%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818081508+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818081508+01'00') /Title (Civic Ceremony and Religion in Medieval Bruges c. 1300-1520) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4419 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Civic Ceremony and Religion in Medieval Bruges c. 1300-1520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Pero Tafur visited Bruges in 1438 he had a keen eye for the material wealth of the town and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(splendor in which its citizens seemed to indulge. In his famous travel diary he noted that ?without doubt, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goddess of luxury has great power here, but it is not a place for poor men, who would be badly received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here. But anyone who has money, and wishes to spend it, will find in this town alone everything which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole world produces?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.988 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.988 229.161 m 162.980 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.980 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While Tafur was absolutely correct in observing that Bruges offered all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known world?s luxuries for those who could afford it, he failed to recognize that those with money also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chose quite different ways to spend it. The elite of late medieval Bruges invested considerable amounts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities and objects that promised rewards in the afterlife rather than on earth: liturgy, commemorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services, charity and large-scale public religious ceremonies, such as processions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the religious practices of the citizens of Bruges went beyond the mere saving of souls of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual benefactors. Spending on religious festivities by lay citizens, whether they did so as individuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as members of guilds or as part of the town government, shaped the religious and ceremonial landscape of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the town. This was done in a constant interplay with local religious institutions that were depositories for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relics that played a crucial role many of the town?s public religious festivities. Moreover, the clergy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for the liturgical forms that were used on such occasions. Other parties in the main ceremonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchanges in Bruges were the town?s overlords, the counts of Flanders, who participated in public festivities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1207)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521764452)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Job Weststrate)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.9877 229.4755 162.9797 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7665 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Bruges as well. Sometimes their participation took the shape of active communication between town and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prince, especially during entry ceremonies \()] TJ ET BT 244.628 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(joyeuses entres)] TJ ET BT 322.940 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), yet on other occasions the princes seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been passive spectators, most notably during the Holy Blood Procession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The interplay between the motives of Bruges? wealthy citizens, its clergy and its Burgundian and Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princely overlords in matters of public religious ceremony is the main underlying theme of Andrew Brown?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study )] TJ ET BT 63.020 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civic Ceremony and Religion in Medieval Bruges, c. 1300?1520)] TJ ET BT 373.652 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In the introduction Brown first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly sketches the political and socio-economic development characteristics of Bruges from the early 13th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century onwards, and then moves on to an theoretical elaboration of his central analytical categories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?civic religion? and ?civic ceremony?. The first two chapters subsequently discuss the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious public ceremonies in Bruges: the famous Holy Blood Procession in chapter one, and general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processions in chapter two. Chapter three explores developments in the celebration of feast days and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liturgical commemoration for the souls. The role of guilds in public religious life forms the topic of chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four, and in the subsequent chapter the connections between guilds and civic government are treated. Civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in the field of charity for the poor are considered in chapter six, while the ceremonies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected Bruges and their comital overlords are the subject of the last chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important topic throughout this book is how all these public activities, and most of all the rituals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in them, were made to work, that is, what the social function of the entire body of rituals was and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how it related to the power of civic and clerical authorities. Brown discusses the two most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches in the historical and anthropological debates on ritual and social power. The first of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches draws on the work of Clifford Geertz and sees rituals as an expression of social identities; rituals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to articulate or ?say? something about the community in which they are performed. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach treats rituals in a functional manner: they serve to create, alter or sustain the social order of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. In this view, rituals ?do? something to society rather than ?say? something about it. Prof. Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not take sides in this debate, but carefully and critically examines the strengths and weaknesses of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches, ending up with a rather nuanced view of what rituals in the context of late medieval Bruges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have ?said? or ?done?: ?Whether treated as a process of symbolic communication or behavioural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance, the ritualized event may reflect or affect social conditions but in an indirect way. The outcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ceremony might be uncertain: it could not automatically legitimate worldly hierarchy? \(p. 27\). At the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this theoretical section Brown implicitly declares himself an empirically-orientated historian \(as so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians are\) rather than a theorist: ?[?] the application of particular theories of ritual to historical events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot anyway be done so rigidly. What a ceremony said or did differed depending on its particular social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political context? \(p. 28\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rest of the book shows Brown from his empirical side and from his empirical side only. Based on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive knowledge of the archives of the civic and religious institutions of Bruges, he sets out to describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of virtually every single ritual phenomenon he encountered in late medieval Bruges. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whenever possible he underpins his argumentation with quantitative data. For instance, when discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general processions in Bruges, Brown is able to point out, through the use of a simple figure \(fig. 2.1., p. 76\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the number of general processions rose steadily throughout the 15th century. The peak came in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1470s and 1480s, years of war, pest and famine which needed divine intervention, and thus processions, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stave off these evils. Another example is the rise in the number of feast days from the late 15th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards. Appendices three and four provide a solid quantitative fundament for the further exploration of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular topic. Combined with Brown?s somewhat terse style, this approach does not always make for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling read, but that is amply compensated for by the overview it provides.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is impossible to treat all of Brown?s findings in detail in this review ? the book is simply too full of them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, a few general points stand out. In the first place, the author convincingly shows throughout how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grip of the magistrate of Bruges on public religious ceremonial and ritual grew tighter throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of investigation. In the 13th century it was largely the terrain of the town?s most illustrious religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, most notably the collegiate churches of St. Donatian and Our Lady?s and the parish church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St. Saviour. However, from the late 13th century onwards, and all throughout the 14th and 15th centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruges? secular elites became ever more involved with these public religious events, in parallel to their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing commercial successes and correspondingly rising political power in Bruges itself and within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(county of Flanders. They did so as part of the town council: the 14th century saw a steady rise in public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure on large scale ritual ceremonies, most of all on Holy Blood and other processions. They did so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as members of the most important guilds and fraternities: all craft guilds were involved in the religious life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their members, and in this capacity financed their own altars, paid for masses, co-funded processions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefited charitable institutions and so on. More prestigious were the purely devotional guilds. Some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these, such as the Holy Blood, Holy Trinity and Dry Tree guilds, were socially exclusive fraternities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing mainly the very same men that made up the town?s council. The devotional guilds by nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spent substantially on divine service, pilgrimages and processions. And finally, Bruges? magistrates became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved with public religious ceremonial as individual citizens, spending lavishly on obits, religious works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of art and charity. But despite growing civic involvement in religious matters, the role of the town?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious institutions was not entirely marginalised. As mentioned, they were responsible for the liturgy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(festive occasions and kept the relics that were central to the larger public spectacles ? without the consent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clergy of the chapel of St. Basil?s, the Holy Blood procession could not be undertaken.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reasons laymen became involved with public religious events were manifold. On the individual level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honour, prestige and pure piety all played their part, but Brown argues quite rightly that on a more abstract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level this civic intervention also had to do with the need of the town magistrate to assert its authority. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prime example of this was the Holy Blood procession \(and to a lesser extent other processions\). On Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blood day the hierarchical order in which the various participating social groups were to proceed was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully orchestrated. Closest to the relic were the town councilors and the members of the fraternity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holy Blood \(consisting of magistrates\). Members of the clergy and of the towns? guilds followed in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sequence that suggests a decreasing social position ? this way the social order was not only established but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also divinely confirmed. The procession then took a route along the most important religious and secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites of town. It encircled all the town walls of Bruges, thus symbolically incorporating the whole urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. The procession and its associated festivities enabled the town magistrate to impose civic order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to underline the divine character of their own rule. But not all participants shared this agenda. Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that the relic of the Holy Blood, allegedly brought from Jerusalem by the Flemish count Thiery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d?Alsace after the Second Crusade, might have meant different things to different people. Nevertheless, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does stress the possibility that the Holy Blood served as an agent of unification: ?A symbol with many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential meanings was perhaps inherently better equipped to bring together a complex and divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community than one whose meaning was too narrow and easily fixed? \(p. 64\). While this may very well be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true, this argument would have been much more persuasive if the Bruges? case had been set off against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models and theories on symbolic communication that are treated in chapter one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Holy Blood procession seems to have been the summit of the deliberate involvement of the magistrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in religious ceremony. While lay influence was large in the phenomena that are described in the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, the effect on the Bruges urban community were more ambiguous. Yet the evidence provided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown convincingly shows the construction, growth and intensification of a ?civic religion? during the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages. This ?civic religion? manifested itself in several ways. On the one hand, the town itself and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town government were sacralised through the participation in and appropriation of certain religious rituals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the deliberate instrumentalisation of them. As a consequence public worship intensified: throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole period under investigation a marked increase in a large variety of divine services can be discerned. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Brown is quick to remark that this by no means reflected a secularization of civic society, or a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale encroachment on clerical fields of activity by the lay magistrate. This illustrates the careful reasoning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the author, who shuns all too simple or black-and-white interpretations of the developments he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters. This is one of the strong points of the book, as far as I am concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book thoroughly explores all aspects of Bruges? ?civic religion?. This should lead to further debate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially on the interpretation of the ceremonies surrounding the visits of the counts of Flanders. Such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate will not revolve around the facts, as Brown has comprehensively and impressively unearthed data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the archives of Bruges. As such this book is an invaluable tool for the study of \(religious\) rituals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events within the late medieval town. Yet the strong focus on the situation in Bruges does carry the risk of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 2533 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distortion. In many senses the town was far from average. It was, for instance, more commercialized than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any other town in Northwestern Europe, which meant that the citizenry had a lot of capital at their disposal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for investment in civic ceremony and religious ritual. One wonders how the development of Bruges? civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion and public ceremony differed from that of Ghent, which had an entirely different relationship to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts of Flanders, or of Tournai, which housed a bishop. Moreover, the question arises as to whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestation of civic religion in Bruges had a regional character, or if it might be compared to other large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial towns, such as Cologne or those of North Italy. Admittedly Brown occasionally does refer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter, and he does give briefly place Bruges in a wider urban context in his concluding chapter, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author would have been able to make a stronger case from the results of this study if he had pursued a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigorous comparative approach using other towns both inside and outside Flanders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pero Tafur, )] TJ ET BT 121.664 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Travels and Adventures, 1435-1439)] TJ ET BT 293.648 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, translated by Malcolm Letts \(Oxford, 2004\), p. 200.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 118.004 586.995 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 571.663 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 553.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 553.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1207)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 552.489 m 328.316 552.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7864)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 587.3095 118.0037 599.1895 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 552.8035 328.3157 564.6835 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1207) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005231 00000 n 0000005341 00000 n 0000005450 00000 n 0000009011 00000 n 0000009139 00000 n 0000009223 00000 n 0000009252 00000 n 0000009380 00000 n 0000009416 00000 n 0000009481 00000 n 0000017199 00000 n 0000017264 00000 n 0000024876 00000 n 0000024967 00000 n 0000027553 00000 n 0000027680 00000 n 0000027735 00000 n 0000027863 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27959 %%EOF