%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150706142900+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150706142900+01'00') /Title (Reversing Babel. Translation among the English during an Age of Conquests, c. 800 to c. 1200) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4164 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reversing Babel. Translation among the English during an Age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Conquests, c. 800 to c. 1200)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval people traced the multiplicity of languages back to the story in Genesis of the tower of Babel, built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by humans. God punished their arrogance by scattering them to the four winds so that each could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the language of his neighbour. From the sons of Noah were descended 72 peoples with 72 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. The difficulty that English was not numbered among them was circumvented by the helpful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovery that a son of Noah, Sceaf, was born on the Ark and was the ancestor of the Anglo-Saxon kings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 72 tongues were re-united at Pentecost through the Holy Spirit, an image of which from a 10th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester Benedictional forms the cover illustration of this book. )] TJ ET BT 357.980 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reversing Babel)] TJ ET BT 436.964 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation in England between about 900 and about 1200. The author begins by explaining clearly what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is and is not trying to achieve. The study is of English speakers and those with whom they came into contact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not all the inhabitants of the British Isles, between the Viking invasions and the Angevin empire. The aim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to explore themes and continuities over a lengthy period, not explicitly to address language as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of identity, or to provide a history of languages. It was written in the belief that language provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about the interaction between cultures in an era of conquests, Scandinavian, Norman, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally and more debatably, Angevin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter addresses the question of what contemporaries understood by a language. It is pointed out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1201)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce O'Brien)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781611490527)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(362pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Delaware Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newark, Delaware)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith A. Green)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7806 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was not much evidence of awareness of different dialects of English before the 12th century, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many people were multilingual. The chief influences on translators in England were Jerome and Isidore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than classical authors. So far as translation was concerned, there was a wide spectrum of practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging from strict verbal equivalence to a process of editing-cum-translation better expressed as rendition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second chapter the discussion turns more specifically to the context in which translation occurred. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, there is the evidence of how far Scandinavian invaders, traders, and settlers understood the natives \(on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole they probably did, depending on where they lived\). Then the Normans arrived. The author is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly sceptical of attributing a straightforward transition to spoken French and written Latin as the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages simply to ethno-political factors. He argues that logically the Normans might have learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English more readily had not the Angevin ?conquest? occurred in 1154. The geographical extent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angevin ?empire? meant that French remained the language of the ruling elite and in England became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of common law, a status it was to retain for centuries. O?Brien goes on to discuss different kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities where languages intermingled, in towns and in monasteries, and the experiences of travellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and crusaders. An intriguing perspective on languages in 12th-century Canterbury based on surviving rentals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is offered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third chapter the author pulls together what evidence there is about motives for translation: the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teach basic skills in Latin, to instruct the clergy, to defend property rights, to understand the world, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edify the laity. He discusses the ambiguities surrounding the role of patron and author, the reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioning translation and the lack of evidence of material reward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth and fifth chapters are concerned with practicalities: what do we know of the training of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translators, their reference books, their advisers, and the physical setting in which they worked? In most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases the answer is ?very little? but one figure about whose sources something may be inferred is Aelfric, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monk of Cerne and then abbot of Eynsham who lived in the later 10th and early 11th centuries. It has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that he may well have had access to all his sources close to home. In contrast Adelard of Bath, a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure in the transmission of Arabic texts to England in the early 12th century, may have translated them on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his travels, or brought texts back to England and translated them there. On the question of working methods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Brien uses the example provided by Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ?F?, as edited by Peter S. Baker.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.280 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.280 388.419 m 510.272 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronicle?s author, probably the cantor of Canterbury Christ Church cathedral, began work on wax or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parchment scraps, then transcribed his draft onto a fair copy, thought to be the manuscript which still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survives. English annals were written up in batches with gaps left for Latin translations. As later material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became available, possibly when the author was away from Canterbury on business, insertions were made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five focuses on the translator?s method: how the text was established, how it was edited, and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how presented, chapter by chapter or as a continuous gloss. Words were translated either into cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalents \(the method most commonly used\), by etymological translation, or simply by transcribing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original. Three examples are discussed to show what was changed, the 10th-century West Saxon Gospels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought to have been the work of a team; 11th-century translations into English of the apocryphal )] TJ ET BT 504.620 237.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gospel of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nicodemus )] TJ ET BT 90.344 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 110.672 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vengeance of the Saviour )] TJ ET BT 236.648 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the manuscript used by the translator still survives )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.948 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.948 221.859 m 526.940 221.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 526.940 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 12th- or early 13th-century French translation of part of the Old Testament where the translator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered analogous French terms for words unfamiliar in his own day. Thus for example the Philistines, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies of the Israelites, were explained as the )] TJ ET BT 262.952 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gent Sarazine)] TJ ET BT 328.616 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The concluding chapter spells out the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view in more detail that in terms of translation neither 1066 nor, as Maitland believed, the legal reforms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry II, were critical in establishing the special place of French in the governance of England. Instead, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued here, it was the accession of Henry II that was decisive. The book concludes with an appendix of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated works. In compiling a useful list of this kind, the author is careful to point out the difficulty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deciding how precisely he defined a translation for the purpose of inclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By his scepticism O?Brien forces us to ponder easy assumptions about language as a marker of ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity or social status. His own work on law in England after 1066, and the languages in which it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed, has demonstrated that the Normans were far from uninterested in the antique laws of the English. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.2797 388.7335 510.2717 400.6135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.9477 222.1735 526.9397 234.0535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5564 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context it is hard to see the conquerors as mindless destroyers, especially as their translations were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both translations and editions, and showed a lively interest in the original. Legal translation was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquarianism or an exercise in nostalgia but driven by an urgent need to understand the laws of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English. When these laws were translated, it was into Latin, not French, and it was only in the later 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century that the status of French was enshrined as the language of common law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the strengths of this book lie in its chronological range and extensive reading, in other ways the limits set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the author have to some extent acted as a constraint when it comes to drawing out the wider significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its findings. By focussing on written texts, he has not, for instance, made much use of the evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place and personal names to augment scanty evidence. The discussion of Northwest England \(pp. 82, 84\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres on a problematic text, Gospatric?s writ, which if accepted as authentic dates from the mid 11th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, yet there is much more evidence recorded in charters about the linguistic mix from the names of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places and, by the 12th century, of people. Secondly, more attention could perhaps have been given to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modes of communication, oral and visual, to amplify discussion of the circumstances in which translation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was necessary. This is particularly relevant when thinking about legal proceedings, O?Brien?s own field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise: English and French must have been spoken in court, even if the language of record was Latin. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same point is of course true of the Domesday Inquest and book. Related to this is the status of languages: if, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as suggested here, the likelihood was that the Normans in England would have adopted English had it not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been for the accession of the Plantagenet kings, surely the superior social prestige of French after 1066 has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be borne in mind? Here one remembers the pejorative nicknames Godric and Godgifu given to Henry I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Queen Matilda. Moreover it could be debated whether the consequences of a change of ruling dynasty in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1154 were as far-reaching as the effects of Scandinavian invasions or the Norman Conquest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One specific question, the change in language of royal writs from English to Latin after 1066, is discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by O?Brien, who points out that historians may have been too ready to interpret this as evidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downgrading of English. Yet the change raises further questions about whether the impulse to change came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from royal scribes, their masters, or from beneficiaries, who wished to preserve writs in their archives. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration may have been that some writs, such as exemption from toll, might have had to be used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different parts of the country. The writing up of Domesday Book in Latin could have acted as a further spur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the use of Latin in other kinds of administrative records. 12th-century pipe rolls, for instance, were in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, one dimension omitted here in the context of patrons, translators and texts is that of gender. Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adeliza of Louvain, Henry?s second wife, crops up, as does Aliz de Cund, known to have been the patron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sansun de Nantuil, author of the )] TJ ET BT 205.328 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Proverbs of Solomon)] TJ ET BT 306.656 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. We know next to nothing about the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between patrons and translators, but it is surely worth asking whether the sex of patrons influenced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice of texts and the way they were presented. The concerns of communities of religious women, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those at Wilton and Barking, were different from those of male communities. Whether translations were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made for male or female religious, only one translator, Clemence of Barking, the author of the late 12th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century life of Saint Catherine, is known to have been a woman.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3320 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book has many virtues. It offers what might be described as ?an historian?s view of translation?, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense that the subject crosses disciplinary boundaries. Bruce O?Brien has come to grips with a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material which has often first appeared in specialist journals. He has offered a coherent overview, combining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own work on legal texts and translation with those of linguists and textual scholars. The book in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways is a )] TJ ET BT 81.008 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour)] TJ ET BT 104.012 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de)] TJ ET BT 118.340 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(force)] TJ ET BT 143.000 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ranging as it does from translations from Latin into English and French, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English into Latin, and from Arabic into Latin, including Biblical, hagiographic, historical and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts. Simply by setting Aelfric alongside Adelard of Bath he makes us think about two individuals widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated in time but engaged in similar enterprises of translation. The text is lucidly written and amply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnoted, so that the reader does not lose sight of the argument being made. It is illustrated with 29 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annotated black and white illustrations plus maps and diagrams. Few historians could have written such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, and most will learn something new. It will be required reading for students of history, literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: A Collaborative Edition)] TJ ET BT 320.348 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited Peter S. Baker \(Vol. 8, Cambridge, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 546.483 m 118.004 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saint-Omer, Bibliothque Municipale, MS 202.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.012 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.012 532.227 m 347.000 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 490.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 472.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 472.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1201)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 471.465 m 328.316 471.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 446.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7858)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 546.7975 118.0037 558.6775 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 293.0117 532.5415 346.9997 544.4215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 471.7795 328.3157 483.6595 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1201) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000595 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000004893 00000 n 0000005002 00000 n 0000005112 00000 n 0000005221 00000 n 0000008782 00000 n 0000008910 00000 n 0000008994 00000 n 0000009085 00000 n 0000016944 00000 n 0000016974 00000 n 0000017102 00000 n 0000017138 00000 n 0000017168 00000 n 0000017296 00000 n 0000017332 00000 n 0000017397 00000 n 0000023014 00000 n 0000023112 00000 n 0000026485 00000 n 0000026612 00000 n 0000026667 00000 n 0000026795 00000 n 0000026850 00000 n 0000026978 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27074 %%EOF