%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827104514+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827104514+01'00') /Title (Castlereagh: Enlightenment, War, and Tyranny) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3638 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Castlereagh: Enlightenment, War, and Tyranny)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viscount Castlereagh?s reputation had a very bad 19th century. Irish nationalists called him a turncoat and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyrant for the role he played in suppressing the 1798 Rising as Chief Secretary at Dublin Castle. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indifferent public speaker in the heroic age of parliamentary oratory, the Whig opposition twitted him for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malapropisms. Just about everybody who didn?t know him and many who did thought him a cold fish ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrogant, aloof, disdainfully aristocratic. Compared to his dazzling successor at the Foreign Office, George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canning, Castlereagh seemed a bit of a bore. One of the two indisputably fascinating things Castlereagh ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did was to shoot Canning in the thigh in a duel brought about as much by the former?s oversized sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honor as it was by the latter?s oversized sense of entitlement in scheming to oust his rival from the cabinet. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other fascinating thing Castlereagh did was to kill himself with a pen-knife to his carotid artery. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final act won him no sympathy from his radical critics. But it did win him a crass couplet from Lord Byron:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Posterity will ne?er survey a nobler grave than this:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here lie the bones of Castlereagh: Stop, traveler, and piss! \(p. 548\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even while Castlereagh was still very much alive, Shelley had memorialized him as Tory repression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bew)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780857381866)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(582pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quercus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Harling)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6493 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personified:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I met murder on the way ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He had a mask like Castlereagh ?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very smooth he looked, yet grim;)] TJ ET BT 64.016 679.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seven bloodhounds followed him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian commentators were not quite as harsh. But still they habitually lumped Castlereagh together with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tory reactionaries like Eldon and Sidmouth, and scolded him for leaving it to Canning to ostentatiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 612.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distance Britain from the counterrevolutionary impulses of the crowned heads of Restoration Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 586.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bew, in a very likeable book, provides his readers with a more likeable Castlereagh. Bew takes it upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself to rescue his hero from the unfortunate reputation foisted on him by the Romantic poets and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 557.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig historians. His efforts are broadly successful. Far from being a mindless Tory, Bew argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 543.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castlereagh was a widely-read man whose mental cultivation was less than obvious because he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 529.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to the idea that a true gentleman must ever refrain from intellectual ostentation. Far from an anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment reactionary, Bew insists, Castlereagh was committed to the sort of balanced moderation one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might expect from a man who was born into the Enlightenment vanguard of Dublin Presbyterianism. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chief Secretary at Dublin Castle during the Rising, Castlereagh could appreciate better than most the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 472.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destructiveness of sectarianism. Far from being an ultra-Anglican, Bew affirms, Castlereagh had a steadfast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to Catholic relief that stemmed from his belief that civic peace required a balanced approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessional politics. Bew pays valuable attention to Castlereagh?s early Irish career, which recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship has largely ignored and which, Bew contends, Irish republican scholarship caricatured a century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago. While he and his Lord Lieutenant, Cornwallis, took stern measures to suppress the Catholic rising, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also sought to check Protestant excesses. While, subsequently, Castlereagh played a pivotal role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consummating the Act of Union, he did so not as an enemy of Irish independence )] TJ ET BT 428.624 386.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 457.616 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but as a sober )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realist who was convinced that Union provided the best means of protecting Ireland not simply against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French invasion, but against further sectarian violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bew retains his sympathy for Castlereagh as his hero moves from Dublin to Westminster. An ardent Pittite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castlereagh emulated his master in laudable ways, according to Bew. He was committed to all-out war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Revolutionary and Napoleonic France alike. But he felt that the long-term security of Europe rested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no less on preserving France?s rightful place within the top echelon of nations than it did on checking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France?s broader territorial ambitions. As secretary for war in the early phase of the Peninsular campaign, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficiently presided over one of the biggest build-ups in British military history, and as such was central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Pittite war effort. As foreign secretary \(1812?22\), Bew contends, Castlereagh was by no means the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremist that his contemporary critics made him out to be. While by no means the outspoken friend of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal constitutionalism that Canning later became, Castlereagh had no wish to see the wartime alliance with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the big continental monarchies turn into a post-war counterrevolutionary crusade. He steered clear of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holy Alliance not simply because he knew that opinion at home would never embrace legitimism in Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but because he truly believed that the Alliance was, in his words, ??a piece of sublime mysticism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonsense?? \(p. 581\). While he thought it prudent to avoid too open a rupture with Alexander I of Russia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other royal interventionists, he paved the way for Canning?s ostentatiously splendid isolationism by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively breaking up the Congress of Verona \(1823\) through his opposition to French royalist action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Spanish )] TJ ET BT 129.680 118.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberales)] TJ ET BT 175.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Bew argues that Castlereagh?s flexible, supremely sensible approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European diplomacy was most prominently on display at the Congress of Vienna, where he played a pivotal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in securing the lasting peace that emerged from the forging of a balance of power that was predicated on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the speedy return of France to the community of Great Powers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like perhaps too many biographies these days, this one is quite long. But casual readers shouldn?t feel too )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7237 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daunted by its heft. Bew is a fluent stylist who knows how to convey the flavor of a time and place, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paints a memorable portrait of a man about whom even professional scholars of late-Georgian Britain are apt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to know strangely little. Bew makes it easy to share some \(though perhaps not all\) of his fondness for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. The later chapters that trace the fraught seven years between Castlereagh?s triumph at Vienna and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his suicide are especially compelling. He had the misfortune of serving a dual role as Britain?s chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomat as well as the Liverpool ministry?s leader in the House of Commons for a series of exceptionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraught post-war years. The latter assignment thrust him into some profoundly unpopular roles ? as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?s chief apologist for the excesses of the yeomanry at Peterloo, for instance, and as the man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasked with leading the investigation of Queen Caroline when George IV, himself a serial adulterer, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to divorce her on grounds of adultery. A sensitive, proud, and reticent man, Castlereagh knew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself to be one of the most hated public figures in Britain. That knowledge added to the immense strain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office that undoubtedly played a major role in his suicide. \(Whether the threat of scandal or blackmail also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a role we may never know, and Bew is disciplined enough not to hazard any guesses beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One plausible quibble with Bew is that he?s )] TJ ET BT 248.000 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(too)] TJ ET BT 263.336 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sympathetic to his hero. Castlereagh might well have felt it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his duty to bribe the Irish Parliament into extinction, to outspokenly justify the government?s repressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures of the late 1810s, and to pay 250,000 in Secret Service money to the spies and informers who dug )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up dirt on Caroline. But that he could carry out such unpleasant official tasks with something like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasm makes it hard to like the man quite as much as Bew does. Another such quibble is that Bew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protests too much, in the sense that Castlereagh?s reputation, admittedly quite a bad one for much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century, has already been on the uptick for several decades. The conventional wisdom among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic historians has long been to underscore what they see as the salutary continuities that link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castlereagh with Canning and Palmerston: British interests pragmatically first, avoidance of entangling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliances, a flexible commitment to a flexible balance of power. Bew offers little that?s new in this regard. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what he does offer is a sensitive and memorable portrait of an aristocratic statesman who, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trollope?s Plantagenet Palliser, truly seemed to want little more than to be a ?serviceable slave to my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8881535/Castlereagh-From-Enlightenment-to-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 331.395 m 526.304 331.395 l S BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tyranny-by-John-Bew.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 317.139 m 168.332 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 171.332 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Standpoint)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://standpointmag.co.uk/books-october-11-durable-diplomatist-andrew-roberts-castlereagh-enlightenment-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 288.627 m 559.928 288.627 l S BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war-and-tyranny-john-bew)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 274.371 m 163.304 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 166.304 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/books/review-biography-castlereagh-from-enlightenment-to-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 245.859 m 527.264 245.859 l S BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tyranny-by-john-bew-2913839.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 231.603 m 206.996 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 209.996 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://news.bbc.co.uk/today/hi/today/newsid_9618000/9618482.stm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 203.091 m 360.692 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.692 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article837770.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 174.579 m 287.336 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.336 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. 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