%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150423232800+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150423232800+01'00') /Title (Remembering the Road to World War Two) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4170 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Remembering the Road to World War Two)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remembering the Road to World War Two )] TJ ET BT 255.332 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Finney \(a student of 20th-century international history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and theory, and collective memory\) writes an impressive and informative account, not of the origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Second World War, but of the way historians and others have remembered those origins. At the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time he describes the way in which historical debates about the origins of the war have been used to shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and promote national identity. In his account, Finney deals with the origins of the war in seven countries: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia, Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain, the United States of America and Japan. Each of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries is the focus of an interlinked, parallel case study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finney tells the reader in his introduction that his specific aim in writing the book is to bring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international historical writing on the subject into unwonted conversation with other bodies of work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity and collective memory, an ambition that might suggest to the reader that memory of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War is now receding into the dismal recesses of the past, were it not for the fact that he makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it clear later on in the book that this is not the case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Finney, it may be noted, memory and identity are intertwined. The core meaning of any individual or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group identity, namely a sense of sameness over time and space, is sustained by remembering; and what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered is correspondingly defined by the assumed identity, so that it can be said that memory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity are mutually constitutive. Collective memory, as distinct from individual and generational memory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1190)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Finney)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415230179)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Macfie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7348 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not based on the direct experience of individuals or groups of individuals, but rather on the memories of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?necessarily fictitious? collective ?whole? \(p. 15\). As such, it forms a social framework, an organizational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle that nationally-conscious individuals use to organize their national identity. \(Finney has a penchant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for using quotations from other people?s work to convey his thoughts. In this review I have generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored the distinction.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finney?s approach to the question of the origins of the Second World War, and the numerous and varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical interpretations to which it gave rise, is thoroughly postmodern in approach throughout, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains in his introduction, inspired by Hayden White?s historical theory that ?there is an inexpungeable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relativity in every representation of historical phenomena? \(p. 8\). History, that is to say, cannot produce a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single uncomplicated version of events, even if historians agree on the facts, because historical writing is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product not merely of empirical factors but also of context-grounded, aesthetic, ideological and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices. Secondly memory and identity, following the ?discursive? and ?linguistic? turns \(to both of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finney evidently subscribes\), are now seen to be socially constructed \(that is to say not natural\), mutually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted, highly selective, inscriptive rather than descriptive, partisan and ideological.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Finney reveals in his accounts of the historical debates taking place regarding the origins of the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, is that, in Russia, the debate was concerned mainly with attempts to justify and explain \(excuse\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin?s decision to abandon attempts to obtain collective security by means of a series of alliances and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements with anti-fascist powers, and opt instead for the conclusion of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 23 August )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939. According to Soviet historians, writing mainly at the direction of the state, this decision was justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by what Stalin saw as the appeasement policies of the western powers, which were intent on redirecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s aggression towards the east; and also by Stalin?s profound understandings of Marxist-Leninist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachings regarding history and the inherent contradictions of capitalism they revealed. It found its first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression in )] TJ ET BT 100.676 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Falsifiers of History,)] TJ ET BT 201.020 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a key text, jointly authored by Stalin himself, and first published in 1948. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was a work which broadly speaking provides the parameters, and even much of the phraseology, of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent Soviet accounts of the Pact, and even those of the post-Soviet period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin?s decision to outwit the ?Anglo-French war provocateurs? and conclude the Nazi- Soviet Pact was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, seen by official Russian historians as a wise and farsighted act of Soviet foreign policy, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthened Russia?s borders and defences and eventually made victory in ?the Great Patriotic War? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible \(p. 42\). Thereafter, Soviet official memory of the war advanced a simplified tale, aimed at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization of the past in the service of the present and the future. For four decades after 1945, such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of the war in academic historiography, popular culture and a host of public commemorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, became the regime?s crucial mnemonic technology for installing and securing a sense of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Soviet\) identity among the disparate peoples of the empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Germany, on the other hand, according to Finney, a variety of narrative strategies have been used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German historians to explain, explain away, sanitize and even justify, Germany?s part in the origination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second World War and the Nazi aggression that accompanied it. These strategies include the ideas that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler was a ?Satanic genius? and Nazism an aberration in German history; that Hitler?s policies were fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in accord with the traditional aims of German foreign policy, since 1871 at least; that Nazism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engendered by broader European trends, including the Enlightenment \(and its dreams of unattainable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happiness\), the French revolution, the pathology of modernism, European and American racialism, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwinism and even Italian Machiavellianism; and, finally, that Nazism should be seen as the more or less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable consequence of the inequities of the Versailles Treaty, the threat to Europe posed by Bolshevism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the economic collapse of 1929?31.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Finney, throughout the half century or so following the Second World War the strategies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed to negotiate the wartime past in Germany were in part also designed to fashion contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German national identity; whilst at the same time the struggle to define national identity affected the choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of strategies adopted. Thus, for instance, the making of Hitler personally responsible for the war and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewing of Nazism as an aberration in German history enabled the German people quickly to ?forget? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, and the atrocities that accompanied it, thereby facilitating the foundation and building of a democratic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7672 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Federal German Republic. \(Neo-Marxist critics of the FGR, on the other hand, looked for continuities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Republic and the Third Reich.\) Later, attempts in the 1980s to facilitate a strengthening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German national identity were accompanied by strategies designed, in part at least, to displace blame for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi aggression onto a mainly Russian \(Bolshevik\) enemy. \(According to this interpretation Germany?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the outbreak of the Second World War can, in part at least, be seen as pre-emptive\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Italy, historical debate was concerned mainly with the possible justification, or otherwise, of the Axis, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pact of Friendship and Alliance formed between Germany and Italy on 22 May 1939. According to Finney, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the beginning many contemporary observers doubted if there was much political substance behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborate facade of propaganda and bluster that accompanied the pact. Later, three principal interpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Mussolini?s diplomacy emerged: that Mussolini?s diplomacy was made up mainly of this kind of bluster; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was designed to disguise a shrewd )] TJ ET BT 232.664 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik )] TJ ET BT 285.668 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy of cynical expansionism; and that it was inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a fanatical ideology, in which Mussolini and many of his followers actually believed. It is these three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting interpretations that have been at the heart of Italian and other historiographical debates regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini ever since. In Italy, in the period immediately following the end of the war, a consensus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed that Mussolini had indeed been no more than an artist of propaganda, an interpretation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained a range of anti-Fascist positions and suited fellow travellers wishing to elide critical interrogation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the recent past. But over time, as scholarship became more sophisticated, interpretations came to focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather on how far either )] TJ ET BT 150.308 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 200.312 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or ideology should be seen as the real driving force of Italian fascism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advocates of the r)] TJ ET BT 122.324 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ealpolitik)] TJ ET BT 167.660 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( position viewed Mussolini as a moderate expansionist, pursuing goals broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in line with the long term traditions of the Italian state. Advocates of the ideological position, in contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed him as incarnating a rupture with the national past, inspired by a novel revolutionary ideology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapacious ambition. Scholarship on both sides of the argument throughout drew inspiration and energy from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the disputatious course of Italian politics, and directly contributed to the contestation of politics, memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and national identity, not least because such debates were given extensive coverage in the print media and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In France, where defeat in war precipitated not only the demise of the Third Republic but also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauguration of a collaborationist \(Vichy\) regime, attention was concentrated mainly on the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(paradigm\) of decadence. According to this view, the Third Republic was rotten to the core, the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an endemic moral decay. This explanation dominated French historiographical debate for at least three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, not least because it served the interests of a series of successive regimes, starting with Vichy, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wished to use the concept of decadence as a foil to justify the construction of a new political system. But in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1970s French historians began to advance a series of alternative interpretations of the war, These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included new views of the constraints that French leaders laboured under in the 1930s, in particular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes of the British and the Americans; radical rewritings of the history of the Vichy regime, seen now, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not as an aberration in French history, but as an authentically French ideological project; and new views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the true nature and extent of collaboration and resistance ? though it has to be said that the paradigm of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decadence never entirely disappeared.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Finney, in the 1970s a defence of the decadence syndrome was seen as being tantamount to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of Gaullism and the established verities of French national identity. Challenging it was equivalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either to a recognition of the rising forces of fragmentation or a candid display of auto-interrogation. Later, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories and memories of the Second World War inevitably played an important part in attempts to rebuild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French national pride, secure the election of French presidential candidates, and deal with some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems created by decolonisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Britain, debates regarding the road to World War Two centred on the validity and effectiveness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain?s policy of appeasement, symbolized by the Munich agreement of 1938 Had Chamberlain been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a victim of his government?s own propaganda, credulously trusting in the pledged word of the Fhrer? Was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he criminally duplicitous in asserting the need to prepare for war whilst refusing to take the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military and diplomatic steps? Or did events rather reveal his strategic sagacity in leading a nation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited options, owing to its peculiar military, economic and political circumstances? On these questions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Finney, despite the processing of masses of pertinent government and other documents, British )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have failed to arrive at any settled agreement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The initial response of British historians and commentators to the failure of Chamberlain?s policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeasement, symbolized by the anonymous )] TJ ET BT 251.324 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guilty Men)] TJ ET BT 305.648 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1940\), was one of unqualified condemnation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy was seen as being an unmitigated disaster and the ?guilty men?, led by Chamberlain and Baldwin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were responsible. Then, in the 1960s, historians, increasingly aware of the nature and extent of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national decline, began to reassess their position, showing an increasing awareness of the constraints under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Chamberlain had laboured and an increasing admiration for his skill and determination, a tendency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued in the following decades. Though surprisingly, in the 1990s, there emerged a ?self-styled counter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist interpretation?, that reaffirmed, albeit with refinements, the orthodox position \(p. 207\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the Second World War and the half-century or so following, the debate regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain?s policy of appeasement and the origins of the war played an important part in the shaping of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity. Amidst the hazardous exigencies of 1940, the nation united around a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the failed compromises of appeasement. Later, the war, construed now as ?the People?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War?, formed the rhetorical binding of a post-war consensus, a consensus that persisted until the 1960s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when, in the context of economic decline and geopolitical contraction, it came under increasing challenge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from both the left and the right. Thatcherism also later challenged the concept of consensus, supposedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted by the war, emphasizing rather the alternative Churchillian myth of proud, national \(imperial\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and individual responsibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the US, historical debate regarding the origins of the Second World War was mainly concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficacy of Roosevelt?s foreign policy up to 1941, and the related questions of America?s national identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its place in the world. Anti-interventionists in the US wished to build up America?s national defences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stay out of the European war, whilst interventionists, led by Roosevelt, pursued a policy almost certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the circumstances to lead to war. After the war, during which debate was largely suspended, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy was resumed as historians and politicians argued about the extent of American intervention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world in the context of the Cold War. As Finney puts it, ?the terms of the original political debate were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundational for the post-war historiographical treatments? \(p. 232\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Finney, the positions of the two schools of American thought can, in broad terms, be easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarized. The ?traditionalists? ? a group of traditionalist diplomatic historians who enjoyed formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with the state, and who were in consequence inclined to recognize the necessity of an activist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy ? located the fundamental causes of the war in developments external to the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and specifically in the ?extremely serious threats to American security and interests? posed by the Axis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers \(p. 232\). Faced with this rising menace, Roosevelt hoped to keep the country out of hostilities yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguard it by extending all aid short of war to victims of Axis aggression in Europe, and by containing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deterring the Japanese. The ?revisionists?, in contrast, emphasized internal factors and Roosevelt?s agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in explaining the road to war. The Axis powers did not constitute a genuine menace to the western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hemisphere, until ?shortsighted and provocative? American policies envenomed relations with them \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232\). Roosevelt entangled the United States with Nazi Germany through the extension of aid to Britain, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exerted so much pressure on the Japanese that their vital interests were ultimately threatened. Whether this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was by design or blunder was open to debate; in some variants, Roosevelt engineered conflict with Japan as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Asiatic ?back door? to war with the whole Axis, either in the service of preserving the British Empire or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing American economic expansion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emergence of these two narratives \(and similar explanations of the Pearl Harbour debate\) is according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some American historians no accident, since each drew on familiar, deep-rooted, narrative structures already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulating in American culture. The former grounded the story on a highly personalized and religiously-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tinged language of retribution, and the latter exemplified a penchant for conspiracy theory and a pervasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural narrative of backlash against the power-wielders in Washington. In the event, the ?traditionalist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation prevailed in the post-war historiographical debate and was enshrined in most college and high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school textbooks as the conventional wisdom.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7270 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surprisingly, according to Finney, American historians have struggled to identify and chart the vicissitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any American myth regarding a ?Great Patriotic War?, preferring instead to unpick the simplification, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanitization and romanticization of the war; though all agree that the Second World War was generally a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?good? war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Japan, it is widely believed that the initial response of the Japanese people to the events of the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War was one of relentless amnesia. But such a belief, according to Finney, is misplaced. War memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Japan has from the beginning been both varied and diverse, the site of acute contestation. Two sets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelated questions have divided Japanese opinion. The first concerns the nature of Japanese expansion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China and Southeast Asia. Should this be viewed as naked imperialist aggression, driven by a conviction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial superiority over Asian others that also justified the commission of atrocities? Or did Japan merely act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in much the same way as every other power in the brutal and chaotic circumstances of the 1930s, seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect its legitimate interests on the continent as they were threatened by rising Chinese nationalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist subversion and western economic protectionism? Was it even perhaps the case that the wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology of ?Asia for the Asians? underpinning the establishment of a ?Greater East Asia Co-prosperity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sphere? had real validity, with Japan?s leaders engaged in ?a genuinely moral campaign to liberate Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the oppressive Europeans and Americans, and to simultaneously create an impregnable bulwark against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rising tide of Communism? \(p. 267\)? Was the war, in other words, an integral part of a broad campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of aggression, launched as a desperate gamble to preserve the new Japanese empire in Asia, and expressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a pathological militarism produced by profound structural deformities in Japanese society? Or was it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragic accident, the result of disastrous misunderstandings between Japanese and American policy-makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could have been avoided by skilful diplomacy?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese answers to these questions have from the beginning been substantially influenced by the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation of Japan, the remarkable political, social, cultural and economic changes in Japanese society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which that occupation accomplished, the Cold War, during which Japan became one of America?s principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allies, the revival of Marxism, as a powerful explanatory tool of understanding, and the on-going struggle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese political parties to win and hold onto power. Foreign scholarship has similarly produced a variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of answers, influenced by similar factors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the uninitiated \(a group that probably includes myself\), Finney?s book reveals some startling facts. That, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to some Russian historians, Stalin?s preference had always been for an arrangement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and the promotion of an inter-capitalist war in the west. That, as one German historian believed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazism was not properly ?a chapter of German history? \(p. 79\); and that, as another believed, Hitler was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really a German. That in 1948 an alliance between conservative political elements in Italy and the Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church, encouraged by the unsubtle interference of America, secured the exclusion of the left from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. That, in France the memory of the defeat of 1940 has been progressively eclipsed by memories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of collaboration and the resistance. That the British Government viewed the conclusion of the Nazi-Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pact with equanimity, having largely discounted the value of a Soviet alliance. That America?s principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for going to war against Japan and Germany in 1941 may have been a defence of the free trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. And that Japan?s attack on America \(at Pearl Harbour\) may have been motivated, not by naked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialist aggression, but by a desire to protect its legitimate interests in Asia, threatened by the rising tide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Chinese nationalism, communist subversion and western economic protectionism. All these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities discussed by Finney in his book. Though he does not discuss \(or at least not very much\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question that really interests me, the question of whether Britain could have avoided the worst consequences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war by negotiating a necessarily humiliating )] TJ ET BT 280.652 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 330.656 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( agreement with Hitler sometime in 1939?40, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby redirecting Nazi aggression towards the east, doing to Russia/Stalin, in other words, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia/Stalin intended to do to it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusion, Finney reminds the reader that international history on the origins of the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War has throughout been ?imbricated? with wider discourses of collective memory and national identity. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the three Axis powers, for instance, international historians devised less then entirely candid explanations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their nation?s pre-war aggression, explanations that contributed to the reconstruction of broadly conservative )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7480 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts of national identity, while in Britain historians and policy makers, increasingly aware of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities of national decline in the 1960s ? a development that necessitated a new view of British national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity ? were accordingly persuaded to reassess their views of Chamberlain?s policy of appeasement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finney also concludes that historians of the origins of the war in the various countries concerned often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted in their histories narrative options that originated in the political and cultural debates of the 1930s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1940s, sometimes even adopting the actual ?story forms? in which those debates were preserved \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(305\). Therefore, he asserts, it can be said that the basic \(postmodern\) insight, that historians often operate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a prefigured field and deploy rather than generate emplotment, is sound. Moreover, in many instances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the narratives in play within contemporary political discourse were themselves but iterations of more general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emplotments already in circulation. Obvious examples include the ?triumph over alien forces? schematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative in Russia, and the ?decadence emplotment? in the French Third Republic. Defeated nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly often define their predicament in terms of common historiographical stereotypes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the myriad specifications of each case, it would be imprudent, Finney concedes, to make any broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-national generalizations about the role of collective national memory in the historiography of the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, it is notable how frequently turbulent crises in dominant perceptions of national identity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist terms in the historiography of the war have been accompanied by critical shifts in collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory. History, identity and memory, that is to say, are almost always intertwined, the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing political ?valence?. The realization that collective memory and history writing cannot be easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated offers a corrective to historian?s self-congratulatory delusion that disciplined scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily functions to counteract myth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The international history of the origins of the Second World War, Finney finally concludes, is to a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent constructed through the differential combining of a range of binary interpretative options: structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus agency; ideology versus )] TJ ET BT 186.656 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 236.660 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(/ national tradition; continuity versus)] TJ ET BT 416.996 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinuity; determinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus contingency; and conspiracy versus systemic failure. As for the revisionist turns that occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occur in the writing of international history, they often embody less a transformation of understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through new empirical discoveries, than a new methodological or interpretative shift in preference between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two such binaries; though it is not possible to generalize about the political valence of the two sides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Memory, in the context of international history, proves a difficult concept to handle, particularly collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory. Individual memory is based on experience \(I have myself some small individual memories of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war\), but collective memory \(an ?organizational principle? that circulates in society in the form of narratives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols and images\) is, as Finney said in his introduction, essentially fictitious, by which I presume he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means imaginary \(p. 15\). The notes Finney adds to each chapter are replete with references to individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory \(experience\). But in the text itself, for the most part, only collective memory appears, morphing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently into narrative, story, discourse and even myth. The potential reader should not, therefore, look to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remembering the Road to World War Two)] TJ ET BT 239.336 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for an account of the personal experiences of those who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in it. Rather he should look for the role of collective memory in the construction of politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and national identity, with each of which it is, as Finney shows in elaborate detail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indissolubly bound up. \(Does this mean, one wonders, that history, like collective memory, is also fictitious?\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Finney, then, national identity, like history, is deeply implicated in collective memory. Of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible views of nationality Finney considers in the introduction to his book ? that nations, once formed, are)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real communities of culture and power, or that that they are imagined communities, cultured constructions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and narratives, subject to endless exercises in manipulation by an elite ? he not surprisingly opts for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter. Thus national identity, like history and collective memory, is both fluid and unstable, the product of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never-ending process of becoming rather than a quality to be possessed or a state of being ? though, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some other cultural artifacts, national identity does command,)] TJ ET BT 333.980 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Finney makes clear, profound emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy and colossal sacrifice. The amount of sacrifice involved is, indeed, almost beyond belief.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finney makes great efforts in his book to give due prominence to the archival, cultural, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective factors that contributed to decision-making and the historical understanding of decision-making in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 4707 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the post-war period; and he makes similar efforts to relate these processes to the context of current political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural debates over national identity and collective memory. But it is remarkable how much of what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses continues to turn on the policies and decisions of the eight or nine supposedly ?great men? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, namely Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, de Gaulle, Chamberlain, Churchill, Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Tojo. International history remains, then, despite the best efforts of many international historians, still to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a surprising extent the history of ?great men?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finney?s account of the historiography of the origins of the Second World War leaves the reader in no doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, as he writes in his introduction, history is ?inexpungeably? relative \(p. 8\). Not only is the history he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes, with so much expertise, invariably partial, context-grounded, and ideologically driven, it is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost always prefigured, emplotted \(in literary form\), and trapped in a range of binary, interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(options, from which it is difficult, possibly impossible, in our language at least, to escape. The conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, faced with this mountain of illustrative postmodern evidence, has I think no option but to abandon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the redout of conventional historical theory and lay down his arms. Though, while raising the white flag, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might I think, with suitable humility, point out that the superstructure of inexpungeably relativist history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hangs together only with the support of a modernist paradigm of \(possibly imagined\) ?real events?, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly ?actually happened?, without which the whole structure of postmodern interpretation might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse. \(Language fails here. We clearly need a new word to describe the reality of the virtual, or perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the virtuality of the real.\) Such, at least, is the opinion of this somewhat old-fashioned conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, though I have to admit that we human beings are remarkably skilled at interpreting and describing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(explaining\) events of which we have no direct experience. \(It is interesting to remark that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary philosophers of history see relativism as an aspect of the paradigm of modernity, not of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernity.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finney?s book, then, is a triumph of the application of some aspects of postmodern theory to the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of writing history, despite the fact that much of it can in practice be read as conventional history. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also a major contribution to the modern schools of memory and identity studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 347.907 m 240.992 347.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 344.575 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 326.795 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 326.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1190)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 325.401 m 328.316 325.401 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 300.424 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7846)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.624 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33968)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 348.2215 240.9917 360.1015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=33968) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 325.7155 328.3157 337.5955 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1190) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000004865 00000 n 0000004974 00000 n 0000005084 00000 n 0000005193 00000 n 0000008754 00000 n 0000008882 00000 n 0000008966 00000 n 0000009031 00000 n 0000016432 00000 n 0000016497 00000 n 0000024222 00000 n 0000024287 00000 n 0000031438 00000 n 0000031503 00000 n 0000038826 00000 n 0000038891 00000 n 0000046424 00000 n 0000046515 00000 n 0000051275 00000 n 0000051402 00000 n 0000051503 00000 n 0000051631 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 51727 %%EOF