%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722003525+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722003525+01'00') /Title (Agricultural Revolution in England: the Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500- 1850.) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3948 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Agricultural Revolution in England: the Transformation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Agrarian Economy 1500- 1850.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This new study of the agricultural revolution is clearly the product of many years of study and research. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely argued, liberally illustrated with figures and tables, and tersely written and remarkably compressed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intended primarily for students, it will repay careful reading, and re-reading, by teachers as well as students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book' s thesis is supported at numerous points by statistical material gathered from a number of sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but at the core of the argument stand the key figures of output and productivity. There are three tables of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimates of the agricultural output of England, one based on the growth of population numbers and allowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for net imports, the second on the assumed demand of this population taking account of the movements in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prices and wages, and the third on contemporary estimates and modern guesses of the value of output at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different periods. Surprisingly, over the period 1700-1831/1851 the results are not hugely different, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important point is that all show a very substantial growth in output to have occurred in the course of the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century and first half of the nineteenth century. The estimates based on population numbers go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back much further in time and suggest thaw while between 1520 and 1651 there was a considerable growth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Overton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521246828)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521246828)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon Mingay)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7264 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of output \(when it rather more than doubled\), there then followed a lengthy static period of very little or no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth until well into the eighteenth century. This, however, conflicts with the demand- based estimates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which show a growth of output of as much as 43 per cent occurring between 1700 and 1760.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These discrepancies apart, output is one matter, of course \(as Professor Overton points out\), and productivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. The first can be achieved merely by bringing additional resources into play, while the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depends on advances in the modes of exploiting existing resources of land, livestock and labour. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore to a rise in productivity, and the causes of it, that the argument for an agricultural revolution must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look. For lack of adequate source materials the rise in livestock productivity cannot be properly charted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the author concludes that there were considerable advances well before the later eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the hundred years following 1660. It is possible, however, to produce figures for the productivity of land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which suggest that this more than doubled between 1700 and 1850, with the larger part of the increase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming after 1800. Figures for cereal yields also point to the eighteenth century as the era of breakthrough, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with only a slow improvement in the yields occurring before 1700, and a major improvement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following half-century. The productivity of labour showed a sustained rise from at least 1700, as a result, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is believed, of the gradual substitution of horse for human power, an increase in the size of farms which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made for the more economical use of labour, the development of better hand tools, and from the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century the mechanisation of more farming operations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further figures indicate that over the period 1700 - 1850 it may be concluded that, in general, output rose by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some 170 -180 per cent on a total farm area that had risen by only one third; the productivity of land had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather more than doubled, cereal yields rose two and a half times, and the productivity of labour roughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What explanation is there for this revival of the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth centuries as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucible of agricultural revolution ? As we have long known, there were already in 1700 a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances in the improvement of pastures and the growing of new fodder crops, some of the innovations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going back well before 1660, but Professor Overton puts his main emphasis on the spread after 1750 of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing of fodder crops on a large scale as the key to technical change. He bases this argument, in part, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the research carried out by B.M.S. Campbell and himself into Norfolk farming, where it was found that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of legumes made no advance over medieval levels, in terms of sown area, until some time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1739 and 1836, while clover and turnips, not grown at all previously, occupied between them nine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent of the sown area in 1660-1739, and as much as 49 per cent by 1836.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The spread in Norfolk and else where of the 'new' fodder crops resulted, as it is well known, in the reduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of land Iying fallow and a big injection of nitrogen into the soil. These advances were encouraged by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of accompanying developments, most notably the growth of the market for agricultural produce and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a variety of institutional changes involving the spread of leasehold tenures and the sweeping away of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common fields and common rights. Enclosure, in particular, made for greater flexibility in land use while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution of sole occupation of land over a larger proportion of the farmland, enabled farmers to be more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily responsive to shifts in markets and prices. p> The extent to which markets expanded may be judged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more clearly now than in the past by resort to E.A. Wrigley's 1985 figures for the non- agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, both urban and rural \(reprinted by Professor Overton\). These indicate that the non- agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population rose from under a quarter of the whole in 1520 to as much as 45 per cent by 1700, and to as high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as nearly 64 per cent by 1801. In consequence, the numbers of landholders farming primarily for subsistence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and selling relatively little produce in the markets \(estimated at 80 per cent of the total in 1520\) must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fallen gradually to a much lower level. By the eighteenth century market forces, together with institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in landowning and land tenure, had brought into being an agricultural system dominated by farms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had grown in average size and were mainly occupied by landlord' s tenants concerned with producing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the market. Although the small freeholders may have declined, there still remained, in addition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants of landed estates, numbers of larger freeholders, and if we may believe Arthur Young, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial independent cultivators were among the most progressive farmers of his time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The growth of the market, as delineated above, appears to pose something of a problem of timing for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7507 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Overton's mid-eighteenth- century technical breakthrough. According to Wrigley's figures the non- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural population was already nearly a half of the total in 1700, and as a proportion of the whole had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grown by some 90 per cent sine 1520. The total population itself, of course, is estimated by Wrigley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield to have been very much larger in 1700 \(at just over 5 million\) than in 1520 \(2.4 million\), so that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the growth of the non- agricultural numbers the food market of 1700 must have been very greatly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excess of that available to farmers at the earlier date. If the market were a key factor in agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion, as must be supposed, it seems strange in the circumstances that the great leap forward in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural output and productivity should have been delayed until after 1750, and in fact until mainly after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800, the more especially as the accompanying institutional factors were already in train before 1700. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure for cereal yields and the demand- based output estimates, quoted above, do suggest in fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable progress was being made already in the first half of the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the rise in the numbers of the English population, of nearly three million in the fifty years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1751 and 1801, is larger than the overall rise of the whole two centuries between 1551 and 1751; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the growth of numbers after 1801 totally dwarfed all previous experience. However, prior to the bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seasons of the French Wars period the effects on prices of the expansion of the market were not very clear or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounced. And given contemporary doubts whether the population was growing or not, farmers would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been fool-hardy to gamble on a long sustained increase in price levels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Overton recognises of course that important changes in agriculture did occur before 1700, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in regard to the improvement of livestock production, but these changes, he considers, cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare in terms of output and productivity with those flowing from the spread after 1750 of fodder crops: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these made for more intensive farming, a reduction in land lying fallow, and ''a massive increase in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply of nitrogen to farmland". On the contrary, he argues, the ploughing up of the pastures in the earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period can be interpreted as ''a desperate attempt by farmers to cash in on reserves of nitrogen to produce as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much grain as possible in the face of overwhelming demand.... Kerridge's arguments are not persuasive.... '' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(''Coupled with evidence of wide-spread reclamation and the halt to population growth in the mid- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century this period is more suggestive of a Malthusian check than agricultural triumph.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the timing of the post-1750 revolution based on the widespread use of the fodder crops, Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overton accepts, is difficult to explain. Farmers no doubt became more sensitive to market prices but there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no evidence that they were aware of long-term price trends. Furthermore, it might be urged, a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectation of life \(which made some eighteenth-century farmers reluctant to take up long leases\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalence of natural setbacks to production caused by pests and disease combined to make farmers adopt a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreshortened outlook towards the future. Seventeenth-century farmers' early experiments with clover and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turnips, Professor Overton thinks, may have had more to do with attempts to safeguard supplies of fodder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than with appreciation of their potential to raise productivity, while the attraction of clover may have been its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to form a ley more quickly and more reliably than by using other means. The role of these crops in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raising yields may have been ''unintended consequences of the initial innovation in the late seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century" rather than a rational response to the unfavourable price movements of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusion Professor Overton recognises that changing attitude among occupiers towards the business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of farming was as significant as changes in prices and costs in determining agricultural progress. Prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century there had always been some large-scale farming for the market, of course, especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to livestock; and there were also some farmers who kept careful records and adopted a pragmatic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative approach towards their livelihood. This kind of farmer became rather more common in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, especially among the bigger freeholders and tenants of the larger farms which some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords were gradually creating by a deliberate policy of transferring additional land into the hands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more capable men. No doubt the division remarked upon by Arthur Young between the enlightened large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmers and the benighted small ones, though no doubt exaggerated and over- simplified, had some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substance in fact. The spread of more efficient farming was a long process, of course, and still had a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to go even in 1850, as Caird's strictures remind us, and many fairly simple and obvious means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducing costs and improving output were slow to be adopted. Among dairy farmers, for instance, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of milk recording in order to identify and remove the low-producing cows was quite )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional before 1920 and developed in earnest only after 1950.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another aspect of the pre-1850 changes which deserves more attention is that of capital supply and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment. Landlords' investment in creating larger farms and in enclosure, with associated expenditures on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land reclamation, drainage, and new farm buildings, was clearly substantial, as was farmers' investment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved livestock, better implements, and carts and wagons, as well, often enough, as a share of the costs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of land reclamation and drainage. The mechanism by which the involved were diverted from landlords' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rentals and farmers' profits, and the role of banks and of the informal network of local lenders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowers, still remains little explored for the period of crucial agricultural change. And, of course, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Overton notes, one major weakness of contemporary farming, the losses caused by pests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease to both crops and livestock, remained unremedied until well after 1850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To repeat, )] TJ ET BT 85.664 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Agricultural Revolution in England )] TJ ET BT 262.004 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a compact study primarily intended for students, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the material is presented at an elementary level. Much of it, however is not, and probably the finer points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Professor Overton's complex analysis can be appreciated and assessed only by those with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable background in the subject. This applies particularly to the controversies surrounding Brenner's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument on the development of agrarian capitalism, and to Kerridge's ''early agricultural revolution" which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are considered in very summary terms, but applies also elsewhere, for example in considering the effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosure. It may be that the author decided to err on the side of brevity but there is something to be said for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more extended discussions, especially in a book intended for students. The summary approach has also led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to errors at a few points \(e.g. the statement on p.176 that ''small farmers", rather than small owners, had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sell land in order to finance enclosure - an important distinction often misunderstood by students - and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggeration of the effects of the New Poor Law on p.187\). More serious is the lack of references to the text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(True, sources for the tables are given, and there are, nevertheless. statements in the text for which one would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like to have chapter and verse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are minor blemishes on a study that is important not only for its forthright, statistics-based arguments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also for the collected statistics themselves, which indeed make it an invaluable work of reference. It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement in which the author may justly take pride.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 358.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 341.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 341.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/12)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 339.657 m 316.316 339.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 314.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/180)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 339.9715 316.3157 351.8515 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/12) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000593 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000004675 00000 n 0000004784 00000 n 0000004894 00000 n 0000005003 00000 n 0000008564 00000 n 0000008692 00000 n 0000008776 00000 n 0000008841 00000 n 0000016158 00000 n 0000016223 00000 n 0000023783 00000 n 0000023867 00000 n 0000028481 00000 n 0000028609 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28703 %%EOF