%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140418040734+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140418040734+01'00') /Title (Managing the Body: Beauty, Health and Fitness in Britain, 1880-1939) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4896 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Managing the Body: Beauty, Health and Fitness in Britain, 1880-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska?s new history of the body, health and fitness in Britain is a wide-reaching and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed study of relevant cultural practices and government policies between the Victorian period and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eve of the Second World War. Much recent work has focused on these themes, including Michael Hau?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of German life-reform movements, racial science and leisure culture, )] TJ ET BT 397.256 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cult of Health and Beauty in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germany: A Social History 1890-1930 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.992 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.992 207.777 m 236.984 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 236.984 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, drawn especially from the archives of the German Hygiene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Museum in Dresden, Liz Conor?s groundbreaking )] TJ ET BT 278.312 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spectacular Modern Woman: Feminine Visibility in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.348 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.348 179.265 m 97.340 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 97.340 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which takes a much more theoretically complex approach to modern bodies and visual culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than historians often achieve, and indeed my own widescreen perspective on war, modern bodies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and sexuality across various networks in the Anglophone world, )] TJ ET BT 410.312 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconstructing the Body: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Classicism, Modernism and the First World War)] TJ ET BT 268.352 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.352 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\) )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.352 136.497 m 288.344 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.344 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 383.000 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fits within this trajectory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, as well as engaging with a plethora of scholarly articles in academic journals on imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism, racial hygiene, national efficiency, and eugenics and with histories of sport and the body in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and Britain. What is important about Zweiniger-Bargielowska?s book is its specific focus on Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing together all the main themes relevant to the periods 1880?1914 and 1918?39.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one covers material familiar to scholars in this area ? degeneration and urbanity; imperial fitness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1195)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199280520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(408pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ana Carden-Coyne)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.9917 208.0915 236.9837 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.3477 179.5795 97.3397 191.4595 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.3517 136.8115 288.3437 148.6915 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7560 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationhood; racial constructs of motherhood. Part two covers themes such as the Lloyd George?s trope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?building an A1 Nation? by improving health and fitness after the First World War and through the inter-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period; the reconstruction of men?s bodies \(a theme which I saw in terms of a global social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on medical rehabilitation, coalescing with new modes of sexualisation and consumerist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjectivity, but which Zweiniger-Bargielowska also rightly frames in terms of national policies specific to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British concerns\). These chapters mine this material in great detail, revealing the length and breadth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and political interest in rebuilding the nation after the war and in creating a confident and fit male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body that could be regarded as reconstructed. )] TJ ET BT 254.624 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 349.280 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also focuses on modernity and the female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body, but importantly examines the mass appeal of such images and discourses, finally turning to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns for national fitness through the 1930s in the run-up to another global war also involving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilisation of all male and female citizens in British society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central idea that the body was ?managed? provides an important link between government reforms and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition of various associations that ?shared an ideological affinity?, from the National League of Physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education and Improvement to the New Health Society, the Health and Strength League and the Sunlight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League, as well as private commercial ventures, small-scale operators and local activists. The theme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management is expressed through notions of modern progress, organisation and efficiency, and practiced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workplace reform and the bureaucratisation of the body in various government agencies and institutions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Ministry of Health, as well as influential voluntary organisations such as the Central Council for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Health Education and the Board of Education. Managerialism was also seen in national campaigns designed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to mobilise and motivate the British public after the First World War and through to the 1930s. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit, there is a gesture to Foucault?s governmentality threaded through much of the chapters; more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit is his notion of biopower.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 128.672 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is underpinned by Foucault?s ideas about the regulation and control of the body, through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both a range of disciplinary techniques crafted in state institutions and also ?techniques of the self? such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the body cultures explored in the book. These point not just to top-down discourses and their persuasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power but to the investments individuals will make into shaping their bodies in particular ways, preventing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illness, fashioning healthy physiques and identities, and ultimately constructing their selves as individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and citizens. As Zweiniger-Bargielowska argues, ?a well-managed body was not only the goal of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy but also an integral aspect of fashioning the self?. This project was steeped in the aims of modernity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and progress, yet, as is pointed out, the belief in improvement and transformation was also tempered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pessimism about the implications of rapid social change and underpinned by longstanding anxieties about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial and social degeneration. This ambivalence could extend to anti-modernist stances among some groups, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifesting in pastoral ideals of a return to nature. Others, however, such as the New Health Society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunlight League, embraced modern technology and science, and many body culture enthusiasts represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves using the latest trends in modern photography, self-fashioning and posturing. The book does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical thinking a great service by taking such a nuanced approach to an eclectic group of body enthusiasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reformers; it is important to acknowledge their range and variety, especially when little has been left for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical record except local traces and suggestive fragments that link to wider body movements and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social ideas. Thus while some health groups revered nature and an arcadian past, others revered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological body, aligning fitness with modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept of moral and social improvement was signified by physical fitness, which easily fed into and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from the eugenics movement. Zweiniger-Bargielowska argues that these ideas also coalesced around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of citizenship linked to a growing concern with public health that reformers and governments were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly willing to intervene in; she does not quite say it but the concept of ?embodied citizenship? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to mind. Importantly, the book shows how this ideal and practice were threaded through various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British institutions over a long period of time ? from the imperial imagining of a fit empire and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manliness, through different manifestations of the working and middle classes, and in such organisations as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scouts and Lads' Drill Associations, to the post-war politicisation of fitness in Lloyd George?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarised call for the nation to be A1 and not C3, which were military categories of fitness applied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutinise working-class citizen soldiers in the First World War. Indeed, the significant processes of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7655 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarisation and bureaucratisation of the British body, begun in the Boer War but especially exaggerated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the First World War, could have been much more explicitly theorised. Public institutions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created and transformed by military processes. While peace in 1918 saw degrees of de-militarisation, much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the discursive machinery of the wartime state remained intact, with consequent effects on civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The mass mobilisation of society ? the inclusion of men and women in the institutions of war-waging ? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also a key aspect of the period. )] TJ ET BT 185.312 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 279.968 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is right to explore the appeal of body cultures not just to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men but also to women. The democratising of the nation at war included women as never before, and body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures were quick to see their new markets. Though masculinity ? and reconstructing the male body ? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a central concern of reformers, body culturists and governments alike in the aftermath of the war, women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also central to this project. Following the work of Frank Trentmann and Matthew Hilton, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extends the notion of the modern consumer as a ?new civic persona?, to which commercial body cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appealed, but which also connected free trade to civil society, rather than to conflict between classes, labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and capital. The consumerist appeal to women was particularly strong ? and body culture marketing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed at them. In a period of perceived post-war racial decline, the ideal of national vigour also gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women a special role, as they had in the war as workers and mothers of soldiers. Now they could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idealised as mothers of the fit nation, which, as )] TJ ET BT 262.988 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 357.644 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( points out, had specific implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire and its need to bolster the imperial dream in the aftermath of a devastating war. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traces the ideal of the race mother between the 19th century and 1920s, and shows that though this feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure was fundamental to imperialism and patriotic duty, she was not incompatible with the emerging image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the modern woman. The various nuances of racial motherhood feature as important discussion points in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. Just as manliness was revered in Edwardian England, culminating in the ideals of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity forged and ruined \(to the extent that it had to be reconstructed\) in the First World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maternalism was a complementary ideal across these periods of British history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The section on physical culture draws appropriately on a select range from a mass of work on this subject; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the sections on obesity and dress reform, covering familiar ground for the 1920s, endorse the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments pursued by many other scholars. Though bringing together some old and some new evidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most usefully for the period of the later 1930s, the second half of the chapter would have been even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enriched by deeper engagement with the secondary literature, though as with all books space was no doubt a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration. The significant theme of the reconstruction of the male body, in various physical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexualised facets, is pursued through a range of discourses, motivations, and technologies, opening up a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further need for the different frameworks and nuances of masculinity to be explored. On a few occasions, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of masculinity in this chapter seems rather one dimensional, when there is equal evidence for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity and instability of masculinities and a comparable search for male intimacy in the period. It would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be most useful to understand more about the homoerotic gesture and queer performance of the male body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within fitness display and consumption, and the potential to unsettle the certainty of heteronormative health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and efficiency and its reproductive ends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the familiar trope of fascist body culture has received so much attention in the scholarship, and again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 141.008 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the British story of post-war and inter-war sexuality remains elusive. How do we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the way images of fascist supermen, and articles suggestive of moral panic about men?s sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure \(masturbation, venereal disease, homosexuality, obesity, degeneration\) sat alongside the homoerotic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playful, and intimate imagery of male bonding? Social and cultural historians can read in between the pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of literature and photography that sexualised and spectacularised men?s bodies, to see, for instance, the ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which men used the gymnasiums and body magazines to meet other men, giving their body-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measurements, forwarding postal addresses and publishing self-made photographs. How can we develop a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity to understanding these practices in the body world in which men were the subjects of surveillance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and biopowerful discourses at the same time as they were engaging in self-fashioning, self-display and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of being that may not be confined to the signifying practices of heterosexuality or even the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project of fitness politics? Historians of queer sexualities, such as Laura Doan and Matt Houlbrook, might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have helped disentangle this problem of norms, discourses and practices. Their work suggests that sexual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 6070 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices in the past are unfamiliar and not recognisable as homosexual and heterosexual identities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjectivities. )] TJ ET BT 103.352 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Health and Strength)] TJ ET BT 200.684 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for instance, contains imagery that could only be considered ambiguous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and coquettish in its production of youthful male \(and female\) sexuality and its provocation of a desiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male readership. The hetero/homosexual subject does not have an identity in this period; perhaps we cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognise the sexualities of the 1920s as they rupture the logic of identity politics and its projected pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. Matt Cook?s work on homosexuality and the city of London before 1914 explores the dynamics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male sexuality through the public spaces and private lives of late Victorian culture. This raises questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the interwar period as the growth in gymnasiums and body cultures enabled new forms of encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike the Hellenic gentleman?s club or the rent-boy culture of the city that Matt Houlbrook highlighted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There appear to be many contradictions in the British society of the 1920s and 1930s, not just in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation of bodily discourses but also in how people accepted them, interpreted them, and lived their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives within and against powerful sentiments such as physical order and racial fitness. )] TJ ET BT 447.956 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains well the obsession with A1 national bodies, physical regeneration, race mothers and fathers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stricter forms of social control underpinned by political ideology, yet it is possible that people do not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conform to the discourses they seem to participate in. There are equally significant cultural connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between beauty, health, fitness and sexuality that remain a hidden though integral part of how different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people shaped their lives in Britain across this fascinating period of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter on national fitness in the 1930s presents important new evidence and weaves its way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a range of ideas that connect the political to the social and cultural. The National Fitness Campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the National Government, launched by Chamberlain, links the history of the earlier period to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments on the eve of the Second World War, as the work of reformers and health professionals was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?finally elevated to the status of a major government policy? \(p. 330\). The old A1 citizen, juxtaposed against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?C3 anti-citizen?, had returned to the public sphere and a Britain that was once again preparing for war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing the Body)] TJ ET BT 128.672 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a welcome addition to historical research on the body in Britain and elsewhere; it is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent book that will be used in undergraduate and postgraduate courses for a long time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Hau, )] TJ ET BT 132.332 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cult of Health and Beauty in Germany: A Social History 1890?1930 )] TJ ET BT 485.648 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 361.155 m 149.000 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liz Conor, )] TJ ET BT 119.012 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spectacular Modern Woman: Feminine Visibility in the 1920s)] TJ ET BT 438.320 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bloomington, IN, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 332.643 m 149.000 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ana Carden-Coyne, )] TJ ET BT 162.992 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconstructing the Body: Classicism, Modernism and the First World War)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2009\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.664 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.664 304.131 m 190.652 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 262.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 244.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 244.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1195)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 243.369 m 328.316 243.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 218.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7852)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 361.4695 148.9997 373.3495 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 332.9575 148.9997 344.8375 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.6637 304.4455 190.6517 316.3255 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 243.6835 328.3157 255.5635 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1195) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000005621 00000 n 0000005730 00000 n 0000005840 00000 n 0000005949 00000 n 0000009510 00000 n 0000009638 00000 n 0000009722 00000 n 0000009751 00000 n 0000009879 00000 n 0000009915 00000 n 0000009944 00000 n 0000010070 00000 n 0000010106 00000 n 0000010135 00000 n 0000010263 00000 n 0000010299 00000 n 0000010364 00000 n 0000017977 00000 n 0000018042 00000 n 0000025750 00000 n 0000025855 00000 n 0000031978 00000 n 0000032105 00000 n 0000032160 00000 n 0000032287 00000 n 0000032342 00000 n 0000032470 00000 n 0000032525 00000 n 0000032653 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32749 %%EOF