%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080232+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080232+01'00') /Title (An Accidental Utopia? Social Mobility and the Foundations of an Egalitarian Society, 1880-1940) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3967 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(An Accidental Utopia? Social Mobility and the Foundations of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Egalitarian Society, 1880-1940)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Caversham Project has been a long-running and detailed historical investigation of work and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, social structure, class and gender in the southern suburbs of Dunedin, New Zealand. With a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong, indeed rigorous, quantitative basis the project has generated an impressive list of books, essays and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working papers over the last 20 years. )] TJ ET BT 219.308 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Accidental Utopia?)] TJ ET BT 329.300 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is described by the authors as the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instalment, and they note that its subject, social mobility, was the issue around which the project was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initially conceived.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship of social mobility ? or, perhaps more precisely, occupational mobility ? to class, or class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness, or the relevance of class in a given society is an enduring sociological debate. The very form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the preceding sentence indicates the extent to which the issues, and even the definitional ground, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested. What does class mean? Is class only salient where classes are conscious of themselves \(Marx?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class for itself\) or is it still useful to speak of classes in some objective sense \(Marx?s class in itself\)? Olssen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Griffen and Jones prefer to describe the latter as strata \(occupationally defined\) and reserve ?class? for self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious groups: not an indefensible position by any means but one that may be debated. Many scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1196)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik Olssen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clyde Griffen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Jones)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781877372643)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Otago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunedin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim McAloon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7978 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have followed Stephan Thermstrom?s account of Boston in arguing that high levels of transience and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational mobility tend to weaken class consciousness; in New Zealand this argument is often referenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a short but influential 1969 essay by W. H. Oliver.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.992 766.563 m 302.984 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.984 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Olssen, for his part, has long been associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opposite view, emphasizing the continuing importance of class in New Zealand?s political development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither the substantive nor the methodological issues are unique to New Zealand, of course ? with one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception; where scholars elsewhere may use census manuscripts, these are destroyed in New Zealand. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absence of that key source, and with street directories inevitably partial in their coverage, the Caversham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work has relied on electoral rolls, supplemented by marriage records. Electoral rolls are not perfect either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly in usually describing women by marital rather than occupational status\), but universal suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailed in New Zealand from 1893 and the rolls are, therefore, unusually comprehensive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodologically, a key question is the usefulness of case studies. Can a detailed regional study serve as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of looking at issues nationally? Goldthorpe and Erikson, in Britain, have been sceptical of case studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they are unrepresentative; the present book points out that it is precisely the regional differences that may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be important and argues too that historians are increasingly recognising the importance of place as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. In the authors? view, indeed, place joins class, race and gender as ?mutually constitutive? \(p. 18\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme sketched out and worthy of further thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Class, though, is in some senses the focus of this book, and particularly the relationship between class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobility. A nine-level model, derived from Goldthorpe, had been elaborated in an earlier publication.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.600 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.600 516.723 m 535.592 516.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 535.592 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same model appears here, as one would expect, although now the nine levels are described as strata, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggregated into three classes, upper-middle, middle and working. As the authors note, models of class need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ?balance ? theoretical power and specificity with empirical requirements? \(p. 27\). Yet most models of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class which have enjoyed wide circulation in the last thirty or forty years have been devised in and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies much more industrial than New Zealand. Olssen and his colleagues have, in successive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications, maintained a distinctive category for the self-employed, reflecting their continued prominence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in New Zealand society. Perhaps because of the origin of these models in urban and industrialised societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or perhaps because of the urban focus of the Caversham study, the model of class deployed here is rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak on rural occupations. While it is not my intention to criticise this fine work of urban history for not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressing rural themes, as the authors themselves note, rural occupations accounted for a third of the male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workforce over the six decades with which they are concerned. In New Zealand, as perhaps in other settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies, the rhetoric of opportunity was as much rural as urban, and there were other New Zealand utopias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Caversham.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relationship of marriage to mobility is important, and complex. ?In Britain the marriage market was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to women?s and not irrelevant to men?s social mobility, and migration did not change that? \(p. 47\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors find that in the great majority of marriages, partners crossed the boundaries in a nine-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model but if one aggregates these nine into the three groups, then there was significant mobility into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper middle class, but that exogamy did not prevail by much in the middle class and over sixty per cent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class marriages did not cross class boundaries. Although most scholars would agree with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors that colonial society was more fluid than the old world, the upper-middle-class pattern may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by factors distinctive to Dunedin. As the book notes, secondary education provided opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for social mixing in Dunedin, because there were no elite private schools as there were in Christchurch. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether such schools reinforced endogamy in the upper class is as yet unknown. It is, as the authors say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange to ignore male marital mobility; there is a common stereotype of marrying the boss?s daughter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving into management or ownership of a family firm. Measurement of this matter as of other mobility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues using marriage records, however, is problematic because one is comparing the occupational status of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two generations ? the couple?s fathers with the bridegroom ? and occupational status is strongly influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by age. Another issue around marriage, family and class is the unit of measurement: individuals, or imputing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the husband?s class position to the entire household. There are sensible reasons for taking the latter position, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as these authors do following Goldthorpe. The best justification is that on marriage women customarily left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid work, but even Goldthorpe conceded that women could change class position by moving from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father?s family to their husband?s. )] TJ ET BT 202.652 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Accidental Utopia?)] TJ ET BT 296.312 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also argues that women?s individual class position is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.9917 766.8775 302.9837 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.5997 517.0375 535.5917 528.9175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7725 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important not least because women increasingly worked for money before marriage \(not to mention the paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work many did after marriage, which is elusive in the official sources\). On this whole issue, Erik Olin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wright?s terminology of contradictory class locations might be useful; Wright gives the example of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman who, working as a secretary, is married to the owner of a substantial business.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More general issues of mobility are discussed, with some sophisticated statistical analysis, in the fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter. I could wish ?stratum event? was defined a bit better but one gets the point. A key argument is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaggregation is essential, as the potential for mobility varied considerably between occupations, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being much more likely to lead to self-employment, and young men \(and women\) made such choices on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of risk or security. This chapter also demonstrates the permeable boundaries between skilled workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the lower middle class, and the continuum between small and large employers, the former sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming the latter by incremental growth. There are some excellent discussions of occupational change and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class recruitment, such as the process by which clerks could become accountants through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematical ability. Internal labour markets were also important, with firms rewarding long service by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status improvement, and in family firms the usual practice was for sons to begin as apprentices. All this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined into a powerfully egalitarian culture, at work and outside work. Nor was technologically-driven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the semi-skilled occupations all negative; joiners? skills could be diminished by door-making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machines, but foundry labourers could become welders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps a little awkwardly, a further discussion of intergenerational mobility, based on marriage records, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not immediately follow this chapter. The authors recapitulate the problems with such sources, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the best available, and show that compared to their fathers, bridegrooms? mobility was divided into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roughly equal proportions of improved occupational status, stability and diminished status \(the latter being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly complicated by the relationship between age and status\). There was considerable variation; two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirds of self-employed and small employer bridegrooms had fathers in the same stratum; the figure was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 40 and 50 per cent for both unskilled and large employers, but only a fifth of professional and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighth of semi-professional grooms had fathers in similar position. It seems, though, that the sons of upper-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle class fathers remained in such occupations or became professionals, reflecting ?the intergenerational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission of advantage? \(p. 153\); egalitarianism had its limits. One important finding is that while Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics were unskilled or self-employed in the immigrant generation, their children ?were occupationally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobile with a vengeance? \(p. 158\), moving into skilled trades and white collar occupations, so that the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic occupational structure quickly approached the norm.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mobility chances were also, unsurprisingly, affected by the state of the colonial economy. Thus the decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1902 was one of openness and opportunity; recession and war between 1911 and 1921 meant much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. The authors confirm that the 1920s \(1921?8\) were generally a time of possibility as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative Reform government sought to ensure social stability by encouraging what would later be called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a property-owning democracy. The Depression decade \(1928?38\) saw opportunity rapidly closed off. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational structure, the domination of the handcraft trades, and the relatively strong possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieving self-employment \(in good times at least\) all combined to shape a powerful consensus on economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social policy, a consensus including the ideas of fair play, a wage-earners? welfare state, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government responsibility for economic management. All this has been lucidly discussed under the label of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social liberalism by a number of authors, including, with an Australasian emphasis, Marian Sawer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reinforced here is the argument advanced by Olssen in his 1995 )] TJ ET BT 346.292 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Building the New World)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.632 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.632 188.835 m 479.624 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.624 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of immigrants who populated New Zealand in the 1860s and 1870s were democrats by conviction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profoundly committed to the openness of opportunity and an egalitarian respectability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Accidental Utopia?)] TJ ET BT 144.008 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also dwells upon the distinctive features of society and politics in South Dunedin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With fewer Scots and more English and Irish than the rest of the city, fewer Presbyterians and more Baptists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodists and Roman Catholics, old world allegiances were diluted and a class-based politics emerged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with first Liberal then Labour dominating parliamentary representation. Here, perhaps, a little too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctiveness is claimed. Granting that Dunedin was a key site in the political reconstitutions of 1890 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1893 ? respectively the victory of a reforming Liberal party in New Zealand?s first one man-one vote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election, and the enactment of universal suffrage, detailed investigation of other New Zealand cities might )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.6317 189.1495 479.6237 201.0295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7548 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualify the authors? suggestion that in South Dunedin ?for a time, some communities become society?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanguard? \(p. 224\). While this book emphasizes the role of three Dunedin Lib-Lab members on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary Labour Bills Committee, the author of the industrial arbitration system and Minister of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour \(the first in the Empire\) was the Christchurch radical lawyer and journalist, William Pember Reeves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, it is suggested that the ?sizeable concentration of Catholics in southern Dunedin? \(p. 227\) was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental after 1919 in pushing the Labour Party away from revolutionary nostrums of nationalisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and towards the reformism of )] TJ ET BT 178.988 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rerum Novarum)] TJ ET BT 258.644 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But this is to forget that in the 1919 election Christchurch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounted for three of Labour?s eight parliamentary seats and two of the key Christchurch Labour MPs, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ministers after 1935, were practicing Catholics. Perhaps the most important figure in Labour?s policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development after 1925 was the Wellington-based Anglican and Christian Socialist, Walter Nash. Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformism had many intellectual sources, while, as this book notes, many of the skilled tradesmen of South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunedin stayed with the Liberals until that party proved incapable of dealing with the Depression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, finally, did class mean in South Dunedin? Inherited and imported ideas about class ?became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsettled? in the new world \(p. 245\) and the terminology was contested \(but where is it not?\) Class in urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand was ?a complex equation ... combining features peculiar to industrial capitalism, but modified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by New Zealand?s small towns and the dominance of the handicraft sector, itself a product in large part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the small product markets made inevitable by a small and scattered population? \(p. 217\). The language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class was supplemented by other, related, terminologies. In New Zealand English, at least, one still speaks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?tradies? when referring to skilled tradespeople and when a builder or electrician is about his daily work he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ?on the tools? \(and a partner in a large electrical contracting business may still spend the occasional day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the tools\). The world so meticulously described in this book has not disappeared yet; aptitude to one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade, practical ability, and manual work are still esteemed. The equality which was valued in popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, however, had significant limits. If the large employers of South Dunedin could still relate to others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that community on the basis of a shared background in the skilled trades and, indeed, continuing technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise, we need to remember that even these large manufacturers did not occupy the upper levels of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand wealth. The biggest fortunes, as we know, were held by merchants and pastoral landowners, not as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule part of the southern Dunedin community anyway. And, as this book and some of Olssen?s other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings have made clear, there was a disreputable stratum of the itinerant and feckless who represented a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral warning of the consequences of dissipation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Dunedin was, therefore, a more open society than Britain, and by extension the same is true of the rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of settler New Zealand; marriage was relatively open, so were occupational choices, and the upper and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle classes constantly refreshed themselves. The strength of this book is its rigorous demonstration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth of these propositions, which have been suspected and guessed at by a number of historians of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand and of other settler societies. Was it, though, a utopia? As the authors suggest, the very success of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this society ?undoubtedly contributed to the formation of an increasingly self-satisfied society. The Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Depression came as a momentous shock? \(p. 188\). From that shock, the social contract had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively renegotiated, but that is another story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. H. Oliver, ?Reeves, Sinclair, and the social pattern?, in )] TJ ET BT 347.960 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Feel of Truth: Essays in New Zealand )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Pacific History)] TJ ET BT 158.012 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Peter Munz \(Wellington, 1969\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.988 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.988 178.083 m 388.976 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik Olssen and Maureen Hickey, )] TJ ET BT 229.976 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class and Occupation: The New Zealand Reality)] TJ ET BT 465.308 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dunedin, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 149.571 m 118.004 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik Olssen, )] TJ ET BT 126.344 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Building the New World)] TJ ET BT 242.684 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: Work, Politics and Society in Caversham, 1880s?1920s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Auckland, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.664 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.664 121.059 m 205.652 121.059 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 105.727 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 87.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 87.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1196)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 86.553 m 328.316 86.553 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.576 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.9877 178.3975 388.9757 190.2775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 149.8855 118.0037 161.7655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.6637 121.3735 205.6517 133.2535 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 86.8675 328.3157 98.7475 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1196) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7853)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000000686 00000 n 0000004705 00000 n 0000004814 00000 n 0000004924 00000 n 0000005033 00000 n 0000008594 00000 n 0000008722 00000 n 0000008806 00000 n 0000008897 00000 n 0000016928 00000 n 0000016958 00000 n 0000017086 00000 n 0000017122 00000 n 0000017152 00000 n 0000017280 00000 n 0000017316 00000 n 0000017400 00000 n 0000025178 00000 n 0000025208 00000 n 0000025336 00000 n 0000025372 00000 n 0000025477 00000 n 0000033078 00000 n 0000033206 00000 n 0000033261 00000 n 0000033388 00000 n 0000033443 00000 n 0000033571 00000 n 0000033626 00000 n 0000033752 00000 n 0000033848 00000 n 0000033913 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34118 %%EOF