%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902160115+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902160115+01'00') /Title (American Property: A History of How, Why, and What We Own) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4841 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(American Property: A History of How, Why, and What We Own)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The slipperiness of just what Stuart Banner is addressing in )] TJ ET BT 321.992 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Property)] TJ ET BT 414.308 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one of his key themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Property has meant different things to different people in different times; ideas about it ?have always been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested and have always been in flux? \(p. 3\). Similar things could be said of sugar, coal, and cotton.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.604 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.604 257.673 m 537.596 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.596 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure and tone, Banner?s book fits quite comfortably into the genre of commodity history. It is anecdotal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular, and sometimes polemical. It alternates between specific interests, e.g. chapters on ?Owning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news? and ?Owning fame?, and broader reflections. But property, of course, is not exactly like sugar or coal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is an enduring and flexible concept, which bears a strong if not always strongly-determined relation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material world. In this sense, )] TJ ET BT 175.664 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Property)] TJ ET BT 267.980 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( might fit more happily alongside anthropologist David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graeber?s recent )] TJ ET BT 117.968 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Debt: The First 5,000 Years)] TJ ET BT 252.968 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Not altogether happily though. The singularity of Banner?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book raises some methodological questions to which I will return. Such questions might be inevitable when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an author chooses to take on such an ambitious and elusive subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.308 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.308 143.625 m 371.300 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Banner?s main achievement is to historicise that subject. We can easily make mistakes about the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property if we see it without historical perspective, or rather, if our historical perspective is insufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep. In the book?s first chapter, one of its most compelling, Banner makes this point through an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of intangible property. Most of us, if we haven?t much thought about it, might assume that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intangible property is a quite new invention. The world today is full of copyrights, trademarks and licenses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1189)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Banner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674058057)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(340pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Cutterham)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.6037 257.9875 537.5957 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.3077 143.9395 371.2997 155.8195 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7806 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to mention financial instruments, that we can?t touch or hold, but that we can buy, sell, and own like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other property. In the past, we imagine, things were different. One owned land, or a ship; gold coins, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(livestock. Gradually the progress of technology and institutions changed things: our property became less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Banner gives the lie to this story. He recounts the many types of nonphysical property held in pre-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England ? ?)] TJ ET BT 90.668 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(incorporeal hereditaments)] TJ ET BT 218.324 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? like ?)] TJ ET BT 252.980 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(advowsons)] TJ ET BT 305.648 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(?the right to appoint a minister to a church?\) and ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dignities)] TJ ET BT 75.356 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(?a property right in a noble title?\) ? and in the American colonies \(pp. 6-8\). Property included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things like public offices and the labour of slaves, servants, and employees. There was indeed a change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans? understanding of property in the 19th and 20th centuries. ?The transition?, argues Banner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?would not be from physical property to nonphysical property, but rather from one group of nonphysical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property rights to another? \(p. 13\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we suspected, though, technology and institutions are important. )] TJ ET BT 362.660 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Property)] TJ ET BT 454.976 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pays a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to developments like telegraphy, photography, radio and television. These breakthroughs changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only the way people communicated, but the kinds of things they could or might want to own. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Associated Press in the 19th century, for example, wanted to own not just the form of words used to write up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a news story, but the actual news itself, which was gathered by its reporters and sent via its cables. News )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be property, the AP argued, because otherwise competitors could take information and rewrite it for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, free-riding on the AP?s hard work and infrastructure. Property rights, and the legal protection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they implied, seemed necessary to maintain the right balance of incentives for business in the face of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing technology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, property could help protect individuals from business. When New York teenager Abigail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robeson had her photograph used on a poster for flour, a series of court cases resulted in a new law to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect a person?s property in her own name and image. This precedent, as Banner shows, developed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole world of image licensing and paid celebrity endorsements that we know today. Property rights, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when they seem to start out as non-economic protections, imply financial opportunities. Whether in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images, radio wavelengths, or body parts, there are always ways to make property pay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two historical questions emerge over the course of )] TJ ET BT 282.632 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Property)] TJ ET BT 374.948 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The first is, in the formation and use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of property ideas, what has been the relationship between law, politics, and rhetoric? Banner consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that such a relationship is central. Lawyers and judges are not the only actors; interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties, legislators, scholars, and the public all have important parts to play. ?What one thinks property )] TJ ET BT 529.952 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depends on what one wants property to )] TJ ET BT 224.984 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do)] TJ ET BT 236.984 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? that is, what goals one is trying to advance by thinking of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property in a particular way? \(p. 289\). That point, frequently restated at different moments in the book, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly crucial. But Banner?s account of property is more complex than the quotation implies. He is not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with actors? intentions and interests. ?Conventional notions of property did place substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints on the sorts of assertions that would have been deemed reasonable?, he writes. ?Property was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental value, but it was not so malleable that it could be put to any old use? \(p. 93\). In other words, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of property was embedded in discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Property as a rhetorical strategy appears early on, in the chapter on the development of intellectual property. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Proponents of longer or stronger [copyright] protections could cast themselves as upholders of property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights, and they could depict unauthorized users as pirates or thieves. When legislators are asked to choose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between property owners and thieves, the thieves will very rarely win? \(p. 28\). Of course, this defers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of where the rhetorical strength of property as a concept came from. But that is outside this book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remit.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 62.348 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 62.348 136.323 m 76.340 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 76.340 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The dynamic of law and politics, or of law and legislation on the other hand, is a recurring theme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does the state make property by making law, or is property an already-existing phenomenon that demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal protection? This problem not only involves the initial creation \(or final abolition\) of property. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involves changes to, and interpretations of, existing concepts of property. In some of the episodes recounted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, property is transformed by the interpretative power of the courts. The Supreme Court?s decision in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg v. Kelly)] TJ ET BT 119.672 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1970\), making welfare entitlements a form of property, is one example. That decision and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 62.3477 136.6375 76.3397 148.5175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7700 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others like it involved a degree of philosophical reasoning about the nature of property; as Banner discusses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the court?s thinking was influenced by the radical legal scholarship of Charles Reich, and his idea of ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new property? \(p. 224\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Changes in the concept of property did not always rest on judicial decisions. Abigail Robeson ended up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(losing her case against Franklin Flour Mills, but her public support was such that the New York legislature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a new law to uphold her claim. In other scenarios, the relationship between judiciary and legislature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more complex. It was through judicial decisions like that of )] TJ ET BT 344.648 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eaton v. Boston, Concord, and Montreal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Railroad)] TJ ET BT 76.688 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1872\) that, in the second half of the 19th century, property ?came to be understood as a bundle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights in a thing? rather than the thing itself \(p. 58\). But at the same time ?many states were amending their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutions to make this transformation more explicit? \(p. 64\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Law as interpreted by judges, and legislation as passed by politicians, had dynamic effects on each other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each was also subject to influence by scholarship and popular opinion. ?Of course?, Banner writes, ?judges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were motivated by more than their conception of property. The bundle-of-rights metaphor was surely a less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important cause of the shift [in judicial interpretation] than the fear ? one that judges were not shy about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressing ? that the nation would slide into socialism unless something was done to reinforce the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional right of property? \(pp. 69?70\). The same political reasoning applied to the idea of a ?natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right? to property \(p. 95\). )] TJ ET BT 158.996 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Property)] TJ ET BT 251.312 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contributes some powerful examples of this nexus between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, politics, and rhetoric.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second, related historical question is, how powerful or how significant has this changing concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property been? We might expect the whole onus of Banner?s project to lead him to overemphasise the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of property ideas. He seems rather to go the other way. There are moments, for example the remarks quoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above about the rhetoric of owners and thieves, when we are asked to take property?s power for granted. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Banner in fact frequently undermines that assumption. It?s not that property doesn?t matter, but that often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our ideas about it don?t seem to have had much effect on our practice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Judges and legislatures reached decisions, not by inquiring into the true nature of property, but by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering the practical consequences that would flow from a decision one way or the other? \(p. 93\). On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, ?conventional notions of property? did constrain such decisions. Such conventional notions, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, must have power. Banner suggests that the ?change in the relationship between government power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private property rights? between 1870 and 1940 was influenced by ?changes in the way Americans thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about property?. The latter change is ?a causal factor? in the former \(p. 94\). What is presumably meant here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that a shift in the normally-constricting ?conventional notions? allowed the shift in government?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to property to take place. Ideas here have a negative, but not a positive power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Charles Reich?s ?new property? idea, despite its impact on the )] TJ ET BT 388.304 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Goldberg)] TJ ET BT 434.300 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( decision, ?in practice ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had little effect on the way claimants experienced the welfare system ... In the end, the new property was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply not as powerful a tool as its proponents hoped or its opponents feared it would be? \(pp. 236?7\). And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when in 2005 a group of homeowners lost their case ? and hence, their homes ? to a coalition of developers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and local government, the public outrage meant that ?for a while people were talking about property rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than they had before, but when the moment passed it was not clear whether they had done much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make them stronger? \(p. 275\). Rarely does Banner discuss how conceptions of property influenced historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes. The burden of his narrative is fundamentally the other way around.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leaves us finally with methodology. What kind of history is )] TJ ET BT 346.676 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Property)] TJ ET BT 438.992 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Banner offers hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any clues. He writes that ?this book is about the ways in which answers to questions like [what is property] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have changed over time?. To me, this suggests more than an account of relevant court cases. It implies an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual history that would deal with the intersections between public, legal, and scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings. As we have seen, Banner frequently verges on this approach. A note to the introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that ?the book mostly stays at the level of practice, below the intellectual debates so well laid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in Gregory S. Alexander, )] TJ ET BT 176.324 68.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commodity and Propriety)] TJ ET BT 301.652 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ...? \(p. 295\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.972 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.972 67.299 m 376.964 67.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 376.964 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Banner does comment on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual debates. Since law is an intellectual pursuit, he can hardly avoid it. Some of his best chapters )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.9717 67.6135 376.9637 79.4935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7380 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal with these kinds of questions, from the ?bundle of rights? to ?the new property.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet )] TJ ET BT 54.344 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Property)] TJ ET BT 146.660 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not draw on resources that would have been helpful. It does not, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make use of the theories of discourse and conceptual change developed over many decades by Quentin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner, Terrence Ball, and others.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.644 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.644 740.307 m 215.636 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 215.636 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Neither, more surprisingly, does it refer to Richard Posner?s work, nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his opposite numbers in the Critical Legal Studies tradition, both of which speak to Banner?s overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic approach to law.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.648 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.648 711.795 m 178.640 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.640 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Banner offers no theoretical or analytical framework for his insights, and no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions other than those he began with: property is a human institution that changes over time. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hints towards some interesting historical questions, which I have tried to excavate and outline above, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without pausing to give them clear definition. Its four pages of introduction and three pages of conclusion do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scant justice to the impressive scholarship contained in the main chapters. These factors make )] TJ ET BT 487.604 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Property)] TJ ET BT 76.676 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a frustrating book, but perhaps an exciting starting point for further work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Abbott, )] TJ ET BT 151.676 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sugar: A Bittersweet History)] TJ ET BT 290.672 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Toronto, 2008\); Barbara Freese, )] TJ ET BT 454.964 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coal: A Human )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Jackson, TN, 2003\); Stephen Yafa, )] TJ ET BT 278.312 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cotton: A Revolutionary Fiber)] TJ ET BT 425.972 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 507.296 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 507.296 560.739 m 547.292 560.739 l S BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 546.483 m 78.008 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also worth mentioning that while all these books are transnational and comparative, Banner?s is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolutely American, except in its early references to English law. Attention to other property regimes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have helped to uncover what is ?American? about American property.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.600 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.600 503.715 m 485.588 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers interested in a more focused analysis of the rhetoric of property should see Carol M. Rose, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Property and Persuasion: Essays on the History, Theory, and Rhetoric of Ownership)] TJ ET BT 472.328 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boulder, CO, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 460.947 m 149.000 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory S. Alexander, )] TJ ET BT 175.652 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commodity and Propriety: Competing Vision of Property in American Legal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thought)] TJ ET BT 104.024 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 1997\); Alexander, whose influence is prevalent, is also thanked in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgements.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.996 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.996 418.179 m 212.984 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skinner?s theoretical essays are handily compiled in )] TJ ET BT 318.308 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vision of Politics, Volume I, Regarding Method)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2002\); see also )] TJ ET BT 202.328 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Theory and Conceptual Change)] TJ ET BT 400.328 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Terrence Ball, James Farr, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Russell Hanson \(Cambridge, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.664 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.664 375.411 m 310.652 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Posner, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic Analysis of Law)] TJ ET BT 271.340 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, MA, 1972\); Roberto Unger, )] TJ ET BT 455.660 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Critical Legal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies Movement)] TJ ET BT 151.664 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1983\); both strands themselves stem from 20th-century legal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 332.643 m 156.332 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 277.875 m 240.992 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 274.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 256.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 256.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1189)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 255.369 m 328.316 255.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7845)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=32895)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 201.6437 740.6215 215.6357 752.5015 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.6477 712.1095 178.6397 723.9895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 507.2957 561.0535 547.2917 572.9335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 546.7975 78.0077 558.6775 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.5997 504.0295 485.5877 515.9095 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 461.2615 148.9997 473.1415 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.9957 418.4935 212.9837 430.3735 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6637 375.7255 310.6517 387.6055 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 332.9575 156.3317 344.8375 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 278.1895 240.9917 290.0695 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=32895) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 255.6835 328.3157 267.5635 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1189) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000560 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000005549 00000 n 0000005658 00000 n 0000005768 00000 n 0000005877 00000 n 0000009438 00000 n 0000009566 00000 n 0000009650 00000 n 0000009679 00000 n 0000009807 00000 n 0000009843 00000 n 0000009872 00000 n 0000010000 00000 n 0000010036 00000 n 0000010120 00000 n 0000017979 00000 n 0000018009 00000 n 0000018135 00000 n 0000018171 00000 n 0000018255 00000 n 0000026008 00000 n 0000026038 00000 n 0000026164 00000 n 0000026200 00000 n 0000026354 00000 n 0000033787 00000 n 0000033817 00000 n 0000033945 00000 n 0000033981 00000 n 0000034011 00000 n 0000034139 00000 n 0000034175 00000 n 0000034303 00000 n 0000034358 00000 n 0000034484 00000 n 0000034539 00000 n 0000034667 00000 n 0000034722 00000 n 0000034849 00000 n 0000034904 00000 n 0000035032 00000 n 0000035087 00000 n 0000035215 00000 n 0000035270 00000 n 0000035398 00000 n 0000035453 00000 n 0000035580 00000 n 0000035681 00000 n 0000035809 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35905 %%EOF