%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20160527085032+01'00') /ModDate (D:20160527085032+01'00') /Title (Rivalry in Southern Africa: the Transformation of German Colonial Policy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4380 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Rivalry in Southern Africa: the Transformation of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Colonial Policy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Seligmann's well-researched study of the development of Germany's South African policy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s is both an in-depth investigation of the motivations behind that policy, and a contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader debate on German expansionism in the late nineteenth century. Based on the author's doctoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertation, the account draws on a large number of German and British archival sources. It distinguishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between official, public and commercial interests in southern Africa, as well as analysing in detail the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and course of Germany's South African policy in the 1890s. Germany's involvement in South Africa has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received considerable attention from historians, but they have tended to ignore the early years of Germany's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in South Africa. Seligmann's account addresses this gap by investigating the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany's policy before 1896, as well as the abandonment of Germany's South African interests by the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1890s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any historian of Imperial Germany's political and diplomatic history faces a difficult challenge in trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify and understand the motives behind German policies in the Wilhelmine period, and Germany's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial policy is no exception. As Paul Rohrbach observed in 1912, 'the main reason why our position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes makes an uncertain, even unpleasant impression when seen from outside Germany lies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulty of presenting any easily comprehensible, as it were tangible, aim for the policies demanded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German ideas' \(p.5\). This was the difficulty Seligmann faced in trying to unravel the aims and motivations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind Germany's policy in southern Africa from 1893 until the time of Germany's disengagement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region in 1898. This policy developed in three distinct stages up to the Boer War. Following a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial complete disinterest, a policy inherited from Bismarck, German colonial aspirations led to 'active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(121)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 June, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Seligmann)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(207pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annika Mombauer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interventionism' in the region, which was finally reduced to 'a quest for advantageous disengagement' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.137\), leading the Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Baron von Richthofen, to declare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generously in 1898: 'We are letting England have South Africa' \(p.1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporaries considered the question of colonies, and of acquiring a German colonial empire, a necessity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as is emphasized by Bernhard von Blow who maintained that 'the question is not whether we want to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonize or not, but that we must colonize whether we want to or not' \(p.12\). In view of Germany's relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('belated' arrival on the scene of colonial expansion, such a perceived need for colonies would necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead to conflict with Germany's main rivals. In South Africa, that rival was, of course, Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the nature of German decision-making in Imperial Germany, which was erratic and dependent on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whimsical concerns of personalities in positions of power, the question of motives behind German foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy has been a vexing one. Historians of Imperial Germany often face a difficult challenge in trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish the motives behind German policies, and Seligmann takes issue with several attempts at explaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reason for Germany's emergence on the colonial stage as a rival to Britain in 1893/4. He dismisses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that Germany's interest in the Transvaal was designed to effect a change in the international balance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, an argument advanced, for example, by Erich Brandenburg and William Langer. In other words, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany's interest in the South Africa was merely a means to demonstrate to Britain that her policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('splendid isolation' had to end, and that, rather than facing Germany as an enemy, Britain should seek closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with her, preferably by joining the Triple Alliance on Germany's terms \(p.60\). Although Seligmann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proves that this was not the actual motivation behind German policy, he demonstrates that it nonetheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came close to succeeding at times. The British High Commissioner in South Africa noted on the day of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kruger telegram: 'The difficulty coming at the present moment is very unfortunate as it is generally feared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the United States intends to go to war with us and that they will have the support of Russia and France. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is bad enough, but to have Germany likewise against us, would reduce us to having to fight for our very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence' \(p.61\). However, as Seligmann points out, such testimony is no proof of German intention, and he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers the evidence available from German sources to be unconvincing. According to Seligmann, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events surrounding the sending of the Kruger Telegram, for example, prove that Germany, or at least the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaiser, did not consider German South Africa policy as a means towards the achievement of an alliance with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. In his first impulsive reaction, Wilhelm II apparently wanted to send troops, rather than a telegram, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an action that would not have led to an Anglo-German alliance, but to war. The sending of the telegram )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise was an action 'that could not, in all plausibility, have been aimed at securing the allegiance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain' \(p.63\). Seligmann presents convincing arguments against this theory, although it might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth mentioning that a similar twisted 'logic' of wanting to intimidate Britain into an alliance with Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to have been a motive behind the Tirpitz Plan.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seligmann also dismisses a second attempt at explaining German policy, advanced, for example, by Ronald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson and John Gallagher. According to this interpretation, Germany never had genuine interests in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transvaal, and merely wanted to exploit the situation to gain concessions from Britain in other parts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world \(p.63\). Instead , Seligmann favours a third interpretation to explain Germany's interest in the region. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He argues that the Reich had serious economic and colonial ambitions in South Africa \(p.65\). Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany possessed extensive economic interests in the region, which had become a major outlet for German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry, and German businesses had established themselves in the Republic, with branches of Krupps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siemens and Halske, and the Deutsche and Dresdner banks, to name but a few. An appendix of trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics confirms the claim that Germany did indeed have considerable commercial interests in the region, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which increased almost six-fold between 1892 and 1896, while exports to the Transvaal and the Cape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colony increased ten-fold and two-fold respectively \(p.146\). 'In short, German commercial activity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transvaal was both substantial and lucrative, either of which attributes could have served to attract the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention of the Reich authorities' \(p.66\). In addition to such economic interests, Seligmann emphasizes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial interests which gave credence to German policy in South Africa. The Transvaal's strategic position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the middle of southern Africa gave it the potential of becoming an important link in the establishment of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcontinental German South Africa. Moreover, the Boers were regarded as 'Teutonic'. Under Dutch rule, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the region was seen as a place for possible emigration for Germans. The problem, as Seligmann emphasizes, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7116 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with identifying such areas of German concern and interest, is that it is 'by no means the same as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating that these particular interests motivated the conduct of policy.' The difficulty for the historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again, is to penetrate the complicated decision-making system that existed in Imperial Germany. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seligmann explains, 'it was, after all, in the nature of the German political system that the Reich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration, while sensitive to the various outside pressures that could be applied by public opinion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business considerations and campaign groups, was nonetheless not under any constitutional obligation to act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon such stimuli, a circumstance which ensured that it very often chose not to do so' \(p.67\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever Germany's motives were at different times towards the region, they cannot be understood without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an appreciation of Kaiser Wilhelm II's role, as Seligmann demonstrates in his analysis of the creation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despatch of the infamous Kruger Telegram. Far from having been out of the ordinary, it was only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culmination of support from Germany for the Transvaal, although perhaps it its bluntest form. Seligmann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places it in its proper context, having been in keeping with German policy to date, which had aimed 'to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish as a fact the idea that the Transvaal was, in its own right, a sovereign state' \(p.78\). Altruism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally, was not the motivating factor behind this policy. Rather, Seligmann concludes 'that if the Reich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government strove to establish the freedom of the Transvaal from British influence then it did so, not for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefit of the Boers, but for reasons that fulfilled requirements of its own devising' \(p.78\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The telegram is usually regarded as one of the Kaiser's great blunders, and seen as the point when the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German antagonism became firmly established. Popular reactions in Britain to the telegram led to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upsurge of anti-German feelings and, with hindsight at least, the rift between the two states seemed to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming increasingly unbridgeable. As Seligmann shows, the Kaiser's role in this particular blunder was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less decisive than is usually assumed. The person responsible for proposing the congratulatory telegram to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(President Kruger in January 1898 was not the Kaiser, but Adolf Marschall von Bieberstein of the Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office, the man behind much of Germany's South African policy. Marschall also drafted the text and ensured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that its contents presented a direct challenge to Britain \(p.90\). Perhaps it is not surprising, then, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary evidence of the Kaiser's pivotal role in the despatch of the telegram stems from Marschall as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as Bernhard von Blow's memoirs, a source that Seligmann quite rightly describes as 'intentionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malicious or self-serving' \(p.92\). The Kaiser certainly denied afterwards that he had been in favour of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telegram, not only in his \(unreliable\) memoirs, but also according to contemporary sources, as Seligmann is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to demonstrate. Contemporary observers blamed Marschall and the Auswrtiges Amt and, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marschall championed Germany's southern African policy during his time in office, he has to be regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the key decision-makers responsible for directing and shaping Germany's policy. Marschall provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a bridge between Caprivi's continental outlook and Blow's world policy', and his time in office was 'an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important transitional stage' in Germany's quest for )] TJ ET BT 282.644 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltmacht)] TJ ET BT 333.968 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp.141/2\). By the time Blow, Tirpitz and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miquel ascended to positions of influence, Germany disengaged from South Africa and turned to the even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more ill fated )] TJ ET BT 101.672 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltpolitik)] TJ ET BT 154.340 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Whatever Wilhelm's role in the Kruger Telegram episode, Germany's Weltpolitik )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a reflection of the Kaiser's ambitions, and the provocative foreign policy of Marschall and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors relied on his approval.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In analysing the different influences behind Germany's South African policy, and in examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing conflict in the region as well as Germany's subsequent withdrawal, this book makes an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to our understanding of German foreign and colonial policy at the end of the nineteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, this scholarly investigation is essential reading for anyone studying the conflict between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial powers in South Africa, and the genesis and development of the antagonism between Germany and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Britain in particular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 116.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 98.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 98.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/121)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 97.305 m 322.316 97.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 72.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/715)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 97.6195 322.3157 109.4995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/121) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005089 00000 n 0000005198 00000 n 0000005308 00000 n 0000005417 00000 n 0000008978 00000 n 0000009106 00000 n 0000009190 00000 n 0000009255 00000 n 0000016828 00000 n 0000016912 00000 n 0000024081 00000 n 0000024208 00000 n 0000024303 00000 n 0000024368 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 24563 %%EOF