%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416130831+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416130831+01'00') /Title (The Food Companions: Cinema and Consumption in Wartime Britain, 1939-45) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4244 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Food Companions: Cinema and Consumption in Wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain, 1939-45)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Second World War has long been the subject of a rich vein of academic writing, and popular interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict, ever-growing as significant anniversaries are reached, ensures that the war remains a constant in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British public?s consciousness. The effects of the war on the home front have been of especial interest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in popular imaginings of the conflict. Indeed, last year?s 70th anniversary of the Blitz resulted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a stream of news coverage, both local and national, that reported on the many remembrance services being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held across the country to commemorate the impact of the air-raids on the civilian population; while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television documentaries evocatively assessed the effects of the Blitz on people living in Britain?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected cities. )] TJ ET BT 106.988 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Food Companions: Cinema and Consumption in Wartime Britain, 1939-45)] TJ ET BT 488.996 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farmer?s first book, and published as part of Manchester University?s Press?s ?Studies in Popular Culture? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series, is thus not only very timely, it is also highly pertinent. Investigating the role of food and consumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war, and paying particular attention to the impact of rationing on the civilian population, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the role of the government in attempting to win public approval on this delicate issue through the use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ministry of Food?s \(MoF\) multi-media campaigns, )] TJ ET BT 300.008 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Food Companions)] TJ ET BT 410.012 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a highly nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and extremely well-considered account of the social, economic and cultural impact of the conflict on British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society?s home front.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1212)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Farmer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719083136)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert James)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9135 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academic writing on government intervention in public affairs during the Second World War has typically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluated the role of the main propaganda organisation, the Ministry of Information \(MoI\). Important works, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Ian McLaine?s general history of the MoI, )] TJ ET BT 278.624 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministry of Morale: Home Front Morale and the Ministry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Information in World War II)] TJ ET BT 183.680 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and James Chapman?s investigation into its Films Division,)] TJ ET BT 477.032 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The British at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War: Cinema, State and Propaganda, 1939-1945)] TJ ET BT 271.004 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, have looked at the organisation?s inner-workings, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessed the various means that were used to promote government involvement in peoples? lives.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.284 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.284 711.795 m 515.276 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 515.276 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration on the MoI has, as Farmer states, ?left other government departments somewhat in the shade? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 12\). Less has been written, for example, on the Ministry of Food \(MoF\), an arguably equally important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation in maintaining public support for the war effort. Moreover, the research that has been conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the MoF, such as R. J. Hammond?s three-volume official history )] TJ ET BT 369.992 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food)] TJ ET BT 395.324 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Ina Zweiniger-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bargielowska?s monograph )] TJ ET BT 170.660 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austerity in Britain: Rationing, Controls, and Consumption, 1939?1955)] TJ ET BT 516.692 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused primarily on the organisation?s administrative duties or economic policies; ignoring the many and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied publicity campaigns that the Ministry ran.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.328 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.328 612.003 m 282.320 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.320 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Farmer admirably redresses the balance in this ground-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking book, by evaluating the various publicity campaigns employed by the Ministry that encouraged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people of Britain to not only support \(or at the very least accept\) food restrictions, but also make the most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their rations, while acknowledging that their deprivations were of a universal nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farmer does appreciate the MoI?s central role in propaganda policy, but he ably demonstrates how equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adept the MoF was at promoting key issues to an often fearful population. He also reveals how the MoF, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the leadership of its most popular minister, Lord Woolton, gradually gained the public?s trust, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing the Ministry to initiate a series of restrictions that could have, under less capable hands, led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much consternation and unrest among the British population. In fact, as many contemporaries and historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have pointed out, the MoI was particularly inept in its early years, and a succession of its ministers failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garner much popular support, leading some contemporaries to label the organisation the ?Ministry of Dis-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information? and ?the Ministry of Muddle?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.324 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.324 443.187 m 259.316 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 259.316 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By contrast, the MoF was far more adept at winning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public?s favour. As Farmer notes, the MoF successfully got the public on-side by showing a ?degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitivity? towards them, and recognising that overtly didactic propaganda measures would be sure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienate them \(p. 84\). Farmer gives Woolton much credit for this. With Woolton at its helm, Farmer argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ministry could rely on a figure eager to promote his image as a man of the people, not some faceless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucrat instructing them how to live their lives. As Farmer points out, this helped to establish a ?powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of community? and ?consensus and social unity? among the British public, which tended to override )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any individual requirements \(p. 223\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interestingly, this assertion goes against the arguments prevalent in a number of recent histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating the effects of the war on British society. These works have stressed the negative impact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict had on the civilian population, and document the loss of morale, continuing class and gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antagonisms, increased crime rates and the growth of racism, along with the strained relations in both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workplace and at home that, their authors contend, took priority over any notion of national unity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.960 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.960 260.115 m 517.952 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.952 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farmer is careful not to view the war as a time when all of society dutifully pulled together in the face of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy \(indeed, one chapter is devoted to evaluating the ways in which that most divisive of wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offences ? the black market ? was portrayed in wartime cinema\) he successfully counters the ?conflict? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model by revealing how, for the most part, the people of Britain were willing to make a great many personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifices in aid of the national cause. The British public did this partly because, as Farmer points out, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MoF treated them as a ?central component of the war effort? \(p. 33\). According to Farmer, the public were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as ?active participants? in the Ministry?s publicity strategies, not simply passive on-lookers \(p. 31\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, when the MoF did read the situation wrongly ? screening out-of-date food information as part of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food Flash )] TJ ET BT 92.684 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign in April 1942, for example ? Farmer notes that it acted quickly to ensure that such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lapses in its publicity campaigns did not happen again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The MoF used four principal publicity methods ? posters, radio \(as part of )] TJ ET BT 392.636 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Kitchen Front )] TJ ET BT 484.304 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press \()] TJ ET BT 65.672 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food Facts)] TJ ET BT 120.668 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and film \()] TJ ET BT 177.992 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food Flash)] TJ ET BT 233.660 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) ? and Farmer scrutinises these in rich detail in the book?s first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two chapters. Chapter one explores the Ministry?s role as publicist, and through an evaluation of its )] TJ ET BT 515.288 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kitchen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Front )] TJ ET BT 64.352 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 84.680 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food Facts )] TJ ET BT 142.676 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns Farmer reveals how the MoF sought to position food and consumption as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.2837 712.1095 515.2757 723.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.3277 612.3175 282.3197 624.1975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.3237 443.5015 259.3157 455.3815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.9597 260.4295 517.9517 272.3095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8695 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an essential part of wartime culture. Chapter two provides a detailed and highly informative analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films commissioned by the Ministry as part of their )] TJ ET BT 283.676 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food Flash )] TJ ET BT 342.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign. Farmer reveals how keenly aware )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ministry was of the importance of such audio-visual material in the propaganda war, and he skilfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the ways in which the organisation sought to use one of the period?s most popular leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms, cinema, to gain public support for its campaigns. In fact, according to Farmer, the MoF were so alert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the centrality of cinema to the British public that they frequently employed well-known film comedians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Tommy Trinder, and Elsie and Doris Waters \(in their guise as the popular cockney characters Gert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Daisy\) to increase support for their campaigns. The deployment of these performers, Farmer contends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to ?embed MoF publicity in the cultural mainstream, as an integral element of popular culture? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35\). Intriguingly, many of these stars have long been neglected by mainstream academia, so it is pleasing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see Farmer returning them to centre stage in this book. During the war these performers built up a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following, and attracted thousands of people into cinemas to watch their antics on the screen; they had major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural currency in the period ? clearly demonstrated by the Ministry?s desire to employ them ? and should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore be accorded equally significant currency in any appraisal of popular culture in wartime Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farmer continues the rehabilitation of these long-neglected performers ? along with numerous overlooked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films ? in the final three, thematically linked chapters of )] TJ ET BT 306.308 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Food Companions)] TJ ET BT 416.312 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. These investigate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of food and consumption in wartime film, covering both government-made and commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ventures. Chapter three positions contemporaneously set films that helped to implement the wartime ethic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal identity and community solidarity against costume/period films that deployed the ?fantasy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrestricted consumption? in order to celebrate individual pleasures \(p. 122\). According to Farmer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaneously set films such as )] TJ ET BT 212.996 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eating Out with Tommy Trinder )] TJ ET BT 370.676 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1941\), )] TJ ET BT 408.668 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Millions Like Us )] TJ ET BT 491.672 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1943\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Mother Riley, Detective )] TJ ET BT 172.316 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1943\) gave prominence to the role of communal dining \(in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canteens and messes\) in order to promote the paradigms of ?communal consumption? and ?national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community? \(p. 99\). In contrast, costume/period films such as )] TJ ET BT 334.652 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Champagne Charlie )] TJ ET BT 435.320 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1944\), )] TJ ET BT 473.312 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Madonna of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seven Moons )] TJ ET BT 100.664 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1944\), and )] TJ ET BT 158.984 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wicked Lady )] TJ ET BT 245.300 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1945\) utilised food to ?communicate ideas of pleasure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuality and indulgence?, thus allowing cinema audiences the freedom to enjoy, visually at least, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forbidden pleasures of excess consumption \(p. 98\). As Farmer notes, these films offered cinema-goers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escape from the current era of extreme austerity into an historical past of conspicuous consumption and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensual gratification. However, as Farmer also states, these films need to be understood as products of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time ? the latter years of the war, and the early months of peace. By then, Farmer contends, consumers had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?become less tolerant? of food restrictions, and demanded to taste ?the fruits of victory? \(p. 140\). Of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the foregrounding of individual pleasures in these films was ideologically at odds with the majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British films made during the war period, but, as Farmer point out, by the end of the hostilities such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messages were considered far less threatening to the wartime ?national community?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farmer?s analysis of these ideologically divergent films reveals one of the real strengths of this book: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s appreciation of the complexities of cultural provision and cultural pleasure. Films could only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perform successfully as either entertainment or propaganda vehicles if film-makers got their timing right. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is no more evident than in the series of low-budget comedies made in the middle years of the war that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on that other great menace to the wartime national community ? the black market ? which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively evaluated in chapter four \(tellingly entitled ?The rat in England?s storehouse?\). As Farmer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, genre films produced earlier in the war had focused on spies, fifth columnists and saboteurs to counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most immediate threats to wartime society. However, by the middle years of the war illegal food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transactions had become the most obvious threat to communal solidarity, leading to the production of a run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of films, such as )] TJ ET BT 115.676 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gert and Daisy Clean Up)] TJ ET BT 239.000 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1942\), )] TJ ET BT 279.992 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Mother Riley, Detective )] TJ ET BT 418.292 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1943\), and )] TJ ET BT 476.612 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Up With the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lark )] TJ ET BT 59.684 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1943\), that placed the subject centre-stage in their narratives. These films featured working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female protagonists ? Gert and Daisy, Mother Riley, Ethel Revnell and Gracie West ? who were tasked with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catching the black marketers whose deeds were portrayed, not just as unlawful, but as an affront to decency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and communality. It was, according to Farmer, the speed with which these low-budget films could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced that led to their success in simultaneously helping to neutralise the threats the country faced, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building on the image of the wartime national community. As he notes, these films could ?refresh their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generic narratives? for immediate effect, and thus tap into current debates about ?what it meant to be British )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7520 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in wartime? \(pp. 159?60\). In these films, then, being British clearly meant supporting the wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints on food and consumption for which the MoF had so successfully campaigned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While chapters three and four position food and consumption as communal signifiers, Chapter five explores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which stereotypically British foodstuffs, in particular tea, were used in wartime films to signify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British national identity. Farmer convincingly argues that food and consumption practices were regularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed in British-produced films such as )] TJ ET BT 246.668 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Went the Day Well? )] TJ ET BT 345.980 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1942\), )] TJ ET BT 383.972 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(San Demetrio, London )] TJ ET BT 495.968 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1943\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Demi-Paradise)] TJ ET BT 128.336 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1943\) to position Britain in relation to its allies, specifically the USA and USSR, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as its enemies. According to Farmer, food was identified by British filmmakers as ?a crucial munition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only on the home front, but also in foreign theatres of war? \(p. 187\). In wartime Britain, then, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filmmakers and the MoF encouraged the British public to view food and consumption as ?a gastronomic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression of the nation?s coherence and identity? \(p. 3\). Food and consumption were the means by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation could define itself against ?the other?. Crucially, though, Farmer reveals that filmmakers and MoF )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel did not view British national identity as fixed, but fluid. Indeed, he points out that the ?wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British persona? was ?capable, and perhaps in need, of continual refinement, redefinition and reaffirmation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 222\). That the MoF and British filmmakers could respond to these shifts and continue to produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material that satisfied the audiences? changing sense of self reveals much about their respect towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs of the consumer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Refreshingly, Farmer exhibits a similar respect for the consumer in this book, thus making his contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the historiography of the Second World War particularly welcome. Too often in the past consumers have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been identified ? by both cultural critics and scholars ? as passive dopes, with limited ability to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious choices over the way they chose to spend their leisure time. Farmer shows this to be a reductive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, and thus allows consumers considerable agency in his analysis of their behaviour. Indeed, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises that displacements could occur between the ways in which propaganda messages were intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be read and how they were received by the public, revealing that they were always shaped by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers? individual experiences. According to Farmer, then, food and consumption were in ?a constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of negotiation? during the war period, but nonetheless helped to ?unite, define and sustain? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation \(p. 228\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farmer draws from a wide range of primary sources to assess the cultural impact of rationing and food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control on both the government and commercial filmmakers. Government papers, newspapers, trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journals, fan magazines, along with Mass-Observation surveys and surviving interviews from key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries of the period are all used mindfully. Combined with this rich tapestry of primary source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, Farmer?s remarkably incisive analysis of both well-known and less familiar films facilitates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of an absorbing and highly compelling picture of British social and cultural life during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Food Companions )] TJ ET BT 147.020 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an outstanding book. It provides a comprehensive and wide-ranging account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food and consumption habits in British society during a time of national crisis. Thoroughly researched, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegantly written, attractively illustrated, and frequently humorous, the book should appeal to scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in cultural, film and social history. It deserves to be read more widely, though, not just among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics, but the general public too, and it is hoped that this will be advanced by a speedy paperback )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication. Personal memories of the Second World War may be fading as significant numbers of people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who actually experienced the conflict are lost, but books such as this help to capture the thoughts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings of the British public during this most traumatic period in the country?s history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.075 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 98.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian McLaine, )] TJ ET BT 131.660 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ministry of Morale: Home Front Morale and the Ministry of Information in World War )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(II)] TJ ET BT 72.008 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1979\); James Chapman, )] TJ ET BT 240.992 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British at War: Cinema, State and Propaganda, 1939?1945)] TJ ET BT 548.996 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1998\), p. 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.340 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.340 68.547 m 226.328 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. J. Hammond, )] TJ ET BT 145.352 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Food)] TJ ET BT 170.684 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3 vols, London, 1951?62\); Ina Zweiniger-Bargielowska,)] TJ ET BT 448.304 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Austerity in Britain: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 41.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rationing, Controls and Consumption, 1939?1955)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.3397 68.8615 226.3277 80.7415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 2083 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.664 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.664 795.075 m 199.652 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapman, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British at War)] TJ ET BT 205.688 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.688 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.688 780.819 m 292.676 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Stuart Hylton, )] TJ ET BT 221.996 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Careless Talk: The Hidden History of the Home Front 1939?1945)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2010\); M. J. Trow, )] TJ ET BT 205.004 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War Crimes: Underworld Britain in the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 490.328 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Barnsley, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\); Donald Thomas,)] TJ ET BT 178.340 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( An Underworld at War: Spivs, Deserters, Racketeers and Civilians in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Second World War)] TJ ET BT 155.336 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.660 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.660 723.795 m 290.648 723.795 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1212)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 328.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7869)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.6637 795.3895 199.6517 807.2695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.6877 781.1335 292.6757 793.0135 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.6597 724.1095 290.6477 735.9895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 328.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1212) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000004959 00000 n 0000005068 00000 n 0000005178 00000 n 0000005287 00000 n 0000008848 00000 n 0000008976 00000 n 0000009060 00000 n 0000009165 00000 n 0000018353 00000 n 0000018383 00000 n 0000018511 00000 n 0000018547 00000 n 0000018577 00000 n 0000018705 00000 n 0000018741 00000 n 0000018771 00000 n 0000018899 00000 n 0000018935 00000 n 0000018965 00000 n 0000019093 00000 n 0000019129 00000 n 0000019194 00000 n 0000027942 00000 n 0000028026 00000 n 0000035599 00000 n 0000035725 00000 n 0000035780 00000 n 0000035885 00000 n 0000038021 00000 n 0000038149 00000 n 0000038204 00000 n 0000038332 00000 n 0000038387 00000 n 0000038515 00000 n 0000038570 00000 n 0000038698 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38794 %%EOF