%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150727131139+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150727131139+01'00') /Title (Noble Power in Scotland from the Reformation to the Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4464 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Noble Power in Scotland from the Reformation to the Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In seminar rooms from Dornoch to St Andrews, in Dublin, and around Europe, early modern history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed by social network theory is promoted with an almost religious fervour. Those of us who continue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to take a deep interest in ?bureaucratic structures and administrative measures? \(p. 179\), here ridiculed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Brown, can find its popularity as baffling as that of Twitter. At best, a history rooted in ?relational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks? can serve as a principled, conservative, usually British response to an older, usually French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography based around impersonal forces and quasi-automatic processes. At worst, it can read as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Babel, a pile of thousands of sound-bites and hundreds of micro-summaries of individuals? careers that can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be selected and arranged to mean almost anything the author pleases. In that sense, the saving grace of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown?s richly detailed )] TJ ET BT 151.664 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Noble Power in Scotland from the Reformation to the Revolution)] TJ ET BT 463.328 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is its honesty. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing on an impressive array of sources for the theory, as well as the practice, of lordship throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1560?1637, Brown is clearly not racing to a single explanation or a simplistic conclusion; the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refreshingly even-handed in regard both to Scotland?s regions and its religious denominations, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author shows a welcome awareness of the Irish dimension in Scottish and British politics. Most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters are themed around a particular societal niche that nobles held, and within most of these broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined roles, Brown finds that Scottish noble power was stable \(?Lords?\), or declining only slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Magistrates?\). In the case of ?Courtiers?, noble power would seem to have spiked toward the middle of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period; and so forth. As one might expect, a book with hundreds of voices yields dozens of conclusions, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1214)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780748612987)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel MacCannell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8507 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of them mutually supportive. This level of nuance renders the book no less useful, however, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter ?Magistrates? in particular provides long-overdue explanation of a complex and easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstood area: the Scottish nobility?s control of ?powerful private and hereditary feudal jurisdictions?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a control which was, by European standards, ?extreme? \(p. 89\). Along the way, Brown takes swipes at ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth that nobles thrived on lawlessness? \(p. 90\), and questions the widespread assumption that royal courts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of justice were ?fairer or more efficient? than their numerous noble-run counterparts \(p. 89\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The twin Achilles heels of )] TJ ET BT 163.664 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Noble Power in Scotland)] TJ ET BT 284.000 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are definition and periodisation. The key questions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what power is, and who nobles are, are treated cursorily. From the result, it is very difficult to tell whether it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Brown, or early modern Scottish society itself, that sees various fellow-travellers of noblemen as also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basically noble, and in the end comes to regard nobility and power as so closely intertwined that they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barely be distinguished one from another, as the actual titled aristocracy shades off through ?lesser nobles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and men of local significance? \(p. 75\) to younger sons in the professions, as well as non-nobles who became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ennobled as a result of their commercial or professional efforts \(p. 175\). The firm definition of ?baron? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lowest rank of the nobility?, given in the glossary on p. viii, is not borne out thereafter. The wide-net, we-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are-his-sisters-and-his-cousins-and-his-aunts approach to noble status employed in the main text is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscent of Paul Monod?s approach to English Jacobitism. Here, instead of wondering whether the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceives any serious difference between having an uncle with anti-Whig views and actually being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobite subversive oneself, we find ourselves wondering if there is any real gap between the nobility as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed by Brown, and the whole politically active population. Noble power was characterised above all by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its ?interconnectedness throughout every corner of society and government? \(p. 237\). If early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland was mysteriously quiescent in the face of all this noble power ? it ?had no tradition of anti-noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiment? and ?did not experience popular revolts or protest directed at noble society? \(p. 244\) ? wags will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubt wonder if it was because the peasants were heavily outnumbered. And to discover that the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political class of an entire nation had quantitatively the same amount of power at one point in time as at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another, even if any such quantification were practicable, is to discover nothing in particular. The infiltration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the professions by the nobility and )] TJ ET BT 215.672 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vice versa)] TJ ET BT 263.984 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be seen as evidence of noble dynamism or noble decline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or neither, very much as a matter of personal taste. Yet, seemingly small changes in the )] TJ ET BT 456.272 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(composition)] TJ ET BT 514.940 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political class, changes which Brown makes it his special mission to downplay, are always significant ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuming only that one?s historical interest is in something less vague than ?power? )] TJ ET BT 440.312 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tout court)] TJ ET BT 487.316 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerical expansion of the Scots peerage from 58 persons in 1600 to 106 in 1633 also deserves more time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here than it receives \(pp. 156, 159\). On the nobility front, this book begs the question: is it logically possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reject the historiography of ?class? in and through a history of )] TJ ET BT 347.300 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a)] TJ ET BT 353.300 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( class?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The term ?power?, meanwhile, lends itself easily to over-broadness and vagueness, and Brown is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commended for declining to adopt atomic-age, American-comic-book notions of power as limitlessly self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewing, non-contingent, and unopposable except by a greater power. I share wholeheartedly his view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government without the consent of the governed in the early modern period was, in effect, physically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible. Absolutism in early 17th-century Britain was, )] TJ ET BT 315.008 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace)] TJ ET BT 337.664 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( J. P. Sommerville and others, a pious hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a spectre, according to one?s politics, but in no sense a settled state of affairs. It is surprising that Brown, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose book tends to support this broad and important point better than it does any other, gives so little space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to it, preferring to position himself in opposition to the notion of a )] TJ ET BT 354.020 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue-dure)] TJ ET BT 418.004 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?crisis of the aristocracy? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a topic to which we will return. But even in the case of absolutism, the argument can be shaky: on p. 180, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrival of the Scottish nobility transforms post-1603 English court culture almost beyond recognition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently through sheer force of numbers, but on p. 186, their numbers are so low that the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messages of ?Ben Johnson [)] TJ ET BT 169.328 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 182.660 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(], Inigo Jones and Peter Paul Rubens? are unable to penetrate the Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility as a group. Power is defined as ?primarily ... political power? \(p. 239\), but otherwise not defined at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, except perhaps as the sum of its parts. Though the economic, legal, and political spheres are given nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal time, the book?s framing chapters \(?Noble power and politics, 1560?1603? and ?Noble power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, 1603?37?\) seem to portray ?power? as a zero-sum game between just two powerful entities, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility and the crown, with any decline in the power of the one creating a power vacuum into which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other rushed ineluctably. In fairness, Brown expressly disclaims the zero-sum model, stating instead that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown could and did increase its power without diminishing that of the nobles \(p. 209\), pointing to ?the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 9035 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive reservoir of loyalty to the crown in noble society? \(p. 12\), and making it clear that nobles ?colluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in and prospered under? such limited growth in state power as occurred \(p. 245\). At its most sensible, )] TJ ET BT 524.276 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power)] TJ ET BT 65.348 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues that while state power grew, a little, and noble power changed, a little, these things are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily cause and effect. Be that as it may, the book leaves almost unexplored the possibilities that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown and the nobility both lost power to some other group or groups, either within Scottish society or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside it; that the power of the state, taken as a whole, might experience phases of marked decline; and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noble attempts to strangle the crown?s effectiveness, to the extent they were successful, might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced not as a ?swing? from one party to another, but a destructive diminution of Scotland?s power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general. Could noble arrogance, like royal absolutism, be a symptom not of strength but of weakness? What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if the outbreak of noble-led revolution was not the ultimate manifestation of the nobles? ?immense power? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 209\), but a defensive response to that power ebbing away ? either because it )] TJ ET BT 418.256 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was)] TJ ET BT 436.928 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ebbing away, or because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobles thought it was? \(Brown comments on p. 215 that a ?general attack? on the nobility by the crown was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived by contemporaries, but did not actually occur, which raises more questions than it answers.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Immense power or no, can the noble-led revolution be considered a ?success? \(p. 245\), given that the ?noble-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated covenanter government? \(p. 147\) was economically and militarily emasculated by the \(also noble-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led\) royalist guerrilla campaign of 1644?5? And that less than a decade later, Scotland had been forced into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an incorporating union with an England no longer dominated by its own nobility? In the medium term, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the covenanting Scottish nobles? total victory over the crown anything other than a disaster, both for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves and for the Scottish nation as a whole?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My difficulties with the definitions of ?nobility? and ?power? are mere quibbles, however, in comparison to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the galling mismatch between Brown?s chosen period and his theoretical aims. I am not merely referring to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the above-mentioned effects of choosing to end the story in the late 1630s, and the book?s infrequent, brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and vague admissions that major societal change occurred shortly after the end of the period covered by it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 60, 80\). The central argument made by Brown is that the nobility was not in decline. This leads him into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a series of needlessly controversial arguments to the effect that changes perceived by contemporaries were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not actually occurring. I found it particularly interesting that, over the relatively brief period covered by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, exemplars of the ?ideal of lordship circulating within noble society? shifted from living persons to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dead; but even this important finding is twisted into an argument that there was ?no change? to the ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself \(pp. 62?3\). Two of several ghosts in the machine here are Lawrence Stone?s discredited )] TJ ET BT 486.236 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crisis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Aristocracy 1558?1641)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.672 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.672 369.651 m 181.664 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.664 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and J. C. D. Clark?s various critiques of Stone. In his most Clark-esque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments, Brown seems to be trying to demonstrate that basically, nothing happened \(pp. 86?7\). Yet )] TJ ET BT 518.300 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power)] TJ ET BT 65.348 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can easily be read against this grain, and contains within itself an alternative narrative, in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish nobility failed to colonise Nova Scotia, failed to colonise Lewis, failed to maintain themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary justices-general, failed to prevent the crown clawing back sheriffships and regalities, failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(block the rise of the Court of Session and the JPs, and failed to retain control of the Scots Parliament; and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which ?[t]he military dimensions of lordship did recede? \(p. 87\), and Highland clans did become ?vulnerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to crown policing? \(p. 126\). There is, of course, a difference between ?military dimensions of lordship? in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic/administrative sense and the participation of nobles in warfare elsewhere, and the positions Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes on military affairs are not always easy to comprehend. He cites Roger Manning?s excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swordsmen: The Martial Ethos in the Three Kingdoms)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 300.020 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 300.020 227.091 m 314.012 227.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.012 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in support of his own comment that military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation by the English peerage rose under Elizabeth but fell under James \(p. 124\). Manning seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me to say the opposite: that the English peerage was comprehensively, and steadily, re-militarised over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50-year period between the Armada and the outbreak of the Bishops? Wars. Military peers ? if defined as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who held military rank, or who fought \(with or without formal rank\) in at least one battle or rebellion ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased from 36 per cent of all English peers in 1595, to 45 per cent in 1605, 49 per cent in 1615, 57 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent in 1625, and 65 per cent in 1635.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.324 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.324 141.555 m 229.316 141.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 229.316 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Brown claims further, not citing any particular source, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion of the Scottish nobility to experience military service between )] TJ ET BT 388.640 128.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 393.968 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1585 and )] TJ ET BT 444.296 128.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 449.624 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1610 fell from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?around half? to ?around a third? \(p. 124\); this seems also to be contradicted by Manning, for whom it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained relatively steady, with the mean, median and mode all hovering around 47 per cent from 1585 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1630. This discrepancy may be a result of the conceptual slippage between ?nobility? and ?peerage? about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which I have already complained, but if so it is an interesting finding in itself that deserved more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration. The routine misspelling of ?ordnance? as ?ordinance? \(pp. 128?9\) in an otherwise well copy-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 167.6717 369.9655 181.6637 381.8455 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 300.0197 227.4055 314.0117 239.2855 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3237 141.8695 229.3157 153.7495 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7666 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited volume suggests that military affairs may not be Brown?s forte, and indeed much of the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Soldiers? seems familiar. In any case, those of us whose responses to Geoffrey Parker?s ?Military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution? hypothesis range from scepticism to revulsion are unlikely to appreciate a chapter founded on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown?s unelaborated view that the Military Revolution ?remains persuasive? \(p. 121\). A glancing blow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck by Brown against the concept of the fiscal-military state, while uncontroversial in itself \(?Arguably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I?s efforts to wage war wrecked his ability to govern?: p. 146\), points up the greater absurdity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1560?1637 as a stand-in for early modernity as a whole. Even enthusiasts like Steven Pincus would not, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think, date any aspect of the British fiscal-military state to any period prior to the Interregnum. If Brown is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he claims to be and seems to be, fighting a war against the discourse of ?state formation? \(p. 245 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout\), why is he not writing about the )] TJ ET BT 249.008 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(late)] TJ ET BT 267.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 17th century, when, by and large, those scholars who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe in ?state formation? believe it to have taken place? Why does he neither endorse nor refute Phil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Withington?s model of 16th-century non-absolutist ?state formation?, as including)] TJ ET BT 64.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a huge increase in the amount of centrally decreed governance from the 1560s [onward] that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was implemented through ? rather than despite ? the connivance and discretion of local \(and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often quite humble\) office holders.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.984 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.984 571.491 m 244.976 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? a sentence which, by itself, calls into question the notion of rich nobles and poor nobles forming a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front against a ?state? made up principally of themselves and their nephews and sons? If Brown is, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims to be, fighting a war against the idea of a long, slow aristocratic decline that ended ?in the half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century after 1914? \(p. 238\), what does he mean by locating his challenge to it in such a brief and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period as 1560?1637? As to what )] TJ ET BT 197.324 477.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 212.660 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( eventually happen to noble power in Scotland, Brown provides no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clues, except to say that the two centuries from )] TJ ET BT 262.640 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 267.968 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1550 to )] TJ ET BT 310.304 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 315.632 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1750 ?saw the consolidation of noble power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across Europe? \(p. 239\). I would be grateful to hear if it was thereafter a brief, rapid decline, or perhaps an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instantaneous evaporation of power, perhaps with the Heritable Jurisdictions \(Scotland\) Act 1746. If it turns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that there was, in fact, a long, slow erosion of Scottish noble power between, say, 1746 and 1945, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps at the hands of a ?meritocratic civil service and managerial class? \(p. 238\), Brown will have failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not merely to deny the importance of state bureaucracy in the wider process of noble decline; he will also, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some extent, have over-sold his ideas that Jacobean Scotland was developmentally normal \(p. 238\) and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?under-governed? \(p. 99\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be justifiable to write a biography of Dwight Eisenhower that ended with his inauguration as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president in 1953. It would not be justifiable, however, to pretend that the content of such a book showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Eisenhower never retired from politics, never grew old and never died. Placing events ?beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope? is an authorial choice, not a final trump card. All of us study particular periods because we like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something about them, and with time and effort, this liking may become a deeper understanding, and in rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases like Brown?s, actual mastery. But a person?s mastery of an historical period, however complete, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot and must not be inflated into that period?s mastery over other periods. Brown?s hope, expressed on p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(246, is that this ?case study? forms or will someday form part of a ?highly collective? intellectual enterprise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such hopes also attended the production of county-by-county studies of the English Civil War, even as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of an )] TJ ET BT 95.012 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English)] TJ ET BT 131.684 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( civil war steadily lost credibility; 80 years and one Conrad Russell later, the project is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomplete and incapable of completion. In the time it takes to write one book such as )] TJ ET BT 450.296 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Noble Power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scotland)] TJ ET BT 76.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the grounds and purposes of historical inquiry into Europe?s nobilities will profoundly change, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways that no historian can now predict; and to justify a book?s limitations by reference to a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constellation of similar books about other countries and/or other time periods, is to justify in vain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To enjoy reading this book, which I do, is not to reject its conclusions, but to doubt that they ever were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions )] TJ ET BT 93.680 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 122.672 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as opposed to the author?s opinions, strongly held and frankly expressed, bracketing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of important facts that it behoves every early modern historian to know. One would not expect that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak argument, weakly argued would make for a very useful book; this may be the exception that proves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.9837 571.8055 244.9757 583.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 2217 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Stone, )] TJ ET BT 147.656 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crisis of the Aristocracy 1558?1641)] TJ ET BT 343.328 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.976 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.976 743.811 m 475.964 743.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Manning, )] TJ ET BT 145.676 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Swordsmen: The Martial Ethos in the Three Kingdoms)] TJ ET BT 408.680 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.328 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.328 729.555 m 541.316 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, p. 18.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 715.299 m 170.336 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phil Withington, )] TJ ET BT 147.032 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society in Early Modern England: The Vernacular Origins of Some Powerful Ideas)] TJ ET BT 548.000 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2010\), pp. 155?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.664 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.664 686.787 m 265.652 686.787 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 671.455 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 653.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 653.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1214)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 652.281 m 328.316 652.281 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.304 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 612.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/7871)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.9757 744.1255 475.9637 756.0055 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.3277 729.8695 541.3157 741.7495 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.3477 715.6135 170.3357 727.4935 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.6637 687.1015 265.6517 698.9815 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 652.5955 328.3157 664.4755 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1214) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000005170 00000 n 0000005279 00000 n 0000005389 00000 n 0000005498 00000 n 0000009059 00000 n 0000009187 00000 n 0000009271 00000 n 0000009336 00000 n 0000017896 00000 n 0000017994 00000 n 0000027082 00000 n 0000027112 00000 n 0000027240 00000 n 0000027276 00000 n 0000027306 00000 n 0000027434 00000 n 0000027470 00000 n 0000027500 00000 n 0000027628 00000 n 0000027664 00000 n 0000027748 00000 n 0000035467 00000 n 0000035497 00000 n 0000035625 00000 n 0000035661 00000 n 0000035773 00000 n 0000038043 00000 n 0000038171 00000 n 0000038226 00000 n 0000038354 00000 n 0000038409 00000 n 0000038537 00000 n 0000038592 00000 n 0000038720 00000 n 0000038775 00000 n 0000038903 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38999 %%EOF