%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R 48 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818130528+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818130528+01'00') /Title (The Birth of the Past) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4575 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Past)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Geoffrey Elton put it, ?The future is dark; the present is burdensome; only the past, dead and finished, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bears contemplation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.328 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.328 271.929 m 153.320 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 153.320 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We take the concept of ?the past? for granted, yet Schiffman argues that the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the past as a concept ?began only fairly recently, during the Renaissance, and did not culminate until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, after which it acquired its commonsensical status? \(p. 1\). Although this book is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of over 30 years of reading, Schiffman says in the rather flowery ?Gestation? \(a.k.a. introduction\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is a work of synthesis rather than scholarship. Schiffman argues that the past does not merely come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the present, but is distinct from it. Logically, the second point does not automatically follow on from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first, a point that Schiffman is keen to stress. The ?distinction between the past and the present that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes ?the founding principle of history? rests on something other than a mere priority in time; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects an abiding awareness that different historical entities exist in different historical contexts? \(p. 3\). We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually pick up on this disjuncture via the concept of anachronism ? to give a famous example, J. H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hexter?s unhappiness over Bishop Stubbs adding Victorian liberalism to the Anglo-Saxons? cargo.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.632 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.632 129.369 m 524.624 129.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 524.624 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a concept, anachronism has a history. Schiffman?s thesis is that the idea of anachronism originates in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance. Such an interpretation breaks little ground in itself, but has consequences for ancient and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval as well as modern thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the face of it, to state that the ancients had no conception of the past seems slightly absurd: after all, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachary Schiffman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781421402789)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore, MD)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malin Dahlstrom)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.3277 272.2435 153.3197 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.6317 129.6835 524.6237 141.5635 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7890 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented history as a literary genre. Ranke thought Thucydides the greatest historian ever, a proposition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is still arguable today. Yet Schiffman argues that the problem is that Thucydides has an awareness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between ?past and present without elevating that awareness to a principle of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge? \(p. 22\). Thucydides failed to distinguish between different layers of historical explanation ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what we get from his history is an unending surface narrative of events. Schiffman entitles this chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Flatland? with a nod to Edwin Abbott; but one is also reminded of E. H. Carr?s reference to Borges? short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story )] TJ ET BT 61.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Funes the Memorious)] TJ ET BT 165.668 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Funes remembers everything; but as a consequence, is unable to generalise or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make abstractions. We ?expect a historian to view events ? from a perspective that relates parts to whole ...? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 18\). To quote Elton again, Thucydides? conception of history might be described as simply ?one damn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing after another?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.988 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.988 666.771 m 144.980 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 144.980 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The work of Herodotus too, makes us recall Voltaire?s comment that ?If you have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing to tell us, but on the banks of the Oxus and Jaxartes, one barbarian has been succeeded by another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barbarian, what is that to us?? In the )] TJ ET BT 210.980 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories)] TJ ET BT 254.984 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Herodotus moves ?almost indiscriminately from story to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story to story. Amid this flow, there are no events in the modern sense ? nothing stands out as ?salient?, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitely shaping current developments? \(p. 49\). Any historian worth their salt can recite Aristotle?s famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between poetry and history, but Schiffman notes that we ?tend to approach this oft-cited passage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the wrong side of the divide between history and poetry, from a perspective that claims to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplanted myth with fact? \(p. 30\). Aristotle?s virtual silence on the subject of history reveals him as a true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son of Homer; from ?the Greek point of view, time-bound historical facts are mired in contingency and offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no fit subject for historical knowledge? \(p. 30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem with Thucydides is that there is no singular ?past? in his work; rather, there are multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pasts, each one incommensurable from the next, with no way of privileging any individual one. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?absence of an idea of ?the? past militates against a systematic distinction between past and present? \(p. 23\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiffman argues that he emphasises the distinction for good reason. It could be argued, for example, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderns might also subscribe to the idea of multiple pasts; each historian brings their own perspective to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, and these collectively do not add up to ?the? past, but rather, a collection of pasts. And of course, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend of the postmodernist philosophy of history has been to argue that the idea of ?the? past should be done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away with in favour of reference to ?texts?. However, the postmodern conception of history is itself a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction to the historicism of the 19th century ? where the conception of the past as objective reality was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born, so to speak. We take the idea of an objective, referring past for granted these days, so Schiffman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that it is important to highlight the fact that this ?stratum of our consciousness settled from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convergence of several intellectual currents in the eighteenth century ? that it is itself a historical deposit? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What distinguishes ancient from modern historiography in Schiffman?s view is the lack of a conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism in the former. Anachronism exists at a local level ? for instance, Homer has Achilles wield a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bronze sword. But this does not extend beyond the local level; ?it appears from one time frame without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carrying over into the next, if only because the time frames are incommensurable; they address different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems and issues. For lack of a systematic sense of anachronism, the ancients could not sustain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between past and present and, consequently, had no idea of the past? \(p. 71\). So how did we get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a multiplicity of pasts to a single past? In short, Schiffman argues that we didn?t. An ?intellectual leap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from these myriad pasts to a unitary past would have been impossible? \(p. 79\). It is tempting to describe the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek multiple pasts as being simply different takes on the same object; i.e. ?the past?. But of course, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancients, the idea of ?the past? did not exist, so how could they conceive of the need to make an intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leap in the first place? Before ?the past? as a category of thought could emerge, a conceptual shift needed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take place ? classical sensibilities needed to be rejected in favour of a new way of thinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To trace the aforementioned conceptual shift, we must forsake history in favour of theology. St Augustine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can in no way be described as a precursor of the modern idea of the past, and yet his thought marked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearing away of classical culture which was required in order for some form of progress to be made. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustine formulated a concept of ?human existence that enabled him to perceive it as an integrated whole, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as transpiring in a space specifically designed for human action? \(p. 79\). St Augustine blocks the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcending time through prayer, and thus privileges the present in an entirely new way. His ?insistent )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.9877 667.0855 144.9797 678.9655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8447 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orientation in the present establishes a fixed point of view ? a sustained perspective ? with which to interpret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the course of his own life and that of all humanity, a viewpoint which overrides the multiple pasts of linear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and episodic time? \(p. 86\). It seems that Augustine is merely a step away from distinguishing between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past and the present in some kind of sustained fashion; ironically however, precisely the opposite occurs ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?past, present, and future all coalesce for him in the )] TJ ET BT 284.624 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(now)] TJ ET BT 304.628 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; qualitative distinctions between them vanish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precluding any possibility of the past as we know it? \(p. 86\). Augustine relegates Christians to the on-going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act of confessing their yearning for God in this world ? an act which, of course, will always be unattainable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The act ?takes place in, and focuses attention on, an ineffable moment, conjoining past, present and future? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 101\). In the )] TJ ET BT 108.668 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confessions)] TJ ET BT 166.676 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 190.004 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The City of God)] TJ ET BT 267.008 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Augustine coins the idea of the )] TJ ET BT 424.988 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sculum)] TJ ET BT 468.320 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the space in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the sacred and secular intertwine, a space where the past, present and future coexist in the )] TJ ET BT 499.556 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(now)] TJ ET BT 519.560 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two other Christian chroniclers need to be analysed when looking at mediaeval ideas of the past; Gregory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tours and the Venerable Bede. Schiffman argues that Tours? )] TJ ET BT 330.608 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the Franks)] TJ ET BT 454.604 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is in fact nothing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sort. Tours refers to the text as ?decem libros Historiarum?, which literally translated means )] TJ ET BT 496.268 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ten Books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of History)] TJ ET BT 82.352 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. We should not be seduced by the use of the word ?history? into thinking that Tours, although he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived the field of human action as an integrated whole, ?regarded the unity as temporal, deriving from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chains of cause and effect that link the past to present? \(p. 119\). The unity is spatial rather than temporal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory?s History is ?nothing less than the realisation of what Augustine meant by the )] TJ ET BT 453.968 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sculum)] TJ ET BT 495.968 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where sacred and secular intertwine, where past, present and future coexist in the now. To entitle this work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?a history of the Franks? is to distort it utterly? \(p. 119\). Gregory, like Herodotus, thinks of a long span of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time as an indeterminate continuum with no chronological reference points.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bede is usually compared to Tours; and the former usually profits more from the exercise than the latter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having been universally judged to have produced a much more readable history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.604 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.604 471.699 m 432.596 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 432.596 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, as Schiffman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is at pains to stress, ?modern notions of historical coherence have no place in Gregory?s world, a fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes Bede?s subsequent approximation of these standards appear all the more unnatural and anomalous? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 127\). Which begs the question as to what enabled Bede to construct such a coherent narrative in light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact he did not possess the conceptual tool of ?the past?? Bede?s outlook, like Tours', was eschatological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? but Bede did not think that one had to wait until Judgement Day to know God?s meaning and movement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events; ?the finality of God?s judgement is readily apparent to Bede from the outcome of events? \(p. 128\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bede creates figural chains from events in scripture to post-biblical ones, which enables him to endow his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account with a narrative, and thus a greater coherence. In order to do this he has to play fast and loose with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology, obscuring the points where the narrative flow parts company with sequences of events as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occurred. The anchor of the figural chains lies in the future ? the British abandonment of Christianity after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the departure of the Romans prefigures the slaughter of the British at the Battle of Chester, which in turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefigures God?s final judgement on the British.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his writing Bede completed the transformation of the )] TJ ET BT 304.316 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sculum)] TJ ET BT 346.316 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from a spatial to a temporal entity ? from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aimless unfolding of humans events to a purposeful narrative of God?s action in the world. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporality that holds his )] TJ ET BT 159.356 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sculum )] TJ ET BT 204.356 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together is not one of cause and effect, for, as we have seen, Bede )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes allows the effect to precede the cause. Modern commentators tend to overlook these lapses as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere anomalies in an otherwise coherent chronological narrative. But we ?should really regard them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(windows onto an underlying, eschatological reality. ? This eschatological perspective determines the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between events in Bede?s narrative, one that is temporal without being chronological? \(p. 133\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difference between Bede, Augustine and Tours from the moderns is that while they could refer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past in colloquial terms, they were unable to conceive of the past as something systematically different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiffman?s look at the concept of the past in the Renaissance begins with a look at Raphael?s )] TJ ET BT 491.612 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(School of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Athens)] TJ ET BT 66.680 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; a painting which ?expresses a vision of the past that manages to be both historical and atemporal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that celebrates the greatness of antiquity while obliterating the distance between it and modernity? \(p. 140\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But we have not quite reached the modern conception of the past yet; instead of the past being something far )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.6037 472.0135 432.5957 483.8935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8189 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removed from the present, the past becomes what Schiffman calls ?the living past?. In the Renaissance, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of anachronism defined the ?pastness? of the past not to distance it from the present, but to )] TJ ET BT 495.608 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(propel)] TJ ET BT 526.940 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the present, so that the two ?could actively cross-fertilize? \(p. 140\). Thucydides? historical accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained a sense of narrative at the expense of eliminating historical distinctness; Renaissance readers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient history experienced these works in terms of temporality and distinctness but did not see any narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection between them. There were Roman historians, but there was no such thing as ?Roman history?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was no ?classical poetry?, just Virgil and Horace. This derives in part from the humanist educational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curriculum, which proceeded from the principle of )] TJ ET BT 279.956 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imitatio)] TJ ET BT 317.300 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; that classical models were to be imitated, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancients had presented us with the most outstanding example of thought and action. Renaissance scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus read the classics in a somewhat piecemeal style, with the result that each exemplar that they read tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be seen as historically distinct.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.340 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.340 652.515 m 207.332 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 207.332 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The problem, of course, is that the idea of exemplarity is a paradox, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?something is exemplary when it stands out as a model or striking instance of a universal truth ? it is at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time unique and general? \(p. 143\). Texts began to be seen as ?Greek? or ?Roman?, and thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniqueness dissolves into a ?solvent of historical and cultural relativism? \(p. 143\). But are we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overrunning the tale slightly here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Schiffman stated in his introduction, his book is based on the premise that a sustained awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism emerged only in the Renaissance. This in itself is nothing new; both Burckhardt and Erwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panofsky commented upon the stirring of the idea of anachronism in the Renaissance. The concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism has two aspects; the positioning of a historical entity outside of its historical context, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the awareness that this positioning is in fact out of pace. The idea of anachronism originates in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance; but not the modern notion of the past as ?back there? in time. The idea of the past constituted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Renaissance had none of the ?pastness? associated with its modern conception; ?it was not relegated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a space remote from the present, for such a space did not yet exist ? its defining quality might be defined as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an awareness of things ?not present?, with all the multivalence of this expression? \(p. 147\). A nice visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphor of this would be that of Machiavelli taking off his muddy farmer?s boots and donning his curial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(robes before feeling fit to discourse with the ancients, which of course, he would not have done if he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived of himself going back in time to engage in a dialogue of the dead. He conversed with the ancients; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but he must dress appropriately, lest they mistake him for a peasant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author who conceptualised the idea of a ?living past? more than any other was Petrarch; yet Schiffman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully refers to his breakthrough as a Copernican leap; for like Copernicus, he did not make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakthrough by himself, retaining much of the old worldview while preparing the foundation for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overthrow.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.336 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.336 329.139 m 100.328 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 100.328 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Petrarch?s )] TJ ET BT 156.308 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Secretum)] TJ ET BT 200.960 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?enacts the living past as a dialogue, but the ambiguous nature of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interlocutors dramatizes the fact that this dialogue is not between the past and the present as we conceive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them? \(p. 170\). That said, we should take care not to canonize Petrarch ? Erasmus and Montaigne, to name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but two, were equally skilled in the art of creating a living past through imitation. But it was Petrarch?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal suggestions about note-taking ? the result of distilling truths from texts ? that saw humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonplace notebooks become the chief instrument for the exercise of )] TJ ET BT 385.940 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imitatio)] TJ ET BT 423.284 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Thus, exemplars came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be deployed as modes of proof in rhetorical set-pieces. Aristotle distinguished in the Rhetoric between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?common? and ?special? places ? ?common ones contained ways of framing arguments applicable to all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of knowledge, whereas the special ones applied only to specific forms of knowledge? \(p. 175\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect, ?the humanist habit of note taking served to confirm the truth of the commonplace ? again, and again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and again? \(p. 179\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Looking with hindsight, the persistence of the idea of the commonplace seems ? dare we say it? ? an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism. Were it not for its presence, the early modern world would seem almost, well, modern. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a view is the result of our knowing that a historical revolution was just around the corner that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring into existence the modern discipline of history. The commonplace ?would retain its potency as long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past remained a living thing, as long as it continued to speak directly to the present? \(p. 182\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem with the synchronous space of the living past was that it could not stand up to too much historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny ? and Jean Bodin?s attempts to systematize the relationship between exemplarity and historicity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ended up flattening it. As ?long as the symbolic nature of the past remained intact, one did not need to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.3397 652.8295 207.3317 664.7095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3357 329.4535 100.3277 341.3335 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7892 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern oneself with its unity, for the nature of the utopian space was such that past and present coexisted )] TJ ET BT 545.252 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a unity? \(pp. 194?5\). But once Bodin tried to de-clutter the past with practical housekeeping, the symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space collapsed, which in turn made it necessary to find the ?unity? of history. Bodin?s method arbitrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between competing and contrasting histories, which implicitly distinguished between events and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of events. The ?demand for accuracy in historical accounts tends to corrode the exemplar theory, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the lessons derived from the past had traditionally overshadowed the actual events recounted? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(197\). Ironically enough, the living past had to die before a dead past could be reborn. The idea of objectivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, did not arise as a pre-ordained truth ever firmly grasped, but rather, it is ?red in tooth and claw? ? it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolved as ?one species of thought struggling with another? \(p. 221\). The idea of contextualization had its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingent origins like everything else ? specifically as an ideological weapon in the Renaissance against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemonic pretences of pope and emperor; to ?the extent that both the pope and emperor alleged a power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal in time as well as space, the idea of anachronism became one of the chief weapons in the humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arsenal? \(p. 200\). Constantin Fasolt has called this the ?historical revolt? in his pioneering book )] TJ ET BT 496.304 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Limits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of History)] TJ ET BT 82.352 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in which he looks at the writings of Hermann Conring \(1606?81\). Conring trumps Bartolus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxoferrato in an argument over whether the Roman Empire continued to exist or not by adopting what we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would term a historical approach to talk past Bartolus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And so to the Enlightenment, where we find ourselves at what Schiffman neatly describes as an intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crossroads. How did Europeans obtain and sustain a sense of perspective and distance on themselves and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others? To speak of the Enlightenment is slightly problematic, as there were many Enlightenments ? but its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best-known starting point ran through France around the mid 18th century. Here Schiffman offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corrective to the customary view that portrays French Enlightenment thought as so rationalistic as to ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of historical and cultural context, and also the view that historicism emerged from modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquarianism, which in turn emerged from Renaissance philology. He posits Montesquieu as standing ?at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the point where humanism and Cartesianism emerge, providing a foundation for historicism that has hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been obscured by our tendency to separate quantitive form qualitative thinking? \(p. 210\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such is the gist of Schiffman?s book. Naturally one has had to do some violence to boil down Schiffman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis to around 4,000 words, and I pity the reviewer faced with the challenge of writing about this work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a mere thousand or so words to play with. It is a complex, erudite work ? one that must be read with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pen and paper close by, as opposed to one that can while away a couple of hours on the train. Schiffman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement that his work is one of synthesis rather than scholarship belies the phenomenal amount of reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and work that has preceded the )] TJ ET BT 185.972 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birth of the Past)] TJ ET BT 264.980 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The fact that Anthony Grafton has contributed a foreword )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this book is also another reason to sit up and take notice. In said foreword Grafton compares Schiffman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work to the likes of Berlin, Collingwood and H. Stuart Hughes. The comparison with Collingwood is a bit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a stretch ? can anyone really rival that old master? ? but there is more than a touch of Isaiah Berlin about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiffman?s prose.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.996 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.996 286.371 m 139.988 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From my point of view, although Schiffman does not mention him, there is much in )] TJ ET BT 439.676 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Past)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ties in with the thought of Frank Ankersmit. With the introduction of the Cartesian ego in the West, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading a text ?could no longer be seen as ? immersion or subsumption in the text that reading could still be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for sixteenth century humanists. Reading was essentially done by a transcendental self, no longer able to lose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself in or merge with the text as the premodern\(ist\) reader was required to do; reading was now done by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self that would always remain separate from and outside the text?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.620 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.620 188.835 m 365.612 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.612 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It would be nice to see Schiffman, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future work, relate his view of the changing conception of the past to current historical theory. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epilogue, he states that he has come to question the idea of the objective existence of ?the past?, but offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no comment on what implication this has ? if any ? for historiography as a whole. But this is a small gripe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone with an interest in the history of ideas, or the history of historiography for that matter, will find that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book repays close attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Elton, )] TJ ET BT 142.328 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Practice of History)] TJ ET BT 255.320 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1967\), p. 1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.644 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.644 52.035 m 417.632 52.035 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.9957 286.6855 139.9877 298.5655 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.6197 189.1495 365.6117 201.0295 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.6437 52.3495 417.6317 64.2295 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 3789 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. H. Hexter, )] TJ ET BT 128.000 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reappraisals in History)] TJ ET BT 242.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1961\), p. 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.996 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.996 795.075 m 401.984 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elton, p. 36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 123.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 123.020 780.819 m 177.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example, John Burrow, )] TJ ET BT 216.320 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Histories)] TJ ET BT 321.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\), pp. 198?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.644 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.644 766.563 m 510.632 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of history as exemplar of course was not new ? one only has to look at the work of Polybius, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?who punctuated his interminable account of occurrences with period digressions on the utility of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history? \(p. 178\). Of course, Polybius and his successors in antiquity never pondered the question of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the lessons of one age could be boiler-plated onto another, because they had no sense of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.336 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.336 695.283 m 182.324 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was Galileo and Kepler who ultimately put paid to the Ptolemaic conception of astronomy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.968 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.968 681.027 m 550.964 681.027 l S BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 666.771 m 78.008 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grafton describes Schiffman?s book as an essay ? some essay!)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.940 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.940 652.515 m 418.928 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Ankersmit)] TJ ET BT 145.676 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Sublime Historical Experience)] TJ ET BT 298.988 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Palo Alto, CA, 2005\), p. 88.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.320 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.320 638.259 m 495.308 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy with this review and does not wish to respond.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 596.671 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 578.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 578.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1205)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 577.497 m 328.316 577.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 552.520 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 538.120 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7862)] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.9957 795.3895 401.9837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 123.0197 781.1335 177.0077 793.0135 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.6437 766.8775 510.6317 778.7575 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.3357 695.5975 182.3237 707.4775 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.9677 681.3415 550.9637 693.2215 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 667.0855 78.0077 678.9655 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.9397 652.8295 418.9277 664.7095 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 40 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.3197 638.5735 495.3077 650.4535 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 577.8115 328.3157 589.6915 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1205) >> endobj xref 0 68 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000538 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000005261 00000 n 0000005370 00000 n 0000005480 00000 n 0000005589 00000 n 0000009150 00000 n 0000009278 00000 n 0000009362 00000 n 0000009391 00000 n 0000009519 00000 n 0000009555 00000 n 0000009584 00000 n 0000009712 00000 n 0000009748 00000 n 0000009832 00000 n 0000017775 00000 n 0000017805 00000 n 0000017933 00000 n 0000017969 00000 n 0000018053 00000 n 0000026553 00000 n 0000026583 00000 n 0000026711 00000 n 0000026747 00000 n 0000026838 00000 n 0000035080 00000 n 0000035110 00000 n 0000035238 00000 n 0000035274 00000 n 0000035304 00000 n 0000035431 00000 n 0000035467 00000 n 0000035565 00000 n 0000043510 00000 n 0000043540 00000 n 0000043668 00000 n 0000043704 00000 n 0000043734 00000 n 0000043862 00000 n 0000043898 00000 n 0000044024 00000 n 0000044079 00000 n 0000044219 00000 n 0000048061 00000 n 0000048189 00000 n 0000048244 00000 n 0000048372 00000 n 0000048427 00000 n 0000048555 00000 n 0000048610 00000 n 0000048738 00000 n 0000048793 00000 n 0000048921 00000 n 0000048976 00000 n 0000049102 00000 n 0000049157 00000 n 0000049285 00000 n 0000049340 00000 n 0000049468 00000 n 0000049523 00000 n 0000049651 00000 n trailer << /Size 68 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 49747 %%EOF