more widely available, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly but not exclusively by major national and research libraries, such as the British Library?s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.624 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Images )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.624 215.079 m 538.280 215.079 l S BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Online)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 200.823 m 66.680 200.823 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 69.680 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 85.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Harvard University Library?s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.972 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Visual Information Access platform)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.972 200.649 m 418.940 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.940 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 435.932 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources such as the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.984 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hedda Morrison Photographs of China, 1933?1946)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.984 186.567 m 408.992 186.567 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.992 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 427.328 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time a large number of smaller specialized archives have been made available online. Dr T. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Ciolek has compiled a list of such websites of historical photographs related to Asian and Pacific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies \(now discontinued\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.344 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.344 131.625 m 182.336 131.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.336 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the field of East Asian Studies one of the most successful of the projects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that hope to present image databases \(though not exclusively photographs in this case\) in a way to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them fit for educational purposes is MIT?s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.652 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visualizing Cultures)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.652 103.287 m 340.004 103.287 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.004 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 358.340 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The approach taken here is to present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and analyze images in the form of visual narratives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A thematically more specialized project is Christian Henriot?s comprehensive )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.620 63.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Virtual Shanghai: Shanghai )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.620 62.775 m 549.296 62.775 l S BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Space in Time)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 48.519 m 136.340 48.519 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.340 49.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 154.676 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( website produced at the Institut d?Asie Orientale in Lyons. It is broader in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1185)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Bickers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Bristol)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bristol)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrea Janku)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.2877 343.5235 478.2797 355.4035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.6237 215.2195 538.2797 227.0995 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://imagesonline.bl.uk/?service=page&action=show_home_page&language=en) >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 200.9635 66.6797 212.8435 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://imagesonline.bl.uk/?service=page&action=show_home_page&language=en) >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.9717 200.9635 418.9397 212.8435 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://via.lib.harvard.edu/via/deliver/advancedsearch?_collection=via) >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.9837 186.7075 408.9917 198.5875 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/harvard-yenching/collections/morrison/) >> endobj 25 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.3437 131.9395 182.3357 143.8195 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.6517 103.4275 340.0037 115.3075 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/home/index.html) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.6197 62.9155 549.2957 74.7955 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.virtualshanghai.net/) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 48.6595 136.3397 60.5395 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.virtualshanghai.net/) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 9010 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that alongside photographs it also comprises maps and texts, in an effort to produce a comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(database on the history of Shanghai, and has been incorporated into a new portal called )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.264 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Virtual Cities )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.264 780.993 m 544.280 780.993 l S BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Project)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.737 m 69.344 766.737 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 72.344 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 87.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which brings it together with similar projects on Beijing, Saigon, Suzhou, Tianjin, Wuhan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Xi?an, some of which are still in the ?under construction? phase. In what appears to be an interlocking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of websites some of these projects are further linked to a new portal called )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.256 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Visual Cultures in East )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.256 738.051 m 550.256 738.051 l S BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.795 m 56.012 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 59.012 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 73.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, also under the aegis of the Institut d?Asie Orientale in Lyons. Robert Bicker?s \(University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bristol\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.688 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Photographs of China)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.688 709.713 m 232.040 709.713 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.040 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 250.376 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( website, started in 2006, was produced in collaboration with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lyons Institute. It has now also become part of the )] TJ ET BT 297.980 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visual Cultures in Asia)] TJ ET BT 409.664 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( portal.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visualizing China)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 669.201 m 120.368 669.201 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.368 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 144.704 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a spin-off of the )] TJ ET BT 238.688 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Photographs of China)] TJ ET BT 397.040 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( website, largely building on and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further developing the same image database that now comprises more than 8000 photographs taken in China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1850 and 1950 and digitised at the University of Bristol?s Department of Historical Studies under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aegis of Robert Bickers. It brings together scattered materials found in a large number of academic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial and private collections \(containing photographs from ?foreign businessmen, staff of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations in the Chinese treaty ports, missionaries, and officials of the Chinese Maritime Customs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Service?\) as well as many small and forgotten albums found in attics and trunks?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.960 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.960 583.491 m 439.952 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.952 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, )] TJ ET BT 492.932 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visualizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China)] TJ ET BT 63.356 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presents these images in a way that is decidedly different from all the resources referred to above. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first feature a visitor of the JISC-funded website is confronted with is a series of photographs accompanied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by questions: ?A rural woman with a toddler? ? Why should the photographer, the Shanghai detective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Armstrong, have been interested in this kind of motives? ?Who, where, exactly when?? are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions accompanying the next picture showing Mikhail Borodin together with Chiang Kai-shek and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others taken by the diplomat Fu Bingchang. ?Boys in uniform. Why?? ? What is the background of a group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of four young boys posing in smart uniforms for a studio photograph? Or simply ?Where and when?? ? Are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you able to provide information about this unidentified photograph of a guarded entrance to what appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a British installation in one of China?s treaty ports? This is a challenging project. The user is addressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as a passive consumer, but primarily as an active participator and contributor. Consequently the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent functions offered on the entry page include not only a search field, but also a sign-in link leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an OpenID login page, which gives access to ?My workbench,? and a feedback button. In addition every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field in the individual data sets allows for additional comments and suggestions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next feature on this page, entitled ?Republican China in transition?, gives an example of how one could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use this treasure trove. A highly concise introduction to Canton in the 1920s accompanies a selection of nine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs, which appear to be randomly chosen from among the different representations of life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican Canton contained in the database. They come from five different sources, to wit the Banister, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swire, Fu, Shakee/Shaji, and Hedgeland collections. A link leads to a somewhat larger collection of 36 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographs showing more images of ?Canton? from the period 1920?30. There is quite a lot to discover on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this page, and much of this is not immediately obvious. When, for example, the map link in the right margin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says that ?343 of all the results have been geo-tagged?, then this seems to refer to the overall number of hits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced by a search for ?Canton?. The smaller result that is being shown has been produced through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?refine by date? function, which in addition to a year scale also shows in a small graph the distribution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall results over the period from 1850 to 1950. The large majority are from 1920 to 1930, though there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are other spikes in 1911 and in 1907. Only through clicking ?show items without date information? does the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall result of 469 becomes visible. Another, albeit in my view less convincing, feature is the ?Explore? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function, which produces various links to other related materials within the database. This works reasonably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well with a limited number of links, but once there are lots of them \(which is mostly the case\) the graphical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation is not very satisfying. Once an image one would like to use further is identified, there is either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the option to download it or to add it to the workbench, from where sets of images can be exported into an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(html file. As opposed to many other databases which come with detailed explanations and instructions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobody ever reads, this website clearly follows a more intuitive approach, which in my view works well if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one is willing to spend some time playing with it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The self-stated aim of this project is ?Bringing Chinese history to life ?? ? the title of the third main feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the entry page, which very briefly explains what kinds of materials the database includes and links to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.2637 781.1335 544.2797 793.0135 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.virtualcities.fr/) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 69.3437 778.7575 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.virtualcities.fr/) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.2557 738.3655 550.2557 750.2455 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.vcea.net/index_en.php) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 724.1095 56.0117 735.9895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.vcea.net/index_en.php) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.6877 709.8535 232.0397 721.7335 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://chp.vcea.net/) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 669.3415 120.3677 681.2215 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://visualisingchina.net/) >> endobj 48 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.9597 583.8055 439.9517 595.6855 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 8751 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more information about the project partners and a project bloc. At this point I would appreciate more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about individual collections referred to in the individual datasets. Who were Banister and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hedgeland? What is the Shekee/Shaji collection? As it stands, further information is only available on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Photographs of China)] TJ ET BT 192.368 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( website for the more prominent collections, such as those of Fu Bingchang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and G. Warren Swire, or for those from major archives such as the Chinese Maritime Customs or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shanghai Municipal Police. It is left to the user to find out about the identities of all the other less well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known people who lent their names to the various ?sub-collections?. There may be reasons for this omission, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but these are not necessarily obvious. Notwithstanding these shortcomings, if one is prepared to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways to search and browse through the various collections, this resource has much to offer that may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed bring Chinese history to life. Even though the bulk of the material presents a Western perspective of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treaty port China and its environs \(the geo-tags attached to a large number of images unsurprisingly show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clusters along the east China coast and the Yangzi valley\), it is by far not limited to treaty port life. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western perspective has the advantage to show many aspects of everyday life and rural scenes Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photographers may not have been much interested in. This is clearly shown in the contrast between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images from the Fu Bingchang collection \(the only one from a Chinese photographer, it seems\), which tend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be of famous people \(mostly fellow politicians\) and the photographer?s personal acquaintances \(many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very interesting portraits\), and, for example, the Banister collection, which includes shots of a pedlar in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street, agricultural workers irrigating a rice field, and people busy building the foundations of a house. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Searches for terms such as ?women?, ?men?, and ?children?, or ?boats?, ?landscapes?, and ?irrigation? may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all open doors to new fields of enquiry ? not to mention the peculiar Western interest in photographs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese women?s feet. Particular years or places are other searches well worth exploring. A search for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year 1863 turned out one of the earliest photographs in this database \(from the Hughes collection\), which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows the Flower Pagoda in Canton. It is indeed interesting to contrast this image with a photo of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears to be another incarnation of the same pagoda in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.280 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wikipedia)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.280 467.187 m 372.272 467.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.272 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 395.264 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( entry on the ?Temple of the six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Banyan Trees?. Taken together, these images do indeed give access to life in China in the last two decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Qing dynasty and the republican period as we would hardly imagine it based on the majority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written accounts that tend to focus on the darker sides of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as indicated above, the project is much more ambitious than that, as it not only provides convenient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to major collections as well as to scattered and hitherto unseen and inaccessible private resources, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more importantly it hopes to do that in a way that utilizes the interactive possibilities of the internet. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editor?s own words, it ?offers cross-searching with related online collections to help avoid time-consuming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searches across multiple sites?. Among the most notable examples here would be Bicker?s own )] TJ ET BT 495.608 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Photographs of China)] TJ ET BT 140.696 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but also the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.028 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Robert Hart Collection)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.028 326.883 m 332.024 326.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.024 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 355.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at Queen?s University in Belfast and )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Needham's Photographs of Wartime China)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 312.627 m 275.144 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.144 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 298.136 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the Needham Research Institute in Cambridge. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover it is hoped that through the ?comment? function further information to, and comments on, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing records will be added by users, and also that eventually the scope of the database will be expanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly by incorporating or linking to other online resources. Future plans, as stated on the website, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include the possibility to add or link to ?other relevant resources by incorporating moderated online content )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which can then be browsed and searched through this single point of access \(for example images on Picasa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flickr, Internet Archive, personal libraries of related Google books, videos from YouTube or online )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals\)?. Thus )] TJ ET BT 115.004 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visualising China)] TJ ET BT 201.356 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( attempts to both use internet technology to link up existing resources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share knowledge in an intelligent way, and, through user logins and private workspaces \(?My workbench?\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to create individual learning and research environments. Obviously the success of all this will very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depend on how enthusiastically this resource will be embraced by researchers, students and teachers alike. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To make this happen may well need a vigorous effort to introduce well-designed units for use in school and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university classrooms \(perhaps along the lines of the )] TJ ET BT 289.316 142.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visualizing Cultures)] TJ ET BT 387.668 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( project, while maintaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more open approach of )] TJ ET BT 177.644 128.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visualising China)] TJ ET BT 263.996 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The design seems well conceived, and it is attractive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flexible enough to make this a very promising option for the further development of this website.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.539 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regine Thiriez, ?Creating a user?s guide on early photography in China?, p. 6 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 34.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://pnclink.org/annual/annual1999/1999pdf/thiriez.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 33.267 m 338.672 33.267 l S endstream endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.2797 467.5015 372.2717 479.3815 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_the_Six_Banyan_Trees) >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.0277 327.1975 332.0237 339.0775 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://visualisingchina.net/#hart-CollectionHart) >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 312.9415 275.1437 324.8215 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://visualisingchina.net/#needham-Collection) >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 33.5815 338.6717 45.4615 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://pnclink.org/annual/annual1999/1999pdf/thiriez.pdf) >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 3839 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET BT 84.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 11 December 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.052 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.052 795.075 m 295.040 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Asian & Pacific Studies - Historical Photographs)] TJ ET BT 302.024 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. T. Matthew Ciolek [)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/AsiaPages/Asian-Historical-Photographs.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 480.980 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 483.980 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15])] TJ ET BT 503.972 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11 December 2011].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.320 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.320 752.307 m 216.308 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A selection of these photographs has been exhibited in London, Bath and Durham under the title )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Picturing China 1870?1950: photographs from British collections?, and a booklet with the same title )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by Robert Bickers, Catherine Ladds, Jamie Carstairs and Yee Wah Foo was published in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series )] TJ ET BT 94.340 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chinese Maritime Customs Occasional Papers)] TJ ET BT 319.664 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(no.1\) in 2007.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.992 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.992 695.283 m 447.980 695.283 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1185)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 328.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7841)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] https://imagesonline.bl.uk/?service=page&action=show_home_page&language=en)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://via.lib.harvard.edu/via/deliver/advancedsearch?_collection=via)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://hcl.harvard.edu/libraries/harvard-yenching/collections/morrison/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/home/index.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.virtualshanghai.net/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.virtualcities.fr/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://www.vcea.net/index_en.php)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9] http://chp.vcea.net/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10] http://visualisingchina.net/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temple_of_the_Six_Banyan_Trees)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12] http://visualisingchina.net/#hart-CollectionHart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 448.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13] http://visualisingchina.net/#needham-Collection)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14] http://pnclink.org/annual/annual1999/1999pdf/thiriez.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 419.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15] http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/AsiaPages/Asian-Historical-Photographs.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.0517 795.3895 295.0397 807.2695 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 766.8775 480.9797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.ciolek.com/WWWVLPages/AsiaPages/Asian-Historical-Photographs.html) >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.3197 752.6215 216.3077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I 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