%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R 37 0 R 42 0 R 55 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150724170623+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150724170623+01'00') /Title (Ritual and Space in the Middle Ages. Proceedings of the Harlaxton Symposium 2009) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4442 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ritual and Space in the Middle Ages. Proceedings of the Harlaxton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Symposium 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection of essays, first presented at the Harlaxton Symposium in 2009, brings together a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers interested in the intellectual and cultural history of Europe, under two equally broad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial themes. Frances Andrews's introduction goes some way to binding the ideas together. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the contributors are strong empiricists, and the wider theoretical references are often lacklustre: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occasional nod to Bourdieu or Lefebvre usually does little more than situate the essay comfortably within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remit of the collection's themes: the real insights are in the historical details. Rather than take the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order, below I attempt to find some of the parallels between the essays so that their historical accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might speak a theory of their own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jill Caskey's essay on the )] TJ ET BT 158.504 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars sacra )] TJ ET BT 206.504 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Southern Italy introduces problems between analyses of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media which naturally prevail throughout the volume. Acknowledging the astounding contribution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruzelius's )] TJ ET BT 89.840 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stones of Naples)] TJ ET BT 190.844 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to medieval architectural studies, Caskey nonetheless argues that buildings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reliquaries should not be treated as having the same potential dynamic with kingly ritual.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.968 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.968 95.985 m 494.960 95.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 494.960 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, she argues that the French character of Sicilian architecture under Angevin rule was less easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulated than the smaller, more quickly constructed sacred objects. A memorable image from the essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if is that of the Baresi running along the walls of their city, displaying their treasure during a siege. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1194)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frances Andrews)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781907730092)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shaun Tyas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donington)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Braude)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.9677 96.2995 494.9597 108.1795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7190 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besieging Normans interpreted the act as a barbaric lack of respect of such sacred objects ? but Caskey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that the Byzantine roots of the Baresi culture suggest that in truth the scared citizens were using their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artefacts apotropaically.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The construction of artefacts in the late 13th century, Caskey claims, was based on the premise that Capetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power needed to be reflected in Angevin power; that this was the strongest claim to sovereignty ? not least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of the status of Paris as a new Jerusalem following the incorporation of the relics of Christ by Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IX. Caskey focuses on the Christological-monarchical rendering of the reliquary of the True Cross, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locally inspired reliquary bust of St Januarius, a beautiful and excellently preserved example of the genre ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and deftly shows how the aesthetics of both place them within the same visual world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caskey also shows how the construction of these objects accompanied a shift in time. The introduction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Use of Paris into Bari in 1296 caused a ?shift in the grid of time and space?, not least because of the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific spatial referents in the Parisian calendar, such as the consecration of Notre Dame, which replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations and festivities inherent in the Baresi calendar. The analysis of the reliquaries is astute and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered, weaving art historical, Christological detail and political history, noting not only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggrandising techniques of the Angevins, but also the antagonism this caused to the Baresi: in 1300, three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurgents killed the chaplain in his own church. The relations between town and church will no doubt be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further unravelled through Caskey's future work on the processional role of the relics, perhaps in a manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not dissimilar from the examination of Lincoln by James Stokes in his contribution to the volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four essays focus on processions through late medieval English towns. Helen Carrel's contribution, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broad claim of its title \('The rituals of town crown relations in post black death England'\), centres mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the relation of the Queen to petitioners hailing from towns she visited. James Stokes' essay examines, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fine detail, the ritual of the Ascension in Lincoln, which notably was organised jointly by the town )] TJ ET BT 510.308 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(commune)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Cathedral chapter. John McKinnel looks at the Easter week in Durham, and the effect of the single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of sovereign power which existed there, the Prince Bishop. Finally Hans Kleineke revisits a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph from 1932 entitled )] TJ ET BT 184.004 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Some Disputes Between City and Cathedral Authorities of Exeter)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.324 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.324 416.931 m 514.316 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.316 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his extensive research into the records of Exeter in the National Archives, to be published later this year.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKinnel's essay explores the inside/outside space of the Easter sequence in Durham, and the Christological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolism. The liturgical rituals peculiar to the city, McKinnel argues, were developed so that lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in the rite increased as the week progressed, moving from the cloistered Maundy Thursday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feasting, through the display of the cross to the expectant crowds on Good Friday, the miraculous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of the image of Christ and its presentation at the temporary Easter Sepulchre on Sunday, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally Ascension day, and culminating in the procession of the relics of the northern Saints, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gigantic relic-banner of St Cuthbert.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carrel, following Anthony Musson, claims that personal contact with and petitions of the Queen were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary events, but were part of the normal process of petitioning. However, she also claims that gifts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(of mercy\) from the Queen had to be spontaneous in order to still be considered extraordinary gifts. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory claims can easily be reconciled through an elementary understanding of the political economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gifts familiar to anthropologists through Mauss, Malinowsky, et al ? and thoroughly integrated into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medievalism by Patrick Geary, among others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, while the theory of ritual is unworked, the examples chosen are illuminating, and well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarised. Anne of Bohemia's visit to Shrewsbury and the subsequent Charter \(1389\) establishing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(commune )] TJ ET BT 83.000 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is carefully analysed through the image of the King and Queen in the historiated initial of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document itself. Nonetheless, the image remains enigmatic: is the queen delivering or receiving a petition, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is it the charter itself?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of the Bristol petitioning is detailed, and Carrel has revitalised many of the otherwise lifeless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names involved. Further examination of the everyday functions of the Royal chambers, how the royal couple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted there, and how petitioners entered it would be central to developing the themes Carrel encounters. In )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.3237 417.2455 514.3157 429.1255 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6398 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of space alone, the fabric accounts of these chambers would expose further the concepts of sexuality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender, and political space.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.984 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.984 780.819 m 178.976 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal visits again feature in David Ditchburn's detailed study of the rituals surrounding the marriage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James II of Scotland to Mary of Guelders in 1449. Ditchburn focuses for the most part on the tournament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which took place several months prior to the marriage, arguing that this acted as a ritual defeat of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burgundians by the Douglas knights, with the King acting as ultimate sovereign. This is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidenced by James II's snub of the Livingstones, the one-time regents during his minority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannes Kleineke's contribution introduces another royal visit, to Exeter in 1452, and describes the pageantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding it. But whereas Carrel and McKinnel present unity and accord, Kleineke moves on to reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discord and quarrels. The royal visit is presented as part of a move towards regal control, ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolving the differences between town and church by exerting authority over the mayor and the elect, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus becoming a new, unequivocal force in Exeter life. This followed in the wake of disputes between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town and the chapter house which manifested themselves, at least on one occasion, in a physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confrontation during the ceremony of Ascension, the accounts of which Keineke deftly deciphers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Feast of the Ascension is also the focus of James Stokes' essay. Drawing heavily on his own edition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lincolnshire volume of the Records of Early English Drama series, Stokes provides a good deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic evidence that the dramatic event involved a procession up the main hill in Lincoln from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guildhall at the base to the cathedral and castle at the summit, and that it involved mechanical elements for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ascension of Mary at the end of the procession. These details flesh out a wider theory that the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the ritual was one of an increasing focus on corporeality \(in parallel with the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity of the Feast of Corpus Christi\), and that the production became more centred on the mechanical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The citizens' guild, that of St Anne, kept a priest at the chantry chapel of St Michael on the Hill to organise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the annual procession and play. In 1488 the priest was described as )] TJ ET BT 358.952 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ingeniosus, )] TJ ET BT 416.288 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which Stokes makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intriguing, compelling parallels with that other )] TJ ET BT 261.008 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ingeniator)] TJ ET BT 311.012 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Brunelleschi.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Easter liturgy and ingenious mechanics are also the themes of Andrew Jotischky's rich and fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched history of the holy fire at the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. While in Durham a temporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure was built to mirror the tomb of Christ, in Jerusalem the church held the relic of the tomb itself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the building erected on the site reputed to be Golgotha. The tomb and church were the focus of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important and site-specific fire ritual, which Jotischky argues dates back to the 9th century. A lamp, taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the tomb by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, was miraculously lit from within, and the fire then handed out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lamps and candles of the attendant bishops and congregation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jotischky's summary is based on 24 accounts in five languages, if we include the English sources, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spanning the entire history of the rite. He is thus able not only to uncover its peculiarities, but also to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for its historical origination and progression. A potent example of this progression is the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the miracle in 1101 AD, following the expulsion of the Greek Orthodox priests by the newly installed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish crusaders. A ritual itself perhaps, this failure encouraged the Franks to welcome the Greek and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melkite Christians back into their fold, after which the miracle was duly functional ? possibly, Jotischky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, because the secrets of its mechanics were held by those same Christians who had been thrust out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing the ritual within an ethnic and political history. This he also does in his account of the origin of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rite, situating it in the singular intervention of the Carolingians following the conquest of Jerusalem by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.9837 781.1335 178.9757 793.0135 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7767 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Kleineke's essay, Jotischky's is partly a revisiting of older secondary works: the Arabic sources are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken from an essay of 1914, and much of the detail on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre surely derives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Colin Morris' excellent )] TJ ET BT 174.164 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sepulchre of Christ. )] TJ ET BT 273.500 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, the reworking and amalgamation of sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows Jotischky to be an excellent historian with a gift for prose, evidenced also by his recent )] TJ ET BT 487.280 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(monastic fasting.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.024 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.024 726.225 m 130.016 726.225 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy-Anne Hunt continues discussion of the Frankish control of the church of the Holy Sepulchre in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem, focussing on the carved lintels above the South portals of the church, now in the Rockerfeller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum in Jerusalem. Following Molly Lindner \(1992\), Hunt argues that the Passion scenes depicted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therein are not only a reflection of the actual pilgrimage route through the Holy Land, but specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portray the Augustinian sites, the images mirroring a particular and intentional ritual use of space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two other pilgrimages are brought into the discussion. The first is that of the Icon of the Virgin and Child at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saydnaya, again \(as in Jotischky's essay\) a Melkite centre during the Abbasid Caliphate. The analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is somewhat confused, the scope seemingly to attempt to rationalise the miracles apparent at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shrine. The second is the pilgrimage to the monastery of St Shenoute on the feast of the desert, described in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an itinerary published in 1998, which also includes visits to other sites, such as a lost icon of St George. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunt makes an all too brief, tantalising note about the recopying of this text in the 16th century as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion of Christian identity, following the disturbance of the relics and the ruining of the monastery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless the three examples do not really seem to hang together, though they certainly propose rituals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel to Jotischky's explication of the Holy Fire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pilgrimage takes on a new meaning with Rob Meens' engaging discussion of the grave of St Martin of Tours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early middle ages. Weaving the conflictual elements of Kleineke's discussion of Exeter back into that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of saintly tombs, Meens develops the discussion into that of asylum, which he glosses as the tension between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserving access to the sacred for the pure, while still allowing access to the impure for acts of mercy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgiveness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three stories illuminate the progression of this discourse. The first is the refuge granted to Eberulf, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renegade treasurer of King Guntram, attacked in the )] TJ ET BT 286.940 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(atrium)] TJ ET BT 318.944 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the church of St Martin by the envoy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king. The account is taken from Gregory, whose letter served as a )] TJ ET BT 352.604 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rapprochement)] TJ ET BT 425.924 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the king's action. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second is the refuge granted to a cleric who had escaped from an ecclesiastical gaol in Orleans. King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodulf's soldiers enter the church with the )] TJ ET BT 250.472 337.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pauperes)] TJ ET BT 294.464 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the city and attack the Orleanais. Again, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account is known from a rebuke, in this case the long exchange between Charlemagne \(Theodulf's lord\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his advisor, Alcuin of York. The result of the incident was a long and, literally, tortuous investigation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people of Tours, culminating in a set of legal clarifications on the law of asylum by Charlemagne.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third incident is given the greatest space: that involving Count Fulk Nerra of Tours, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of which Meens provides us with an appended document declaring the rite of the 'humiliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of saints', with his translation as well. After Fulk invaded the )] TJ ET BT 329.156 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(claustrum)] TJ ET BT 377.156 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of St Martin, and demolished a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house belonging to the cellarer, the monks of Tours ritually disturbed the bones and relics of their saints, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed them on the ground and surrounded them with thorns. Only once the Count had returned to repent for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sins were the relics replaced. The )] TJ ET BT 213.968 196.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(humiliatio )] TJ ET BT 266.312 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also accompanied by a sort of liturgical strike, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only pilgrims were allowed access to the church. Importantly, Meens posits that the origination of Fulk's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrance into the church with his soldiers was the pursuit of an enemy ? and thus was another act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgressing the right of asylum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meens' essay involves the violation of a space, and in two of the instances the invaded site is not the church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself but a different enclosed area: the )] TJ ET BT 220.964 113.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(atrium )] TJ ET BT 255.968 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the )] TJ ET BT 286.628 113.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(claustrum)] TJ ET BT 334.628 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These areas are the focus of Sible de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blaauw's contribution on the early Christian constructions at Tyre and Rome. The essay is a passionate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entreaty for early Christian churches not to be seen simply as bastard forms of the Roman basilica, but for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dynamic relation of form and function to be examined. The key spatial concept here, though it is not put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as such by de Blaauw, is the binary of inside and outside, already familiar from the relation between )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.0237 726.3655 130.0157 738.2455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7505 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procession and sepulchre in the Easter liturgies discussed above.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Blaauw acknowledges the domestic roots of the term )] TJ ET BT 308.300 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(atrium,)] TJ ET BT 343.304 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reminding us that the closer parallel is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually with the Roman )] TJ ET BT 154.676 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(peristylium, )] TJ ET BT 214.676 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the basillica ? though he also implies that there may have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogue between domestic and ecclesiastic architecture by the late antique period, citing the placement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the atrium at Gamzigrad, Serbia \(an active archaeological site\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He employs Krautheimer's analyses of Old St Peter's in Rome to show the kind of )] TJ ET BT 429.968 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(atria)] TJ ET BT 453.308 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( erected throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Empire from Constantine's decree onwards. Using texts as well \(Paulinus' letters; Eusebius' history\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which amply describe an atrium with colonnades, de Blaauw reconstructs the buildings as they were, in all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the metaphorical ambiguity of the typological references. This ambiguity contributes to de Blaauw's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument for the liminality of the atrium, its inbetween role separating the baptised from the uninitiated, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still within a sacred space, still accessible to 'liturgical traffic.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing inspiration from de Blaauw's reconstructions of the papal basillicas in Rome, Donal Cooper's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution uses Marcia Hall's studies of rood screens and )] TJ ET BT 319.796 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tramezzi )] TJ ET BT 363.464 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to investigate the implications of spatial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divides in Tuscan churches. The mendicant constructions provide a good focus for the discussions of space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for, as Cooper points out, we can assume that the particular examples reflect a generalised pattern for that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order ? which we can check against the chapter legislation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper uses the 14th?century interior plan of San Francesco in Arezzo, known from the exceptional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving drawing, to argue that the lateral spaces were left vacant for chantries and personal altars. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hints towards a different notion of architectural time from that of the projects described by de Blaauw, one in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which expectancy of future monuments is built into the initial structure ? an observation which will surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit from Marvin Trachtenberg's recent intervention.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.108 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.108 461.955 m 316.100 461.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fresco within San Domenico in Arezzo is also discussed in terms of an inside/outside binary, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicts an extramural sermon; Cooper notes that many )] TJ ET BT 299.312 422.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tramezzi)] TJ ET BT 339.980 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to which the fresco would have been near, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were constructed with access to external pulpits for this very purpose. Using the reconstruction of the spatial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangement of San Francesco, combined with the surviving frescos from San Domenico, Cooper makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling argument for the mutual reliance of spatial and pictorial elements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper challenges the histories which state that the tripartite division was definitively between the laity, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male laity, and the clergy, instead using the evidence to show that the personal chapels beyond the screens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must have been accessible to noble men and women. The extrication of this evidence from the notarial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents in the Florentine archives is both imaginative and detailed. As he succinctly put it, ?these sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that lay access beyond the )] TJ ET BT 201.320 296.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tramezzo)] TJ ET BT 244.652 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( screen was already extensive in the later fourteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth-centuries, and did not result from a later process of 'privatising' church space during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Lawless focuses on three of the secondary tier of female saints in medieval Florence. Turning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from Catherine, Lucia and Mary Magdalene, the essay delves into the role of Saints Agatha, Reparata )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Anne in the visual imaginary of the )] TJ ET BT 227.324 213.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(commune)] TJ ET BT 273.308 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Drawing on a her encyclopaedic knowledge of Tuscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images, Lawless sets the popular devotion in the context of Bernardino of Siena's vindictive against women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the contemporary restrictions on women's freedom to move through religious space. Of particular note is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recognition that the lack of female saints in the sculpture of Orsanmichele is due to the lack of any one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female saint acting as the patron of a Florentine guild.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gender, partitions and wall paintings also all feature in Nicholas Rogers's article on the places in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrament of confession took place in late medieval churches. The confessional booth was a Baroque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention; prior to this, other techniques of privacy were employed. Rogers uses an array of images from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts to depict the ways in which priests made use of church space to construct )] TJ ET BT 449.612 87.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(loci)] TJ ET BT 467.612 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal but not away from public view, an important factor in the confession of women by male priests. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again stressing the interrelation of painted and architectural space in the role of the sacraments, Rogers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.1077 462.2695 316.0997 474.1495 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 7329 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that images of the Seven Deadly Sins, and also those of gossiping women, could be indicative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places in which the confession was intended to be undertaken. The discussion of images of death is detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and subtle, but often strays away from the subject at hand, and only indirectly seems to connect with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrament of confession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogers makes reference to Julian Luxford's article on )] TJ ET BT 293.444 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(momento mori)] TJ ET BT 363.104 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Luxford returns to deathly themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his own contribution to the volume.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.688 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.688 711.795 m 231.680 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 231.680 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His essay examines the large tomb which stood at the heart of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church of the Carthusian convent in London. The resting place of the founder of the Charterhouse, Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Manny, the monument has been gratifyingly reconstructed by Luxford from the two extant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragments. Drawing on this archaeological and art historical evidence, alongside textual sources, Luxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges the prevailing belief that such monuments were an unusual blight to the sparse Carthusian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic. On the contrary, Luxford argues that by the 14th century such tombs were common in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charterhouses, the rules having been greatly relaxed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luxford claims that such monuments played an important part in the visual lives of the monks, as ?it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious that, in a physical sense, the average monk )] TJ ET BT 282.980 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(saw )] TJ ET BT 304.652 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively little?. This is not necessarily so obvious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, given the noble backgrounds from which many Carthusian monks emanated. While it is certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true that the conventual life would have provided only a limited range of visual stimulants, this is not true of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monks' whole lives. In this manner, it is perhaps useful to separate the discourse of Carthusian life from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its lived reality, in which monks, however self-convinced by their 'new' religious life in the convent, still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bore the memories of their life in the laity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To reinforce his argument of the impact of the tombs on the monks' imagination, Luxford draws on imagery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating the tomb and the monks cell through the metaphor of the )] TJ ET BT 349.316 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(deadened)] TJ ET BT 395.300 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( life of the Carthusian, of a man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('dead to the world'. However, the argument would be made stronger by reference to the rich architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery prevalent in Carthusian-produced manuscripts, as studied by Michael Sargent, Ralph Hannah and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Scott, among others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more literal dead are the focus of Philip Morgan's overview of medieval memorials on battlefields, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing monumentality, place-names and church foundations. His discussion springs elegantly from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the words of the Roman governor of Britain on the eve of battle, as reported by Cassius Dio: ?Let us, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, either conquer them or die on the spot. Briatin will be a noble monument for us, even though all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other Romans here should be driven out; for in any case our bodies shall for ever possess this land?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The mechanics by which the land was thus memorialised through death are studied over a thousand-year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, although Morgan is clearly most at home in the 14th and 15th centuries. Battle Abbey, the relics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Oswald at Oswestry, the burial pits of Agincourt ? the murderous and the sacred sit side by side in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, on which there is clearly still a great deal of work to be done. Encouragingly, Morgan is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessed merely with memory, but also sees the benefit in theorising forgotten battles, those which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be included in a 'gazeteer' of place-names.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forgetting and disruption are central to Maurizio Campanelli's discussion of textual accounts of Rome, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the changing quality of time reflected in their historical imaginings of its past. Drawing on a daringly wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of sources, Campanelli argues that a scholar in the high or late middle ages would have been able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand Rome as a place whose sacredness was mapped onto its spaces, where divine intervention was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly renewed through ritual, but that for an early medieval scholar, this was absent; there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topographies, but the ritual elements was absent. Campanelli sees this progression as due, in part, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active intervention of humanists in the construction of Rome's history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An example of continuity given is that the ancient right of asylum, discussed above in relation to the church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of St Martin of Tours, was invoked by an inscription in the church of 'Sta Croce in Gerusalemme' in Rome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to support the shrine of Pope Silvester II. Specifically, the right of asylum was that established by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romulus, and its power is invoked to support the plenary indulgence \(i.e. of )] TJ ET BT 401.984 70.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all )] TJ ET BT 417.656 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sins\) granted to Sta Croce. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This continuity is in the context of the utterly depleted power of Rome following the move of the Papacy to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.6877 712.1095 231.6797 723.9895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8684 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avignon. Similarly, the early humanist Cavallini describes the Roman people as the )] TJ ET BT 439.988 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(iura )] TJ ET BT 462.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the city, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient or contemporary; the authority of the Roman Senate is transferred to the College of Cardinals. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total continuity which Campanelli elucidates is given a poignant moment of pathos in the recognition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavallini wrote his description of Rome while in Avignon, where there was ?little to be done beyond closing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oneself in with one's books to dream that, while everything changed in form, in Rome nothing had changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in substance?. While Petrarch, Cola di Rienzo and Biondo Flavio would stress a break with what became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('middle' ages, for scholars like Cavallini and the anonymous author of the Mirabilia romae, continuity with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ancient Roman past was a primary method through which to strengthen the city's Christian )] TJ ET BT 489.800 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(auctoritas)] TJ ET BT 538.472 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uri Smilansky's contribution on the visual aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 303.164 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars subtilior)] TJ ET BT 362.180 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( teases out many of the more subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes of the collection, though its musical focus sets it apart. The )] TJ ET BT 357.320 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars subtilior)] TJ ET BT 416.336 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(a disputed historical term\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described the 14th?century musical avant-garde, the foci of which were not only an extraordinarily insular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and self-referential approach to musical theory, but also to the notation by which it was transmitted. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notational experiments amount to not only codes, but enigma and riddles, equally prevalent in the artistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect as the linguistic. The music itself, the recordings of which Smilansky provides useful references to, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as eerie and codified as the manuscript pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smilansky describes his essay as exploring 'space' in three ways: on the page; performance space; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space occupied by the )] TJ ET BT 142.652 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ars subtilior)] TJ ET BT 201.668 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in society. The first of these explores, clearly, only two-dimensional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space, although the tension between the necessity to reflect the changing song forms and the limitations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medium, the manuscript, are as relevant today as in the 14th century. The third use of spatial metaphor ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the space occupied, i.e. the social function of the art ? is unfortunately demoted to a very base Marxian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, attributing technicality in song-craft to the need for ostentatious skill in a precarious financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment. It is clear that there is far more occurring in such art than merely the magnetism of capital, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this applies equally to the )] TJ ET BT 159.680 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as nova)] TJ ET BT 196.676 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or any remunerated music. There is surely more to the place of labour in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural production than mere distinction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The kernel which Smilansky surely wants to expose more is the relation between the notated page and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance space, as he hints towards with regard to Guillaume Dufay's )] TJ ET BT 388.760 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nuper rosarum flores)] TJ ET BT 492.764 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, composed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the consecration of Florence Cathedral, and, as Charles Warren and more recently Marvin Trachtenberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have attempted to show, relates in its mathematical, musical proportions to those of the architecture in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was originally performed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.996 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.996 359.907 m 181.988 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.988 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The nexus of space on the page and space in the church will surely provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating reassessments of the intellectual history of medieval space. The visual aspects of Smilansky's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future edition of the works of Guillaume de Machaut are eagerly awaited, including Machaut's own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicatory for Rheims Cathedral, )] TJ ET BT 196.988 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Messa de Notre Dame)] TJ ET BT 303.968 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, the collection is perhaps greater than its parts, with many of the essays illuminating each other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Andrews makes clear in her introduction that theories of ritual are familiar to ? and have been well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced out of ? medieval studies, less focus has been placed on original theories of space. With hope, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the themes which I have mentioned above can be fleshed out over the coming years, to provide new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories of space and spatiality which do not rely on modernist tropes, but on an assessment of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as it was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Bruzelius, )] TJ ET BT 130.016 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stones of Naples. Church Buiding in Angevin Italy, 1266-1343)] TJ ET BT 451.676 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\); see also Claudia Bolgia, review of )] TJ ET BT 265.988 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stones of Naples. Church Building in Angevin Italy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1266?1343)] TJ ET BT 118.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(review no. 469\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.428 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/469)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.428 125.571 m 431.072 125.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.072 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 448.064 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 6 January )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 111.315 m 149.000 111.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. E. Curtis, )] TJ ET BT 129.356 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Some Disputes Between City and Cathedral Authorities of Exeter)] TJ ET BT 442.676 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester 1932\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 82.803 m 118.004 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Binski, )] TJ ET BT 114.032 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Painted Chamber at Westminster)] TJ ET BT 294.692 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.016 68.547 m 430.004 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. Krackovskij, 'Le Feu sact d'apr le rcit d'al-Biruni et d'autre crivains musulmans du Xe au XIIIe )] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.9957 360.2215 181.9877 372.1015 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.4277 125.8855 431.0717 137.7655 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/469) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 111.6295 148.9997 123.5095 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 83.1175 118.0037 94.9975 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.0157 68.8615 430.0037 80.7415 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 3319 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sicle', )] TJ ET BT 99.500 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Xristianskij Vostok)] TJ ET BT 190.508 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, III/3 \(1914\), 225?317; C. Morris, )] TJ ET BT 359.156 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sepulchre of Christ and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval West. From the Beginnings to 1600)] TJ ET BT 281.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\); A. Jotischy, )] TJ ET BT 423.644 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Hermit's Cookbook. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monks, Food and Fasting in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 281.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.660 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.660 766.563 m 416.648 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Trachternberg, )] TJ ET BT 154.652 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Building-in-Time. From Giotto to Alberti and Modern Oblivion)] TJ ET BT 459.320 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 738.051 m 149.000 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Luxford, 'The Sparham corpse panels. Unique revelations of death from fifteenth-century England', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antiquaries Journal)] TJ ET BT 160.352 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 90 \(2010\), 299?340.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.672 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.672 709.539 m 317.660 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Warren, 'Brunelleschi's Dome and Dufay's Motet', )] TJ ET BT 321.944 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Musical Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 431.936 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 59 \(1972\), 92?105; M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trachtenberg, 'Architecture and music reunited. A new reading of Dufay's )] TJ ET BT 422.900 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nuper rosarum flores)] TJ ET BT 526.904 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cathedral of Florence', )] TJ ET BT 191.804 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 302.120 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 54 \(2001\), 740?75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.440 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.440 666.771 m 453.428 666.771 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1194)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 328.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7851)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/469)] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.6597 766.8775 416.6477 778.7575 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 738.3655 148.9997 750.2455 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.6717 709.8535 317.6597 721.7335 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.4397 667.0855 453.4277 678.9655 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 328.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1194) >> endobj xref 0 67 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000370 00000 n 0000000407 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000000700 00000 n 0000005194 00000 n 0000005303 00000 n 0000005413 00000 n 0000005522 00000 n 0000009083 00000 n 0000009211 00000 n 0000009295 00000 n 0000009324 00000 n 0000009451 00000 n 0000009487 00000 n 0000009571 00000 n 0000016814 00000 n 0000016844 00000 n 0000016972 00000 n 0000017008 00000 n 0000017092 00000 n 0000023543 00000 n 0000023573 00000 n 0000023701 00000 n 0000023737 00000 n 0000023821 00000 n 0000031641 00000 n 0000031671 00000 n 0000031799 00000 n 0000031835 00000 n 0000031919 00000 n 0000039477 00000 n 0000039507 00000 n 0000039635 00000 n 0000039671 00000 n 0000039755 00000 n 0000047137 00000 n 0000047167 00000 n 0000047295 00000 n 0000047331 00000 n 0000047443 00000 n 0000056180 00000 n 0000056210 00000 n 0000056338 00000 n 0000056374 00000 n 0000056502 00000 n 0000056597 00000 n 0000056724 00000 n 0000056779 00000 n 0000056904 00000 n 0000056959 00000 n 0000057085 00000 n 0000057140 00000 n 0000057252 00000 n 0000060624 00000 n 0000060752 00000 n 0000060807 00000 n 0000060934 00000 n 0000060989 00000 n 0000061117 00000 n 0000061172 00000 n 0000061300 00000 n 0000061355 00000 n 0000061483 00000 n trailer << /Size 67 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 61579 %%EOF