%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150727052107+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150727052107+01'00') /Title (Sex Before Sexuality: A Premodern History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4261 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sex Before Sexuality: A Premodern History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Foucault famously asserted that sexual identity was a modern invention, remarking, ?The sodomite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been a temporary aberration; the homosexual was now a species?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.928 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.928 257.673 m 384.920 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.920 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For Foucault, the vocabulary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specificity of modern sexual identity were largely formulated under the impetus of 19th-century sexology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arguing that sexual interactions came in a wide array of forms and with a myriad of meanings attached, Kim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips and Barry Reay take Foucault?s claim and apply it to heterosexuality. The argument is essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that heterosexuality did not exist in pre-modern Europe \(1100?1800\), and historical treatments of the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have erred in assuming its existence. In dissecting various realms of sexual encounters, Phillips and Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain that the variety and variability of acts and their meanings indicate that heterosexuality as a matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sexual identity is not applicable as an analytical descriptor. This is provocative and salutary as a claim, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it raises a number of questions about the theoretical frame of identity as an interpretive grid. If at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authors press a bit too hard, in the end, they make it clear that the history of sexuality retains much that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bears further reflection and debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While often held up as timeless and utterly natural, Phillips and Reay contend that heterosexuality as we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now know it is a recent iteration. In order to make their case, the authors begin chapter one, ?Sin?, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconsidering early Christian ambivalence about sex. The authors do not attempt to defend Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1211)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kim Phillips)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barry Reay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745625225)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Crawford)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.9277 257.9875 384.9197 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the abundant evidence of its hostility toward sex, but they do remind us that lechery ? the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of sexual sin ? is only one of the seven deadly sins. Desire was a problem for early Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists in that it interfered with proper devotion to God, but the earliest Christian sources, the Gospels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were only occasionally interested in sex. Even St. Paul had relatively little to say except that directing one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to matters of salvation meant that lust should be controlled. Phillips and Reay focus on the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the key development for Christianity was the use of sex as a mode of distinctiveness in the 4th and 5th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries \(p. 21\). Debates over the value of marriage \(Jerome advocated celibacy and virginity; Augustine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed that marriage had positive value\) and the sexual meaning of original sin instantiated desire as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem at the centre of Christian ethics. Masculinity in Christian terms became sexual self-control and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced the impetus toward a \(male\) celibate hierarchy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although such developments distinguished Christianity from its potential rivals, even such life-shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructs as the commitment to celibacy, Phillips and Reay feel, did not amount to sexual identity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Church settled on a hierarchy of sexual sins, with fornication generally considered the least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievous and sins against nature \(any sex that could not possibly lead to procreation\) as the most sinful. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chronic resistance to Christian sexual strictures evident in the abundant remains of clerical marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bastardy, in the widespread lack of understanding of the theology or behavioral expectations around sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the laity, and in the persistence of competing ethical and legal codes around sex indicate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian messages that associated sexual pleasure with sin were ?continually disrupted? \(p. 37\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a coherent and consistent notion, sexual identity might not apply, but as a fungible element, sexuality is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not entirely to be discounted either. To be sure, lechery was only one kind of sin, but the evidence presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests ways that lechery could have been part of identity. In their discussion of masculinity, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillips and Reay note that women?s self-control was never as valuable as men?s in matters of sex. Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were regarded as less able to control their desires, and yet their self-control was considered inferior. How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could this kind of mixed message not be part of one?s identity? The specificity of the sexual culture Phillips )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Reay describe is both a product of and productive of how individuals locate themselves relative to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms, expectations, and practices around them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among those expectations and practices Phillips and Reay identify, presumptive heterosexuality is the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant. As they note, ?The power of heterosexuality resides in a strange combination of ubiquity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invisibility? \(p. 40\). Because historians of sexuality have failed to recognize the historicity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexuality, it often seems ahistorical and constant in its meanings. In chapter two, ?Before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexuality?, Phillips and Reay rightly point out that love, bodies, and desire ? crucial components of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexuality in modern and postmodern society ? were understood very differently in the past. Love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to relationships both across and within the confines of biological sex, and a sexual component might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or might not apply. While sex was only licit under the relatively rigid limits of marriage \(or the prospect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it\), desire could be found in an array of non-marital conditions. Other complications include chaste marriage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the celebration of adulterous love \(consummated or not\) in courtly love, and the abundant evidence of extra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital, pre-marital, and non-marital sex in court records. Phillips and Reay understand this array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence as undermining any claim for heterosexuality before modernity, and in the sense that there is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of sexual identity primarily in terms of object choice, this is certainly the case. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dominance of sex within marriage as a norm produced heterosexual practice and supported its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological centrality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter three, ?Between Men?, Phillips and Reay deepen the rejection of sexual identity in the premodern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past by emphasizing that homosexuality does not apply any more than heterosexuality. Male/male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions were extensive and routine. Sodomy \(and all its meanings\), friendship, and effeminacy are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the possibilities that pre-modern men enjoyed. After a period of relative flexibility around the term, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sodomy as specifically a male sexual practice came in for increased condemnation in the 12th century. As an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusation, sodomy referred primarily to sexual excess and loss of self-control, rather than object choice. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some places, such as Renaissance Florence and parts of early modern Spain, male-male sexual behavior was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized in hierarchical terms. Older men penetrated younger ones, masters penetrated servants, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general, more powerful men penetrated less powerful ones in part as a display of masculine prowess. In this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading, the gender connotations of sodomy were more important than the sexual aspects.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.940 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.940 795.075 m 477.932 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These reminders of the spectrum of activities and meanings are constructive, but the authors do not obviate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility that some sexual identity formation was happening. After rejecting the notion of the molly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house as a locus of nascent sexual identity, the authors note that ?molly? was in fact a recognized type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person \(p. 83\). The insistence that all that can be said about men who frequented molly houses was that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed acts of ?same-sex sexual behaviour? \(p. 85\) denies that locating others who might be seeking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committing such acts ? against social expectations ? might have had psychological import for participants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Situated next to the chapter on men, chapter four, ?Between women?, implicitly denies the long-standing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency to disregard sexual desire between women in early modernity among historians. Phillips and Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note that the term ?lesbian? was used in pre-modern contexts, albeit rarely, but the larger issue was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent refusal to see female-female eroticism. As literary critic Valerie Traub has made clear, the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is abundant if one merely pays attention.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.992 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.992 614.259 m 242.984 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.984 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For their part, Phillips and Reay accept that female-female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eroticism deserves to be taken seriously while emphasizing the lack of consensus about what counts as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lesbian?. In their effort to clear the ground, Phillips and Reay ask, ?Or should we begin by reminding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ourselves that heterosexuality, far from being compulsory, did not exist?? \(p. 89\). The reference to Adrienne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rich?s notion of a ?lesbian continuum? is provocative, but even if heterosexuality did not exist, forms of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did, and they were compulsory for most people. That is, marriage with the presumption of sexual relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between man and woman as husband and wife was expected of most people. A significant minority did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry, but were marked \(as celibate or virginal or unlucky\) for their sexual status.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having chosen to reject the category of ?lesbian? entirely, Phillips and Reay nonetheless point to cases at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, theological considerations of same-sex female love, and medical understandings from antiquity to early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity. Using the sensational case of Benedetta Carlini )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.980 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.980 459.699 m 332.972 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.972 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Phillips and Reay note the history of intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional \(and sometimes physical\) relationships between women in spaces such as convents. The evidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they see it, amounts to acts understood as vice, rather than notions of identity, despite the efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical subjects to define themselves in terms of their sexual proclivities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question thus seems to be who gets to define the terms. This is apparent in the discussion in chapter five, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Before pornography?, which understands pornography as a modern invention because only recently has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography been produced with the intention of arousal.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 309.968 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 309.968 362.163 m 323.960 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 323.960 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While images and texts that might have erotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects abound in the medieval and early modern periods, Phillips and Reay stress that there is little evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that arousal was intended or the purpose of sexualized works. Modern pornography is certainly different, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the range of meanings and responses in the past is often unavailable to historians. But by their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology, how do Phillips and Reay know that the array of bawdy stories, obscene artifacts, and erotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remnants did not in part serve to arouse? The fact that sexual texts in the past were often part and parcel of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other discursive regimes ? one of Ian Frederick Moulton?s astute observations ? suggests that the question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be reversed: What other discourses does modern pornography engage in that are submerged beneath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our modern presumptions about its intentionality?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The epilogue on European encounters with the Oceanic peoples of the Pacific offers a reading back from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentist concerns and forward from the texts of encounter. The European reports of sexual freedom and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carnal excess are abundant and predictably depressing. Questions of female agency, obvious exploitation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venereal disease, and mutual incomprehension recur in encounters across the Pacific. Phillips and Reay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show that the sexual practices were not merely copious and outside European moral norms, but also widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variable in structure and meaning. In restoring these complexities, Phillips and Reay remind us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstandings can be profound, abundant, and burdened with a long afterlife in history. That we can and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should debate the fundamental premises of that history and the many iterations of sexual meaning it contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not the least of the contributions of this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.9397 795.3895 477.9317 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.9917 614.5735 242.9837 626.4535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.9797 460.0135 332.9717 471.8935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 309.9677 362.4775 323.9597 374.3575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 4667 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel Foucault, )] TJ ET BT 149.012 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of Sexuality: An Introduction, )] TJ ET BT 354.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. Robert Hurley \(New York, NY, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1976\), p. 43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 780.819 m 179.000 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Chauncey, )] TJ ET BT 156.320 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1890?1940)] TJ ET BT 118.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1995\) is perhaps the model of this line of analysis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.636 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.636 752.307 m 500.624 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valerie Traub, )] TJ ET BT 136.988 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Renaissance of Lesbianism in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 414.644 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.964 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.964 738.051 m 551.960 738.051 l S BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 723.795 m 78.008 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith C. Brown, )] TJ ET BT 149.024 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Immodest Acts: The Life of a Lesbian Nun in Renaissance Italy)] TJ ET BT 451.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.324 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.324 709.539 m 557.984 709.539 l S BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.283 m 90.344 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invention of Pornography, 1500-1800: Obscenity and the Origins of Modernity)] TJ ET BT 445.316 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Lynn Hunt \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 1996\); Ian Frederick Moulton, )] TJ ET BT 266.984 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before Pornography: Erotic Writing in Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England )] TJ ET BT 107.684 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.332 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.332 652.515 m 237.320 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 571.491 m 270.668 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Red 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