%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 59 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001002958+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001002958+01'00') /Title (The Triumph of the Dark: European International History, 1933-1939) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4053 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Triumph of the Dark: European International History, 1933-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the beginning was Hitler.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some might baulk at the seeming simplicity of this assertion; others might dismiss it as ignoring decades of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent scholarship. Yet there is nothing simplistic about the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.992 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.992 224.289 m 355.316 224.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.316 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 372.308 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and concluding volume of Zara )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steiner?s magisterial and monumental history of Great Power politics between the two world wars; nor is it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in any sense an old-fashioned book. On the contrary, this is a lucid and authoritative account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international politics of Europe?s dark decade ? an account that weaves together an awe-inspiring range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different strands of global developments in a vast synthesis that is informed by a life-time?s immersion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period and its archives. Its title is suggestive of a Manichaean struggle between the forces of good and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evil. And, of course, to a large extent the history of the 1930s is precisely that. It was, as Steiner argues in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prologue to this book, a period ?with few heroes, two evil Titans, and an assortment of villains, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knaves. I have not enjoyed their company? ? and who could blame her. Her moral judgement is sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stark. Her skill at limning the complexities faced by the decision-makers is therefore all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This vast book is, indeed, based on an assumption of the primacy of politics. The emphasis here is firmly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1204)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zara Steiner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199212002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Otte)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.9917 224.6035 355.3157 236.4835 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/489) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8145 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the men ? and they were all men ? who shaped the course of events, the heads of government and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign ministers, ambassadors and generals, foreign ministry clerks and staff officers. )] TJ ET BT 451.928 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Triumph of the Dark)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers skilfully drawn and illuminating portraits of the main actors. Yet this is not a history of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics as seen from a succession of embassy windows. Much of her analysis is underpinned by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive grasp of the economic conditions of the decade and their impact on its international politics, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the thorny issues of defence and armaments. Her account, for instance, of Berlin?s use of clearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts and payment agreements to create a German-dominated )] TJ ET BT 349.928 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wirtschaftsraum)] TJ ET BT 429.932 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or economic zone is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterly. Nor does she ignore the ideological forces at work. She argues convincingly that ?belief systems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated the nations from one another?, that, indeed, ?ideological assumptions affected the way statesmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their advisers saw the world?. But such predispositions did not predetermine the course of actions these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men decided upon. There was, as Steiner points out, a certain fluidity to Great Power politics that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgressed ideological barriers, as instanced by the attempts by London and Paris to treat with Mussolini?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy or, most infamously, by the Nazi-Soviet pact of August 1939. The one exception was Hitler, as Steiner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues: ?Obsessed with the international Jewish conspiracy that was closing around the )] TJ ET BT 455.948 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reich)] TJ ET BT 483.272 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he felt he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to launch his war before it was too late?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so, in the beginning was Hitler. It is with the German dictator and his intentions, Zara Steiner contends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?that any student of European international history must begin?. The Hitler who emerges from this 1,200-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(odd pages-thick volume is an ideologue to be sure, ruthlessly determined in the pursuit of his fixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions. But he was equally ruthless in his canny opportunism. Nearly six decades ago, Hugh Trevor-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roper warned against the temptation of ?extrapolating low intelligence from [Hitler?s] moral degradation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 497.955 m 48.008 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Steiner is never in danger of making that error: ?The )] TJ ET BT 306.284 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fhrer)] TJ ET BT 340.280 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, if impulsive and temperamental, could also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be extraordinarily patient. [?] [H]is arguments were rational and well developed. Hitler had the ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respond flexibly to changes in the European situation without losing sight of his ultimate goals?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If, as Steiner argues, the old ?intentionalists vs. functionalists? debate has lost much of its salience, Hitler?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate goals nevertheless hold the key to his political moves right from the moment he was made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chancellor in January 1933. They were fixed long before then; and they were grandiose in scale and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambition. They were based on a particularly perverted permutation of Social Darwinism, one that postulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that international politics were a perpetual racial struggle for survival and supremacy. With that in mind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s ultimate strategic twin-goals were the conquest of Germany?s much needed )] TJ ET BT 441.596 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lebensraum)] TJ ET BT 500.924 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vastness of Eastern Europe and the extermination of European Jewry. The two, as Steiner argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasively, were inextricably linked. Both were to lay the basis of a new world order, a German-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated, Aryan world order. Foreign policy was the key to the attainment of this aim. But this was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional Great Power politics any more, nor was it a continuation of traditional German foreign policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter had relatively limited, and arguably rational, aims in view, largely centred on the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial revision. Hitler?s objective was European domination and, indeed, world power; and that entailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war on a vast scale, and fought for its own sake. Nor did his foreign policy conform to the established norms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of diplomatic conduct. Instead he used the full register of means, from pacific public speech to bellicose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, from sabre rattling to propaganda warfare, and from bilateral deals to the intimidation of visiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign statesmen, with ?weekend surprises? being a particular favourite of his.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Steiner explicitly refutes A. J. P. Taylor?s interpretation of the German dictator as a run-of-the-mill, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional German politician who, in a fit of absent-mindedness, had stumbled into a world war in 1939. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steiner there is no doubt, this was Hitler?s war, even if it was not the sort of war he wanted, or at a time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his choosing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of modern Germany will for ever argue whether Hitler?s compelling charisma was the dominant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of the Nazi regime or whether it was marked by manipulation and menace. To an extent this debate is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less relevant to the field of foreign policy. Here the final decision lay with the )] TJ ET BT 409.952 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fhrer)] TJ ET BT 443.948 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Even so, Steiner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepts the ?polycratic? nature of the regime, and the more or less well-ordered chaos that prevailed at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels at Berlin. Different power centres and the ambitions of individuals in the upper echelons of the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party hierarchy, the )] TJ ET BT 130.652 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wilhelmstrasse)] TJ ET BT 203.984 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the armed forces thus created cross-currents that affected the short-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term course of German policy. But they could not affect its general direction. Ultimately, all these )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 498.2695 48.0077 510.1495 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8016 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals were ?working towards the )] TJ ET BT 223.652 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fhrer)] TJ ET BT 257.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. A particularly egregious example was Joachim von )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ribbentrop, the )] TJ ET BT 111.680 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(quondam)] TJ ET BT 156.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( champagne salesman-turned-Hitler-courtier who became first ambassador at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and then foreign minister. His vanity was exceeded only by his monumental tactlessness \(in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was generally known as ?von Brickendrop?\). Others, such as Hermann Gring, occasionally ventured into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private diplomacy, e.g. by using Swedish businessmen to pursue the option of a deal with Great Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even saner men, mostly diplomats, members of the traditional elites, did little to moderate German foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy. Ernst von Weizscker, the permanent head of the foreign ministry, or the ambassador at Rome, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulrich von Hassell, might have deprecated aspects of the Nazi regime, but they, too, worked towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fhrer)] TJ ET BT 68.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. They did so for a mixture of reasons, traditional German expansionism, fatalistic resignation, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(misguided\) belief that they were preventing worse things from happening. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, Hitler did not create the international situation in existence in 1933. As Zara Steiner expounded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first volume of her study of the inter-war period, the years 1928?33 were ?hinge years?. The events of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that time had exposed the fragility of the post-1919 international order; they had weakened the system; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had shown the limits of global cooperation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.000 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.000 597.747 m 279.992 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 279.992 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Hitler exploited that situation. He made the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weather, and others had to reach for their umbrellas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What about the other leaders? Steiner is no less trenchant in her judgement of them. She rightly rejects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent attempts to rehabilitate Benito Mussolini. Throughout the period, ?[t]he Duce was like a weathervane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a windy day?. His bombastic attempts to conjure up a latter-day Roman Empire, his reckless Abyssinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventure, and his support for the fellow-fascist Franco during the Spanish Civil War ultimately exposed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hollowness of Italian pretensions. )] TJ ET BT 198.332 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il Duce?s)] TJ ET BT 244.652 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( posturing reminds one of Bismarck?s )] TJ ET BT 429.968 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(apercu)] TJ ET BT 463.292 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Poor Italy ? such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge appetite, such poor teeth?. Just how rotten Italy?s teeth had become after a surfeit of the Mussolini diet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was revealed in 1939, when, despite the ?Pact of Steel?, the Italian leader sought refuge in a declaration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?non-belligerence?, a bellicose sounding word for neutrality. Indeed, what is striking about Italian decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making is the lack of attention to detail \(not just by the lazy Ciano\), the absence of any forethought \(not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the part of the )] TJ ET BT 119.000 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Duce)] TJ ET BT 144.320 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and a habit of drifting along. In the end, as Steiner demonstrates, Italy acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s jackal, trying to snatch up what morsels she could.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin is the other ?evil titan? of Steiner?s tale. His regime represented a different kind of tyranny. Stalin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purges, as Steiner argues, ?were rooted in Stalin's fierce determination to establish his control over all men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and institutions that might threaten his monopoly of power?. His conduct of foreign affairs was blinkered, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infused with paranoia and conditioned by the parameters of Soviet ideology. In its effect it was malignant. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To Stalin?s mind there was little difference between the various ?capitalist? powers. The Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention in the Russian civil war cast a long shadow indeed. Stalin was ultimately driven by )] TJ ET BT 496.316 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculations, even if he was forced to justify his decisions with reference to Marxist-Leninist doctrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(fortunately for him, an endlessly flexible doctrine\). Thus, the Nazi-Soviet pact of August 1939, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet participation in the carving up of Poland were an attempt to buy time. Even so, Stalin had his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delusions, ignoring evidence of German designs on the Soviet Union until almost the end. Indeed, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to assure the )] TJ ET BT 147.332 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fhrer)] TJ ET BT 181.328 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that ?[t]he USSR is interested in a strong Germany and will not let it be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beaten?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French and British leaders do not emerge well from this book. The politicians at Paris were slippery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customers, their lack of steadfastness made worse by their acute fears about France?s vulnerability. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Vansittart remarked of Pierre Laval ?the only white thing about Laval was his tie? ? and even that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rarely sent to the laundry. Georges Bonnet, one of the many foreign ministers in the revolving-door )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cabinets of the period, was congenitally defeatist and constitutionally dishonest. Prime Minister Edouard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daladier was perhaps more clear-sighted about international politics. After Munich he predicted accurately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain and France would face fresh German demands ?within six months?. But the ?Bull of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vaucluse? was better known for having the horns of a snail. When he talked tough, it was usually an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infallible indication of imminent surrender.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What about British politicians? For all his later attempts to reinvent himself as an early anti-appeaser, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Eden was fickle and disingenuous, not always on top of his brief and rarely missing an opportunity )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.9997 598.0615 279.9917 609.9415 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7690 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to wobble. When he finally resigned, he did so in fit a pique, not on a matter of principle. His successor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Halifax, was aloof and his famed sense of Christian morality seems to have been suspended for much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his period in office. To his mind, Hitler was an odd-ball, certainly, but scarcely an evil man. Indeed, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was one of his ambitions to welcome the )] TJ ET BT 232.664 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fhrer )] TJ ET BT 269.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to London, and to see him walk through the gates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckingham Palace, arm in arm with the King.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for Neville Chamberlain, Steiner gives short shrift to the attempts by recent revisionists to rehabilitate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. Whereas the latter tend to argue from a limited basis of material, often from Chamberlain?s own pen or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of his cronies, Steiner argues from a commanding knowledge of the French, German, Italian and Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources as well. These allow her not only to contextualize the appeasement policy, but also to arrive at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cogent judgement in the round. Of course, Chamberlain was not the first Conservative prime minister to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come a cropper in Europe, nor was he the last. But he was in a league of his own. Steiner is scathing about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his vaulting vanity and inflated ideas about his own abilities ? ?his hubristic ambitions and self-confidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were extraordinary?. In reality, Chamberlain was a man of limited experience and limited insight. He was by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no means a weak man, but one prone to wishful thinking and adept at ignoring reality when it did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conform to his preconceived ideas. Of course, his anxiety to avoid war was nothing but admirable. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on reading Steiner?s account one is reminded of Harold Nicolson?s remark that Chamberlain and Halifax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ventured into diplomacy with all the high-mindedness of two young curates stepping for the first time into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public house. Both failed entirely to understand Hitler. Perhaps, it was always difficult to understand that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great and civilised country was enthralled with a dismal little man, albeit one gifted with demonic charisma. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But they projected their own abhorrence of war onto others, and so never grasped that Nazism saw its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate destiny in war, and that therefore appeasement had no chance of success. Both assumed that Hitler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was amenable to personal persuasion and judicious concessions. At the time of Munich Chamberlain thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all Hitler?s ambitions were limited to absorbing the Sudeten German areas of the Czechoslovak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic. What he really wanted was ?to smash Czechoslovakia?. True, the Munich agreement thwarted him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that ambition in the short-term, but he got what he wanted not even half-a-year later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steiner is harsh in her judgement of the British government?s reluctance to define a clear policy in Europe. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was driven by illusions and wishful thinking about the nature of the Hitler regime and, in turn, it encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German illusions about Britain and her likely neutrality in a continental conflict. That said, Zara Steiner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a balanced account of Anglo-French policy. She is sensitive to the dilemmas faced by the decision-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers in London and Paris. She accepts that the range of options available to them was much more limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than most of their critics appreciated at the time. Public opinion shuddered at the thought of renewed carnage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ?Flanders fields?; and, in general, the public recoiled at the prospect of large armaments programmes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military conscription, or any policy that might conceivably entail the risk of war. Indeed, for all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain?s many shortcomings, one wonders whether Steiner was right to concentrate the blame for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure of British foreign policy on Neville Chamberlain personally. Appeasement, i.e. targeted concessions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to accommodate what where deemed to be legitimate grievances, was supported by the whole cabinet and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all those who had come to the conclusion that troubles in Europe would end only if frontiers were redrawn to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct the assumed mistakes made at Paris in 1919.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this gives more context to Chamberlain?s position, Steiner is nevertheless right to criticise him for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sticking to the carcass of failed policies. To the end, for instance, he believed in the moderating influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini, and to that end he pursued the )] TJ ET BT 235.004 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Duce)] TJ ET BT 260.324 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with diplomatic initiatives. To force Hitler to moderate his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy was also the object of British rearmament after 1936, as Steiner shows clearly. Indeed, as late as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of July 1939, Chamberlain smugly concluded that he had Hitler where he wanted him: ?he is fulfilling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my expectations ? the longer the war is put off, the less likely it is to come at all?. It came not quite six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeks later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the 1930s is one of crises. Any strategic analysis of the period must take account of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bewildering array of factors and often contradictory currents. Steiner deals with them with great aplomb. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisp and lucid prose, and always clear-sighted in her analysis, she guides the reader through the shoals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eddies, and torrents of the international politics of the years before 1939. )] TJ ET BT 385.952 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Triumph of the Dark)] TJ ET BT 505.952 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interlocking narrative of events in Europe and in East Asia ? for once the publisher?s blurb undersells a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7691 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Steiner shows how Hitler sought to widen the cracks in the remaining 1919 structures on coming to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office in 1933, structures that were finally brought down by Mussolini?s Abyssinian adventure and the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war in Spain. Afterwards, collective efforts were a thing of the past, as the chancelleries of Europe reverted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the methods of ?old diplomacy? and sought bilateral alliances and agreements. 1937 clearly emerges as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the decisive year for Hitler. From then on he was determined on war. Perhaps, more controversially, Steiner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that a military response to Hitler would have been a realistic option at the time of the Sudeten crisis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1938. The military balance was not in Germany?s favour ? German generals, in fact, warned Hitler that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had overreached himself. Indeed, as Steiner argues persuasively, )] TJ ET BT 346.928 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace)] TJ ET BT 372.584 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revisionists, the Power that gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most from delaying conflict at Munich was Germany. However, the chiefs of staff in Britain counselled that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country was in no condition to fight then; and it would have been a courageous prime minister who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored such advice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so, right to the end, it was Hitler. Zara Steiner offers a dark tale. There are a no bright lights anywhere. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the dismal nature of this decade, historians have often been prone either to pontificate or to exculpate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steiner does neither. She has written a masterly conclusion to her equally magisterial study of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Power politics of the 1920s. ?Too much history?, Lewis Namier complained in early 1939, ?is written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(don-bred dons with no knowledge or understanding of the practical problems of statecraft?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.928 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.928 569.235 m 486.920 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 486.920 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Zara Steiner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not fall into that category. For all her trenchant criticisms of the decision-makers and her sharp put-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downs, her analysis of the strategic complexities of the 1930s is shrewd and her judgement always balanced. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is that rarest of books ? it is a book of profound wisdom. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.963 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H.R. Trevor-Roper, ?Hitlers Kriegsziele?, )] TJ ET BT 268.628 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vierteljahreshefte fr Zeitgeschichte)] TJ ET BT 443.948 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8, 1 \(1960\), 122.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.940 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.940 460.947 m 557.600 460.947 l S BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 446.691 m 90.344 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Z. S. Steiner, )] TJ ET BT 130.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lights that Failed: European International History, 1919?1933)] TJ ET BT 456.692 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\), ch. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 418.179 m 133.004 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Namier to Churchill, 14 Feb. 1939, as quoted in J. Namier, )] TJ ET BT 349.328 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lewis Namier: A Biography)] TJ ET BT 484.328 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979\), p. 229.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 389.667 m 185.000 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy with this review and does not wish to respond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2010/11/war-history-hitler-british)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 308.643 m 380.000 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 383.000 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 280.131 m 270.668 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 251.619 m 512.924 251.619 l S BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international-history-19331939-by-zara-steiner-2286457.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 237.363 m 330.968 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.968 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136533/zara-steiner/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-international-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 208.851 m 551.888 208.851 l S BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history-1933-1939)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 194.595 m 123.344 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 126.344 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2011/09/european-history-triumph-dark)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 166.083 m 394.664 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.664 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Republic)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.tnr.com/book/review/the-triumph-dark-zara-steiner)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 137.571 m 337.292 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.292 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 134.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 116.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 116.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1204)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 115.065 m 328.316 115.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 90.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7861)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.288 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/489)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.9277 569.5495 486.9197 581.4295 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.9397 461.2615 557.5997 473.1415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 447.0055 90.3437 458.8855 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.0157 418.4935 133.0037 430.3735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 389.9815 184.9997 401.8615 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 308.9575 379.9997 320.8375 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2010/11/war-history-hitler-british) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 280.4455 270.6677 292.3255 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=416978&sectioncode=26) >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 251.9335 512.9237 263.8135 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-international-history-19331939-by-zara-steiner-2286457.html) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 237.6775 330.9677 249.5575 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-international-history-19331939-by-zara-steiner-2286457.html) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 209.1655 551.8877 221.0455 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136533/zara-steiner/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-international-history-1933-1939) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 194.9095 123.3437 206.7895 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136533/zara-steiner/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-international-history-1933-1939) >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 166.3975 394.6637 178.2775 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2011/09/european-history-triumph-dark) >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 137.8855 337.2917 149.7655 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.tnr.com/book/review/the-triumph-dark-zara-steiner) >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 115.3795 328.3157 127.2595 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1204) >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 1010 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.newstatesman.com/books/2010/11/war-history-hitler-british)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=416978&amp%3Bsectioncode=26)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international-history-19331939-by-zara-steiner-2286457.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136533/zara-steiner/the-triumph-of-the-dark-european-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 724.642 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international-history-1933-1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.242 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2011/09/european-history-triumph-dark)] TJ ET BT 34.016 695.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://www.tnr.com/book/review/the-triumph-dark-zara-steiner)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 61 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000004777 00000 n 0000004886 00000 n 0000004996 00000 n 0000005105 00000 n 0000008666 00000 n 0000008794 00000 n 0000008878 00000 n 0000009006 00000 n 0000009101 00000 n 0000009185 00000 n 0000017383 00000 n 0000017413 00000 n 0000017539 00000 n 0000017575 00000 n 0000017659 00000 n 0000025728 00000 n 0000025758 00000 n 0000025886 00000 n 0000025922 00000 n 0000025987 00000 n 0000033730 00000 n 0000033905 00000 n 0000041649 00000 n 0000041679 00000 n 0000041807 00000 n 0000041843 00000 n 0000041971 00000 n 0000042026 00000 n 0000042152 00000 n 0000042207 00000 n 0000042334 00000 n 0000042389 00000 n 0000042517 00000 n 0000042572 00000 n 0000042699 00000 n 0000042819 00000 n 0000042946 00000 n 0000043081 00000 n 0000043208 00000 n 0000043414 00000 n 0000043541 00000 n 0000043747 00000 n 0000043874 00000 n 0000044049 00000 n 0000044176 00000 n 0000044351 00000 n 0000044478 00000 n 0000044600 00000 n 0000044727 00000 n 0000044839 00000 n 0000044967 00000 n 0000045063 00000 n 0000045128 00000 n trailer << /Size 61 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46191 %%EOF