%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827104515+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827104515+01'00') /Title (What it Means to be Human: Reflections from 1791 to the Present) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3966 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(What it Means to be Human: Reflections from 1791 to the Present)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And whenever we abuse that reason, and act beneath the character and dignity of a rational )] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creature, we lose the divine image in that respect; we have nothing to denominate us men but )] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outward shape; or, in other words, we become brutes in the shapes of men.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.612 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.612 231.417 m 436.604 231.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This passage from Humphrey Primatt?s important ethical intervention of 1776 might be taken as emblematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the argument of Joanna Bourke?s latest book. What it means to be human is ? has always been ? tenuous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a dark reflection of imaginings of Others, both bestial and divine. In 2009 I began a book with the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?What is an animal??, and proposed that the answer was historical. The answer, moreover, always ?says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something about humans?. More recently, I have drawn attention to the erroneous ?givenness of the meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?human?? in studies that purport to distance themselves from anthropocentric and anthropomorphic world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.172 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.172 93.369 m 81.164 93.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.164 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A lack of critical awareness as to what ?we? mean when we say ?we? remains the principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stumbling block in the amorphous but rapidly growing field of human-animal studies. This critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness is the province of historians, and it is therefore with something like joy that I read this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1199)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Bourke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781844086443)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(480pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rob Boddice)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 422.6117 231.7315 436.6037 243.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.1717 93.6835 81.1637 105.5635 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke opens with categorical uncertainty. Side-stepping tendentious claims that humans are animals, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals people, she renders the living being unknown and unknowable, subject to endless constructions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction and status that never have inhered in the body itself. As a starting point this puts Bourke in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantageous position compared with those scholars and activists who begin with a political agenda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning who, or what, to include in their species politics. For Bourke the human is political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical, and these contingencies lead her to ask, given the mutability of the meaning of the human, how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we can proceed. One can imagine her agreeing enthusiastically with Sartre?s critique of psychology, that ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive concept of )] TJ ET BT 136.328 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(man)] TJ ET BT 156.992 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [sic] ? is postponed to infinity?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.984 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.984 683.283 m 325.976 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.976 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She disrupts concepts where others have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed categorical certainty ? human, animal, non-human animal, human animal, male, female, black, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white ? and asks that we celebrate the enigma. In this she echoes Dominick LaCapra, whose seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious but remarkably little-heeded maxim is that one cannot study the \(history of the\) human if one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims, )] TJ ET BT 71.348 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 108.356 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to know what human )] TJ ET BT 218.348 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(means)] TJ ET BT 249.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.008 626.259 m 266.000 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.000 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke?s history is deconstructive, not iconoclastic, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result is much the same. She takes a Derridean wrench to the instruments of power that have given meaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to, and stratified, the human, the animal, the man, the woman, and the racial Other, and in so doing she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ploughs up a field of scholarship that has repeatedly, albeit unthinkingly, recapitulated these hierarchies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning a book with transformations, uncertainties, and turning things inside-out, Bourke proceeds with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextual analysis of Kafka?s ?Red Peter?. The first chapter therefore undergirds the enigmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, wherein absolutes are toppled and boundaries transgressed. Not uncharacteristically for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke, she ends the chapter with an explicit acknowledgement that hers will be a story of violence, and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power dynamics which dispense violence have always patrolled the boundaries she hopes to disrupt. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key question is this: is full personhood, especially a personhood defined by the capacity to use language, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act of violence? The question is, of course, rhetorical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What follows is an elegant historical critique of reason as a marker of distinction. Through speech, Bourke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traces the history of the exaltation of reason and of knowledge of the divine. The fundamental bases of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicators of \(a certain kind of\) human superiority are illuminated as a politics of exclusion, but tied to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of culture that renders unstable the linguistic power structure upon which this politics depends. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language ? by which Bourke means certain forms of Western ?civilised? modes of speech ? ?cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstracted from culture? \(p. 60\), then the notion that language is what fundamentally defines the human is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliterated. Bourke would be in the front ranks of historians claiming that culture is mutable, and with it, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of the human.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the boundary lines between human and not-human that has proven historically most fluid is defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the capacity to feel \(emotional or physical\) pain, or the capacity to suffer. Utilitarianism still largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the foundation for bioethics, and it is therefore highly significant that Bourke rejects ?a politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based around shared states of )] TJ ET BT 177.644 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(feeling)] TJ ET BT 210.308 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? for at least six reasons? \(p. 114\), the chief of which is her refusal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduce ethics to ?a form of moral accountancy, an empirical calculation that could in fact lead to great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering of humans and animals? \(p. 120\), the proof of which is carefully documented in recent Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justifications for the use of torture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet if pain is not to be the basis for drawing boundaries, neither is the concept of rights, nor is it located in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recourse to the law. At her most dazzlingly critical, Bourke cuts through the historical rhetoric of rights to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show that an insistence on rights is no safeguard or ring fence for the human. Asking serially whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, slaves, and animals are, have been, or should be ?persons?, Bourke demonstrates the enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutability ? the cultural, national and political contingencies ? of being human )] TJ ET BT 414.980 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(qua)] TJ ET BT 432.980 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( personhood. And yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the human remains inherently political ? the )] TJ ET BT 277.988 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(polis)] TJ ET BT 301.328 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for Bourke, is immanent in what being human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means ? it is, and always has been, possible to de-humanize an individual or group through a process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion from the )] TJ ET BT 127.004 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(polis)] TJ ET BT 150.344 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The human in a state of exception, Bourke notes, conjuring with Agamben, is bare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life only. That possibility, that threat, stalks us all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given this theoretical standpoint, it is unsurprising that Bourke is highly critical of animal rights ethics, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its inherent retention of absolute categories and its unwitting recapitulation of anthropomorphic pleading. It )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.9837 683.5975 325.9757 695.4775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.0077 626.5735 265.9997 638.4535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7532 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, she says, ?a modern humanist politics for a world that has already gone post-human? \(p. 182\). Rejecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the glib and rhetorically easy way in which analogies are drawn between the Holocaust and the slaughter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house, Bourke shows her cards. Ultimately, she needs the human to mean something distinctive, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slippery the distinction may historically prove to be, for without distinction there is nothing at all. Othering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is part of what makes the human the human. The Other may change, and the human with it, but the act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection ? a dark reflection of a not-human and a reflexive process of self-recognition ? remains. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity, of recognizing what one is through a rejection of what one is not, lies at the heart of Bourke?s book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and at the core of what it means to be a human being. The title of her book is no accidental pun: what it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to be human has always been defined by )] TJ ET BT 264.968 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reflections)] TJ ET BT 315.632 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument is exemplified by a discussion of the ethics of the face. Who, or what, has a face has proven to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be enormously important in determining who or what to exclude from the category of personhood. Tracing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of face ethics from highly racialised 18th- and 19th-century physiognomics, through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important disagreements about the face as a bearer of the emotions \(of which human emotions carried the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cachet of distinction\), to the contemporary plastic surgeon, Bourke demonstrates the violence in assigning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faces to beings. The ?face?, she says, ?has no literal, corporeal existence. It is always constructed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewer, who is able to choose how to avoid ethical claims or, more correctly, deny that claims are even being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made because they refuse to identify any real face?. In essence, this problem is ?shared by all attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(define ?the human?? \(p. 262\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the argument works as well for the ethics of eating, or the question ?what is meat??. In juxtaposing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various taboos of eating ?animal? flesh and eating ?human? flesh, Bourke shows that the boundaries drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around what can, should, and should not be eaten are implicitly expressions of power, dominance, inclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and exclusion. The markers of exclusion make clear not only what is food, but what are people, depending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on whether individuals consume from within the culturally accepted diet or not. Exploring, with Jacques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derrida, the ?carnivorous sacrifice? at the centre of Western thought, Bourke argues compellingly that to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human is to kill, to own, to consume, and to dominate the non-human \(a category that has historically always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included many members of the species )] TJ ET BT 223.316 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(homo sapiens)] TJ ET BT 288.980 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Given the violence that inheres in this definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the human, the highest stake of this book is the question of what, or who, is a non-human, when and why.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we move to a future of increasing hybridity ? a future of stem-cell harvesting, animal-human organ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transplantation, and physical implantation of technology within the body ? the question of what it means to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be human will continue to shift ground, and the answers will continue to be defined by dynamics of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and exclusion. The hybrid, Bourke shows, is by no means a recent phenomenon, but 21st-century chimeras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise to further destabilize common understandings of what passes as ?nature?. But the question, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke, is only changed in degree, not in kind. For ?What is conveniently set aside?, she says, ?is the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all life is fundamentally chimeric? \(p. 373\). The human being has never been a stable category, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke is fiercely resistant to those who attempt to concretize it. Her rallying cry might be )] TJ ET BT 471.620 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vive la diffrence)] TJ ET BT 554.264 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as she resists the ?radical flattening out of the contours of the world? by those who would denigrate humans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by reference to ?degraded animals?, or by those who ?deny that there is any significant difference between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human and animal flesh? \(p. 385\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What it means to be human)] TJ ET BT 165.008 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ends on a characteristic note of tension, wherein Bourke signposts the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future of a quest for impossible certainties. Doubtless we shall witness the fortunes of a politics ?committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to uniqueness of all life forms? that remains at odds, deliciously, with the ?exhilarating desire and struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for community and communion, authenticity and certainty? \(p. 385\). By putting the question of what it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to be human in historical context, Bourke safely disrupts prevailing assumptions, and puts us at a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting point, where nothing is given, nothing is taken for granted. But her eyes are firmly on the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the future when she points out the ever-present violence of ordering things. This book is, in essence, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blueprint for vigilance: a guide to seeing the contrivances of power in the ever changing constructions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nature?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the human being remains at the heart of what historians write about, we should all do well to read this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. It is a common, perhaps an unconscious, assumption that we already know what it means to be human. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6388 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a starting point. Yet Bourke?s laying bare of the categorical and historical uncertainties about what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being human has meant in the past, in the context of endless attempts to declare ?)] TJ ET BT 424.628 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(here!)] TJ ET BT 449.948 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and not )] TJ ET BT 491.612 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(there! )] TJ ET BT 523.268 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place where the human starts and the animal ceases? \(p. 5\), thrusts that assumption into the light and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declares it our greatest conceit. Intellectually speaking, it might also be our greatest weakness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Humphrey Primatt, )] TJ ET BT 159.680 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Duty of Mercy and the Sin of Cruelty to Brute Animals)] TJ ET BT 442.664 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1776, Fontwell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992\), p. 52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 672.531 m 179.000 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rob Boddice, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Attitudes and Behaviours Toward Animals in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century Britain: Anthropocentrism and the Emergence of Animals)] TJ ET BT 383.660 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lewiston, NY, 2009\), pp. 2?9; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anthropocentrism: Humans, Animals, Environments)] TJ ET BT 315.668 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Rob Boddice \(Leiden and Boston, 2011\), p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 615.507 m 118.004 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Paul Sartre, )] TJ ET BT 148.328 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions)] TJ ET BT 320.984 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1962, London, 2002\), p. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.308 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.308 601.251 m 510.296 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominick LaCapra, )] TJ ET BT 162.332 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and its Limits: Human, Animal, Violence)] TJ ET BT 397.664 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, 2009\), p. 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.300 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.300 586.995 m 558.296 586.995 l S BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 572.739 m 78.008 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/07/means-human-1791-joanna-burke-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 517.971 m 458.288 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.288 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8881633/What-It-Means-to-Be-Human-Reflections-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 489.459 m 553.604 489.459 l S BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from-1791-to-the-Present-by-Joanna-Bourke.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 475.203 m 274.304 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.304 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 446.691 m 270.668 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/26/what-it-means-human-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 418.179 m 400.976 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 403.976 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PopMatters)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.popmatters.com/pm/review/152863-what-it-means-to-be-human-reflections-from-1791-to-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 389.667 m 546.596 389.667 l S BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 375.411 m 68.672 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 71.672 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 372.079 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 354.299 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 354.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1199)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 352.905 m 328.316 352.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 327.928 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.528 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7856)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.128 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/07/means-human-1791-joanna-burke-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8881633/What-It-Means-to-Be-Human-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.472 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reflections-from-1791-to-the-Present-by-Joanna-Bourke.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=417887&amp%3Bsectioncode=26)] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/26/what-it-means-human-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.387 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.popmatters.com/pm/review/152863-what-it-means-to-be-human-reflections-from-1791-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the-present)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.0117 672.8455 178.9997 684.7255 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 615.8215 118.0037 627.7015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.3077 601.5655 510.2957 613.4455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.2997 587.3095 558.2957 599.1895 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 573.0535 78.0077 584.9335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 518.2855 458.2877 530.1655 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/07/means-human-1791-joanna-burke-review) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 489.7735 553.6037 501.6535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8881633/What-It-Means-to-Be-Human-Reflections-from-1791-to-the-Present-by-Joanna-Bourke.html) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 475.5175 274.3037 487.3975 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/8881633/What-It-Means-to-Be-Human-Reflections-from-1791-to-the-Present-by-Joanna-Bourke.html) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 447.0055 270.6677 458.8855 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=417887&sectioncode=26) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 418.4935 400.9757 430.3735 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/oct/26/what-it-means-human-review) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 389.9815 546.5957 401.8615 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.popmatters.com/pm/review/152863-what-it-means-to-be-human-reflections-from-1791-to-the-present) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 375.7255 68.6717 387.6055 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.popmatters.com/pm/review/152863-what-it-means-to-be-human-reflections-from-1791-to-the-present) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 353.2195 328.3157 365.0995 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1199) >> endobj xref 0 58 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000004680 00000 n 0000004789 00000 n 0000004899 00000 n 0000005008 00000 n 0000008569 00000 n 0000008697 00000 n 0000008781 00000 n 0000008810 00000 n 0000008938 00000 n 0000008974 00000 n 0000009003 00000 n 0000009128 00000 n 0000009164 00000 n 0000009255 00000 n 0000017415 00000 n 0000017445 00000 n 0000017573 00000 n 0000017609 00000 n 0000017639 00000 n 0000017767 00000 n 0000017803 00000 n 0000017868 00000 n 0000025453 00000 n 0000025621 00000 n 0000032062 00000 n 0000032190 00000 n 0000032245 00000 n 0000032372 00000 n 0000032427 00000 n 0000032555 00000 n 0000032610 00000 n 0000032738 00000 n 0000032793 00000 n 0000032919 00000 n 0000032974 00000 n 0000033101 00000 n 0000033233 00000 n 0000033360 00000 n 0000033557 00000 n 0000033684 00000 n 0000033881 00000 n 0000034008 00000 n 0000034143 00000 n 0000034270 00000 n 0000034392 00000 n 0000034519 00000 n 0000034676 00000 n 0000034802 00000 n 0000034959 00000 n 0000035087 00000 n trailer << /Size 58 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35183 %%EOF