%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141219063744+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141219063744+00'00') /Title (Contending Visions of the Lone Star State: Debating Texas? 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Some historians, such as Walter Buenger in )] TJ ET BT 447.320 66.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Path to a Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(South)] TJ ET BT 61.352 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, argue that Texas has a strong connection to the South. Others, like Glen Ely in his new book )] TJ ET BT 513.968 52.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 38.099 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the West Begins)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1193)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glen Sample Ely)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780896727243)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(228pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas Tech University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubbock, TX)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter L. Buenger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0292708884)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(398pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 164.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Texas Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austin, TX)] TJ ET BT 34.016 107.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Berg)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7519 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, contend that Texas ? especially West Texas ? is closely linked to the American West. )] TJ ET BT 452.600 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians believe that Texas is unique and defies historical categorization, echoing back to Texas? days as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic. Because of this confusion, regional historians have purposely left Texas out of their narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they, too, are unsure just what to make of Texas. For present-day Texans, the problem is separating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact from fiction. Confronting such unsavory topics as slavery, the Civil War, and race relations, according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Buenger and Ely, is the first major step in articulating a usable past for Texas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Path to a Modern South)] TJ ET BT 149.348 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is presented in a chronological fashion and is divided into three general ?Parts?. Part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, ?Foundations?, contains the first two chapters: ?The fluid and the constant: persistent factionalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lynching, and reform, 1887?1896?, and ?Competition, innovation, and a changing economy, 1897?1914?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part, ?Transformations?, contains the bulk of Buenger?s analysis and is comprised of five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters: ?A new political order, 1897?1914?, ??Old Ideas?? and ??Improved Conditions??: law, custom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and memory, 1902?1914?, ?An economic roller coaster, 1914?1930?, ?World War I and a shifting culture?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?Women, the Klu Klux Klan, and factional identity, 1920?1927?. Part three, ?Modernity?, contains the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter ?Politics and culture, 1928? and the epilogue, ?Stars and bars and the Lone Star: memory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas, and the South?. Buenger?s thesis is fresh but direct: ?this work suggests new ways of understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... the relationship between being southern and modern and the relationship between the most southern parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Texas and the least southern. Ultimately it connects the present with the past? \(p. 253\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buenger?s study focuses on northeast Texas. Southern influences pervaded society in northeast Texas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of its close proximity to the South. Behaviors typical of the Old South, scare tactics, discrimination, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregation and the like were the norm in northeast Texas after the Civil War. The sensibilities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic ruling elite were offended by the reluctance of poor whites and blacks to endorse prohibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation. As the moral protectors of the region, Anglos felt obliged to eradicate every form of resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a verve unparalleled in Texas history. Non-conformists, that is, blacks and poor whites, were subjected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a series of indignities including intimidation, voter manipulation and fraud, the poll tax, and lynchings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buenger retells the macabre events that led to several high profile lynchings in Northeast Texas with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbing detail. These sadistic sideshows were popular events that could generate over 10,000 onlookers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who watched while men were mutilated and burned. This deviant behavior positively correlates to that seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the South.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Where the West Begins)] TJ ET BT 144.992 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( consists of five provocative chapters: ?Where the West begins?, ?Gone from Texas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trading with the enemy: new perspectives on Civil War West Texas?, ?Race relations as a barometer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western identity?, ?The ?Garden of Eden? and the ?Cowman?s Paradise?: nineteenth-century myths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confront twenty-first-century environmental realities in west Texas?, and ?Texas identity west of the 100th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meridian?. Reinventing local and regional identity, as Buenger argues, is part of a natural evolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process that continues unabated, but Ely argues that west Texas has always remained resolutely ?western? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlook. Contrary to other parts of Texas, west Texas had consistently identified itself with the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West. Using a variety of sources and drawing upon geographical, ecological, and environmental studies, Ely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ably demonstrates that west Texas was indeed ?western? ? it possessed a distinctive environment, diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures and its inhabitants were staunch supporters of the federal government. Southern norms and values )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have crept into northeast Texas but they failed to successfully penetrate the 100th meridian into west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The racial violence against blacks in northeast Texas was especially harsh. In west Texas, however, race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations were ?milder and of a different character than that of the eastern section of the state? \(Ely, p. 83\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Ely, these milder forms of discrimination are critical in understanding regional loyalties in west Texas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ely interviewed two local Tejanos, Joe Primera and M.R. Gonzalez, who grew up in this part of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1940s and 1950s; both men noted that race relations were milder than those experienced in east )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas and had to do more with segregation than violence. After 1910, blacks and Tejanos enjoyed an easing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of tensions because they were recognized as an important source of labor in a changing economic climate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basic economic principles, not a moral awakening, dictated this new ?change? in attitude. Race relations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west Texas dramatically shifted after the Second World War. Tejanos saw themselves in a new light and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocalized their discontent regarding their treatment by Anglos. Slowly west Texas Anglos acquiesced to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7001 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tejano requests for equal treatment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Texas had little in common with northeast Texas according to Ely. The most striking difference was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limited impact of slavery in the region. Most Anglos worked alongside Tejanos in a ?cooperative? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment in order to survive, and perhaps, even prosper. Another difference was the thriving economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with the federal government and the United States Army. These connections to the federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government \(traitorous activity as defined by the Confederacy!\) were )] TJ ET BT 369.596 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 384.260 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( difference between maintaining a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic standard of living and starvation for many families. The cotton economy was unsustainable in West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas, making those trading relationships with the army extremely valuable. It is not hard to understand why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west Texans welcomed the federal government, and the military, with open arms. In a region fraught with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardship, they brought a measure of stability and relief.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many west Texans felt they were foreigners in their own land. They felt they were little better than second-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class citizens because state funds or assistance never seemed to reach them. A laundry list of inequities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(galvanized west Texan sentiment against the state government and many began to mobilize in protest; at one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, they threatened to secede from Texas if a local agricultural college was not established in west Texas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to educate farmers in the latest scientific and technological advancements, along the same lines as Texas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A&M University in the east. Rather than risking internal dissension, much less the dreaded requiem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secession, the government quickly created what came to be Texas Tech University to assuage the farmers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west Texas. Increasingly marginalized, west Texans naturally felt a closer kinship to the West than to Texas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keenly aware of Texas? checkered past, Buenger and Ely are part of a growing number of Texas historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are diligently raising awareness about the Lone Star state?s controversial past. Texan history, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived by T. R. Fehrenbach and company, continues to resonate firmly in the hearts and minds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Texans. Coming to terms with Texas? imagined past, as conceived in the popular imagination, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been daunting for historians who have had to tirelessly challenge traditional Texas history. To the chagrin of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Texas historians, the infectious contagion percolating within Texas history persists. Historical reality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means little to a populace blinded by a romanticized past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern Texans? refusal to countenance their past or recognize the legitimacy of recent historical scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is frustrating for Buenger: ?Memory preoccupies more historians than ever before as they seek to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why their published work stands rejected in favor of myths and fables of public memory of our past? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227\). Ely devotes the final chapter of his book to raising awareness of Texas? cloudy history. ?Texans must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully embrace?, observes Ely, ?)] TJ ET BT 184.640 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 197.312 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of their history, including all of the participants in that narrative? \(p. 131\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, as both authors lament frequently in their books, modern Texans suffer from ?amnesia? and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?selective memory? about Texas? past \(Ely, pp. 122?3\). It is very difficult, according to Ely, to reverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of classical conditioning when something is deeply ingrained in the collective memory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Texans. ?Texas identity, once engraved in the cultural consciousness, is often impervious to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change? \(p. 74\). However, slow headway is being made and that is an encouraging sign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revisionist studies are gaining momentum as time passes and, for many Texans, it is a bitter pill to swallow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern and western influences shaped the creation and evolution of regional identities and loyalties; they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the single greatest factor in charting the course of Texas? collective memory. The United States is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made up of 50 states and many Americans feel stronger regional ties, such as those in New England or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South, than they do corporately as Americans. Likewise, it is reasonable to suggest that Texas, because of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual past, location and size, is composed of many conflicting regional loyalties. 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