%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150703165050+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150703165050+01'00') /Title (Labour?s Crisis: Plaid Cymru, The Conservatives, and the Decline of the Labour Party in North-West Wales, 1960-1974) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4217 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis: Plaid Cymru, The Conservatives, and the Decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the Labour Party in North-West Wales, 1960-1974)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It wasn?t so long ago that British labour historiography was dominated by more or less celebratory accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the career of the Labour Party. As its title suggests, though, Andrew Edwards? book is a sure sign that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times have changed. )] TJ ET BT 134.660 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 212.348 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( confirms a historiographical shift from celebration towards post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortem, and details the breakdown of Labour?s political hegemony in north-west Wales during the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1970s. Its argument represents an attempt to understand the dynamics of British politics within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific regional context, and reflects the growing historiographical realisation of the importance of ?place? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in political history. It is based upon extensive and meticulous research, and it addresses a space ? which is as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much conceptual as it is geographical ? in our understanding of mid-to-late 20th-century British politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book should, therefore, be of interest not just to historians of Wales, but to political historians more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 111.704 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is sharply focused upon the politics of north-west Wales in the 1960s and early 1970s. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central political narrative is, however, set within a wider analysis of the region?s society and politics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war period. This addresses the development of Labour?s political base after 1945, and discusses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which Labour politicians, principally Goronwy Roberts, T. W. Jones and Cledwyn Hughes, built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon established Welsh radical traditions to establish a firm Labour hegemony in the region. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1213)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Edwards)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780708324257)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Wales Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cardiff)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Wright)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7598 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s difficulties at a national \(UK\) level in the 1950s and early 1960s, these politicians ? all of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were native Welsh speakers embedded in their local communities ? were aided by the absence of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credible alternative. The Labour Party had successfully managed to gain the mantle of the ?Party of Wales?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its competitors were either moribund \(the Liberals\), seen as anti-Welsh \(the Conservatives\), or were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve of a cultural elite \(Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru\). As the 1960s progressed, however, a changing socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic context began to create problems for Labour. The manifest failure of the majority in north-west )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales to share in the benefits of a new affluent, more individualistic, British society created a paradoxical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of challenges. At a regional level these revolved around attempts to deal with the legacy of a declining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy industrial base, high levels of unemployment and a deficient housing stock. These issues were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, supplemented by a range of cultural and linguistic concerns arising from the contrasting processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of depopulation, in-migration and second home ownership. Despite some success in attracting new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries to the region after the Second World War, Labour was unable to turn the socio-economic tide, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1960s a mounting set of difficulties began to undermine the party, rendering its regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hegemony vulnerable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards details this process with admirable clarity and provides a range of well-presented and easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(digestible statistical information to support his discussion. Importantly, his analysis does not fall into the trap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of over-determinism. While clearly establishing the socio-economic parameters of political change, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that it was the way in which political parties responded to the conditions around them that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical, and his central narrative takes up this theme. It does so in a logically structured and rational fashion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing first with the development and limitation of Labour?s appeal in the 1960s, and then analysing in turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growing challenge presented by Plaid Cymru and the Conservatives during that decade. When Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to power in 1964, it is argued, its modernising aspirations at a national \(UK\) level were in tune with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local concerns in north-west Wales. A combination of its increasingly enlightened attitude towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devolution and its advocacy of centralised state planning as a spur to regional development, alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangible promises on issues such as housing and healthcare, proved highly attractive. Indeed, by 1964 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s electoral dominance of north-west Wales was total. Nevertheless, as a tide of economic problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to submerge the Labour Government in the late 1960s, its aspirations parted from political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic reality, and its policies began to look distinctly threadbare. By the late 1960s Labour faced a crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in north-west Wales, which was fueled by rising unemployment and cultural anguish. Its local organisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was falling into decay, and a chain of empty state-built factories stood testimony to its failing policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This crisis was all the more deadly because, for the first time in the post-war period, its opponents were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering a serious challenge across the region. Plaid Cymru, while still managing to retain the energy of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest movement, had, by the end of the decade, developed realistic political aims, a credible economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and a robust local organisation. Emerging figures such as Dafydd Wigley and Dafydd Elis Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a new realism, and became the party?s driving force in the north-west. In some senses the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked Plaid Cymru?s coming of age as a political party. The work of its general secretary, Emrys Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to modernisation at a national \(Welsh\) level, while the emergence of the radical )] TJ ET BT 476.924 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cymdeithas yr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iaith Gymraeg )] TJ ET BT 107.336 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(The Welsh Language Society\) allowed Plaid to focus on less controversial and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically inclusive issues than the Welsh language. At a local level ? in contrast to the Labour Party ? Plaid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was vigorous. The party strengthened its branch structure, developed a more active social calendar and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused upon the recruitment of the young, while the adoption nationally of a range of populist, socialistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies allowed the party to challenge Labour on its own ideological ground. This is not to mention, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, the impact of Gwynfor Evans? spectacular election victory at Carmarthen in 1966. Considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together, these developments suggested that by the end of the 1960s Plaid Cymru was breaking out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally exclusive mould within which it had been confined since its foundation in the 1920s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Conservatives, on the other hand, had to some extent succeeded in shaking off their image as an alien, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Welsh party by the end of the decade. They had always maintained a toe-hold in the region ? one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their very few in Wales ? among the more affluent, largely retired voters of the northern coastal resorts, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was reflected electorally in their tenancy of the seat of Conwy from 1951 until 1966. Edwards also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that elements of the Conservative Party were in reality not as anti-Welsh as popular )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7756 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions often suggested. During the 1950s the party had developed a range of Welsh regional policies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ? despite containing the seeds of the free marketism that were to come to the fore under Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher ? were not so far removed from those of the Labour Party \(as Goronwy Roberts conceded at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time\). Despite a very poor showing at the 1966 General Election, moreover, the socio-economic situation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the north-west Wales was not wholly discouraging to the Conservatives. The decline of institutions \(such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonconformity and trade unionism\) that had traditionally nurtured radicalism, alongside the region?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vanishing heavy-industrial base, and increasing levels of in-migration \(much of it from regions and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups less hostile to Conservatism than the indigenous population\) all worked to create a more promising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment for a potential Conservative rehabilitation. After 1966, moreover, the party increased its efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand local conditions and organise accordingly. Crucially it selected a Welsh-speaking Welshman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a more than credible cultural profile, Wyn Roberts, to contest the Conwy seat in 1970.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Labour Party was effectively caught in a vice in north-west Wales, which by the turn of the decade was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning to close, and Edwards examines this process in the concluding sections of the book. Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral support dissolved dramatically in the early 1970s. Conwy reverted to the Conservatives in 1970, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but more dramatic was the breakthrough made by Plaid Cymru in Meirionnydd and and Caernarfonshire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1974, which is the focus of the book?s final chapter. Out of power at Westminster, Labour could do little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address its problems, which multiplied at local, Welsh and UK levels. As the pressure increased upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour, divisions over its attitude to Welshness and devolution, which were never far beneath the surface, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became increasingly apparent. This made it singularly unsuited to meet what was a polarised challenge in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region from an ascendant Plaid Cymru and a resurgent Conservative Party. After 1974, Labour retained only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one seat \(Anglesey\) in north-west Wales. It lost this in 1979, by which time the party?s regional ascendancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was extinct ? a process which Edwards discusses in an epilogue tracing ?the road to 1979?. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 504.260 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crisis)] TJ ET BT 62.696 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while presenting a close analysis of the period from 1960 to 1974 as its central feature, in fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprises an analysis that spans from the immediate post-war period to Thatcher?s victory in 1979.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This analysis has many virtues. It is based upon an admirably wide range of primary sources, which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively and judiciously used. These include the personal papers of key protagonists from within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, such as Goronwy Roberts, Cledwyn Hughes and Dafydd Elis Thomas, as well as those of important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals from beyond, such as James Griffiths, George Thomas \(Viscount Tonypandy\) and Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher. In addition to personal collections, abundant use is made of material from the archives of all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political parties, which is supplemented by reference to oral interviews, memoirs and a comprehensive range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of official publications and newspapers. These sources are, moreover, used to create a balanced and rounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. All of the significant political parties are given equal treatment, including the Conservative Party, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has been too frequently neglected by Welsh historians. In this sense )] TJ ET BT 394.292 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 471.980 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( addresses what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been an inbuilt deficiency in Welsh historiography, which has been dominated for decades by labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. While it might still, at a stretch, be considered a work of labour history, Edwards? book thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expands Welsh historiography in two significant ways. Firstly, it interprets the history of the Labour Party as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a dynamic involving other political parties, rather than a monolithic expression of community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solidarity. Secondly it focuses outside of the Labour heartland of south Wales, which has long extended a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnetic attraction to Welsh labour historians, and thus adds a valuable new dimension to studies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party in Wales. Both of these developments should be warmly welcomed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards? analysis, moreover, cuts through some accumulated layers of political mythology. Of equal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance to the restoration of Conservatism to the political narrative is its deconstruction of the mythical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist version of Welsh history. Edwards? argues, on the strength of his study of the north-west, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of a renaissance of Welsh national identity, culminating in a ?rise of nationalism? that swept Plaid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cymru to electoral success, should be treated with caution. Rather, the political reality was more piecemeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more complex. It was heavily influenced by the creativity, hard work and opportunism of local activists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who by necessity worked with the grain of local conditions. It was, moreover, as much a consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions and paradoxes of established labourism as it was a result of any widespread cultural awakening. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards? analysis, a new generation of political figures ? from all parties ? accedes to the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, and is allowed to exercise an appropriate level of agency. Its members are discussed in their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7977 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple and parallel roles as inheritors, creators, beneficiaries and, at times, victims of a complex interaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of local, regional and national \(both Welsh and UK\) circumstances. The political tapestry that emerges will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only be partially recognisable to students of mainstream British history. This is not only because Edwards is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charting largely unknown historiographical territory, but also because )] TJ ET BT 371.624 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 449.312 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is healthily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist in its approach. It is also more than a contribution to Welsh historiography alone. Some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures that emerge from the narrative ? Goronwy Roberts, Cledwyn Hughes and Dafydd Wigley among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them ? although rooted in Wales and Welshness, played roles that extended significantly beyond Wales. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events of Edwards? narrative too had an influence upon ? and were themselves influenced by ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments beyond the region that is the focus of his book. In this sense )] TJ ET BT 394.316 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 472.004 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant contribution to British, and, as Edwards asserts in his closing paragraph, even international, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political historiography. It provides a missing piece of a complex jigsaw puzzle. In so doing it enriches our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the relationship between the ?centre? of the British state and its rural, linguistically and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally distinct north-west Welsh ?periphery?. It also, however, contributes more widely to the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and increasingly salient literature on dealignment and politicised national identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most stimulating elements of Edwards? book are the questions that arise from the intersection of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dual Welsh and British historiography to which it simultaneously belongs. An ever present theme behind his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative is the interplay between the varying levels of political activity: the local, the regional\(s\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national\(s\). It is here that his analysis is at its most suggestive. The tension, for example, between national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and local success is illustrated by Goronwy Roberts? loss of popularity as a local MP after his promotion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Foreign Office. George Thomas?s virulent anti-nationalist polemics in the )] TJ ET BT 410.300 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool Daily Post)] TJ ET BT 510.968 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many believed undermined Labour?s image and prospects in north Wales, equally provide a case of clashing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional loyalties within Wales being refracted through the national \(UK\) media. The overall tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between centralised British politics and regional and national identities within Britain is of course a guiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme of the book, and it is arguably in this respect that )] TJ ET BT 303.656 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 381.344 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( raises more questions than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A central issue here is the nature of Edwards? spatial definition. As is often the case, it is from a book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main strengths that its key problems arise. The sharp geographical focus of the analysis in )] TJ ET BT 468.620 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 546.308 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while allowing an admirable development of detail, sometimes leaves the reader wondering about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationale for Edwards? definition of his selected region. Frequent references, for example, to the influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the politics of the north of the plans for a new town in mid-Wales suggest that the boundaries of ?north-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(west Wales? were more politically permeable and less subject to easy definition than Edwards would allow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be interesting to know what conceptual, rather than pragmatic, reasons the author would advance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his choice of regional definition. In the absence of such conceptualisation it might be possible to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the text artificially inflates the magnitude of ?Labour?s crisis?. The book?s sharp chronological focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(notwithstanding the comments made above\) may also compound the influence of its geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selectivity. Edwards argues that political change is the result of long-term processes. Time is, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative, but his analysis actually suggests that political change is rapid and dramatic. The question that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arises is whether such a close focus on the background to a handful of parliamentary seats changing hands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tends to magnify or overstate the processes that he is examining. From another perspective ?Labour?s crisis? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might appear as just a little local difficulty. That the events he discusses were part of a more important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political narrative is suggested by the fact that when the tectonic plates of politics finally shifted in 1979, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening the way for the total collapse of the post-war consensus, it was \(Scottish\) nationalism that provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the final push. The role of Wales, north-western or otherwise, in these events is less clearly understood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Labour?s Crisis)] TJ ET BT 111.704 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides some extremely important material towards enabling that understanding, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether it makes all of the conceptual links that would have enabled the articulation of the local, the regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the national as factors in this process is less certain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These comments barely count as criticism, however. Rather, they are a suggestion for an extension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwards? argument. Ultimately books need boundaries, and most boundaries ? whether they be around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents of books or nations ? are to some extent arbitrary. What Andrew Edwards has provided is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely valuable building block. Given the progress of devolution within Britain, and the importance of re-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 981 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging national identities in the modern world, it is highly likely that more such blocks will follow. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate result will be a rebuilding of British political historiography, which will have implications for our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of ourselves, and our relationships with the political structures within which we live.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1213)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 328.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7870)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 328.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1213) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000000707 00000 n 0000004976 00000 n 0000005085 00000 n 0000005195 00000 n 0000005304 00000 n 0000008865 00000 n 0000008993 00000 n 0000009077 00000 n 0000009142 00000 n 0000016793 00000 n 0000016858 00000 n 0000024667 00000 n 0000024732 00000 n 0000032762 00000 n 0000032846 00000 n 0000033879 00000 n 0000034007 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34103 %%EOF